Tapolca (German: Toppoltz) is a city in Veszprém County, the seat of the Tapolca district. Until the 1950 county settlement, the settlement belonged to Zala County.
Tapolca is located on the western edge of the Balaton Uplands, in the middle of the Tapolca Basin. The city is surrounded by the basalt mountains of the Tapolca Basin. Where basalt spilled onto sediments deposited from the waters of the former Pannonian Sea, it protected them from the abrasive work of wind and water. This is how the cone or coffin-shaped witness hills “certifying” the former height of the space were formed. The main road 77 between Veszprém and Lesencetomaj avoids the city from the south. The city's railway station is the junction of the Balatonszentgyörgy – Tapolca – Ukk and Székesfehérvár – Tapolca railway lines.
As a trace of the oldest settlement, the i. e. 5500-i. e. Remains of
a Neolithic house belonging to the Körös-Starčevo culture between
4500 were excavated in 1987 in the Church Yard. A late Iron Age
cemetery has been excavated near the old brick factory.
The Romans described 1–4. 6-meter-wide stone roads built in the 16th century can be found in several parts of the city. The Romanized population lived under Hun rule until 453, and then the area was ruled by Longobards until 586.
It is first mentioned in writing (1182-1184) when III. King Béla (named Csump) donated a rake between Tapolca and Keszi to his court priest. The name Tapolcza is of high origin of Hungarian origin (or a source of hot water of Slavic origin). II. Around 1217, King Andrew donated the area to Spaniard Turul, then his name became Turultapolcza. Traces of the mansion and Romanesque church built at that time have survived. It was again a royal estate in 1346, and according to one of the deeds, in 1347 King Louis the Great donated it to the monks of the Carthusian monastery in today's Városlőd, who developed the market town into one of their estate centers. The city became the tithe collection center of the diocese of Veszprém, a customs office and the center of the diocese of Zala.
In the middle of the 15th century, the Carthusians surrounded their manor house with walls and fortifications. The Turkish armies occupied the city with their campaign in 1554.
In the 17th century, when the town became the property of Bishop Márton Padányi Biró of Veszprém, the defense system was built again. At that time its status: a fortified episcopal market town, 7 oxen, 21 infantry serfs and 41 free-haired people lived here. He also played a role in the Rákóczi War of Independence.
At the time of the 1770 census, 1,850 people lived in 374 market-town families. The population grew rapidly, by 1802 there were already 2,472 people living in the city, mostly Catholics. He lost the rank of Mezőváros in 1871, yet he developed rapidly.
The Tapolca – Sümeg railway line was built in 1891, the Tapolca – Keszthely railway line in 1903 and the Tapolca – Budapest railway line in 1909, which was of great importance in the civilization of the city. Several public institutions settled in the city, which became the district seat. It was devastated by fire in 1863 and 1908.
Development was also facilitated by the vineyards planted in the area. In Tapolca in 1925, 15 of the 25 wholesalers traded in wine. The number of industrial workers has also increased in wood processing, distillery and railways. In World War II, the settlement suffered enormous losses: eight hundred Jewish residents were deported.
On March 31, 1966, the settlement was inaugurated as a city again, and in the same year it became the center of bauxite mining in Bakony. At that time, the development of the city gained new momentum, the Bauxitváros residential area known for its Y-houses was built, new factories were built (such as a basalt wool factory), trade expanded, the school network was built, and public cultural facilities were established. The city has become a small supply town in the Balaton Uplands.
Tapolca is easily accessible from all directions,
the city can be reached by three railway lines and seven roads.
The shortest route connecting Aquincum to Italy passed through its Roman predecessor Tapolca. Currently, important routes meet in Tapolca. Today we can reach Veszprém and Balatonederics on the main road 77, Lake Balaton (Badacsonytomaj) on the 7316 road, Keszthely, Devecser on the 7317 road, Szigliget and Hegymagas on the 7318 road, Sümeg on the 7319 road, and on the way to Kisapáti and Nemesgulács. In order to relieve the city center, the last section of the road bypassing the settlement from the south was completed in 2002.
Regular long-distance bus services started in 1929. Nowadays, all the surrounding settlements as well as many cities in Transdanubia can be reached by direct bus. As of 1 July 2013, together with the launch of the electronic toll payment system, the main road 77 was created from the connecting road between Veszprém-Tapolca-Lesencetomaj main road 8401, so the city was also connected to the main road network. This main road bore the number 74 until the 1960s, then it was given the number 7301, but it was essentially always a main road, also numbered as the remaining 7301 road.
The first of the railway lines to Tapolca was the section between Tapolca and Sümeg, handed over in 1891, and then in 1903 between Tapolca and Keszthely. These sections are part of the Balatonszentgyörgy – Tapolca – Ukk railway line. The Székesfehérvár line, which provides a connection to Budapest, was opened in 1909. Until the lines of the Southern Railway were taken over by MÁV, the trains from Tapolca traveled to Budapest by touching the station Adonyszabolcs (now called Pusztaszabolcs). Due to the railway junction thus formed, Tapolca is often referred to as the northern gate of Lake Balaton.
Many settlements in Transdanubia can be reached directly from Tapolca. On the Budapest – Balatonfüred – Tapolca route we can travel by fast trains.
The industrial railway in Zalahaláp, which is now decommissioned, was built in 1927. The narrow-gauge railway connecting Tapolca and the Diesel quarry operated from 1943 to 1982, with basalt transporting basalt to the main railway transhipment.
Urban public transport
The first city bus line was established in 1958 between the train station and the hospital. Currently, urban transport is provided by Tapolca City Management Ltd. The bus is operated by a roundabout operated by Juhász Gy. u. - Republic Square - Ady E. u. - Sümegi út - Május 1. u. - Keszthelyi út - Dobó tér - Keszthelyi út - Railway station - Május 1. u. - Sümegi út - Deák F. u. - Kossuth L. u. - TESCO - (Diszel) - TESCO - Berzsenyi u. - Juhász Gy. U. is on a route. The journey time is 40 minutes, touching Diszel is 50 minutes. The tracking interval varies between 20 and 50 minutes, depending on the day and time of day.
Experts have proved that several excavated caves in Tapolca form a common system, making it the fourth longest cave system in Hungary.
The total length of the Tapolca Spring Cave is 3280 meters - although according to the head of the local cave research group, Rezső Szilaj, the length of the excavated cave system is 8700 meters - and its depth is 16 meters from the entrance. It was formed by water entering the cracks in the limestone. The cave was discovered during excavation in 1903, on the plot of baker Pál Tóth (masons Ferenc Németh and Gyula Biró [granddaughter of Gyula Biró, poet and literary historian István Péter Németh of Tapolca). In 1912, the electric lighting was completed and the cave was opened to visitors. The cave was anhydrous for a long time due to the subsidence of the bauxite mining in Nyírád and was closed. After the mining was completed, the karst water level was restored and a 250 m section (of which 180 m was to be done by boat) was reopened. The depth of the water on the boat tour is 0.4–3 m. Three people can sit in one boat, the vehicle can be loaded up to 220 kg. The boating section has a throughput of 130 visitors per hour. Most of the spring cave is under water and cannot be visited. The visitable area can be reached by 73 steps. Inside the temperature is 20 ° C, the relative humidity is more than 90%.
On January 20, 2015, the 770-square-meter, ten-room visitor center of the Spring Cave opened.
The total length of the Hospital Cave is 2850 meters, the depth
from the entrance is 14 meters dry and 36 meters under water. The
cave was discovered in 1925 during the construction of the lung
pavilion on the hospital grounds. The cave was not cared for at the
time, its flights were largely filled with rubble. Only more than a
decade later, in 1937, Kessler Hubert surveyed the flights, and at
his suggestion the rubble was excavated and pillars were built in it
in the necessary places to strengthen the foundations of the
hospital. During the Cold War, they wanted to build it into an
underground hospital, fortunately the work (due to lack of money)
was interrupted at the beginning. Attention was again focused on the
cave when the beneficial effects of being down were shown. Since
1972, it has been used for people with respiratory diseases and
therapeutic treatments. The hospital thus had a unique opportunity:
as if the hospital had been built above the cave. Patients do not
have to step out into the street either: patients can enter the cave
by elevator and continue breathing therapy under medical supervision
in the dry, spacious rooms of the cave. The respiratory therapy was
initially led by dr. On the initiative of Tibor Horváth, the
Hospital Cave has been a healing cave since 1982. Tibor Horváth's
operation abroad was also surrounded by recognition: he headed the
Speleotherapy Committee of the International Union of Speleology for
years. The cave is currently being explored and explored.
On November 26, 2010, two more cave lakes were discovered in the Károly Berger Cave in Tapolca, with a diameter of 23 and 30 meters, respectively, so currently they are the largest cave lakes in Hungary. The Tapolca Plecotus Cave Research Group, which has been researching the spring cave since 1986, began in 2002 to explore a cave formed in the limestone deposited in the former shallow sea. The two cavities can be descended through a twelve meter deep well.
City Museum (Church Hill 8; 46 ° 52 '58.6308 "N, 17 ° 26' 34.7316" E). A local history exhibition and a school museum have been set up in one of the oldest folk high schools in Central Europe. According to old documents, the Kántorház, built on the ruins of the castle of the former border castle, stood as early as 1726. János Batsányi (1763-1845), the great poet of the Enlightenment, studied lettering within his walls. The museum was originally a collection of pedagogical history, then it was supplemented with archeological, historical, ethnographic, industrial history and fine arts material presenting the city. Finds from local excavations can be seen here, and a stone storehouse awaits visitors. Open May 31 Monday-Friday: 9 a.m. to 4 p.m .; in summer except Mondays from 10:00 to 17:00 (Trip Planner).
Marton Gallery is a permanent exhibition of the works of László Marton
Catholic Church (Church Hill; 46 ° 52 '58.6308 "N, 17 ° 26' 34.7316" E). The original building was even erected by Ispán Turul in the first half of the 13th century, which is now largely indicated by a Romanesque-style window on the south side. At the beginning of the 15th century, the Carthusians supplemented this with a shrine with a Gothic cross-ribbed ceiling. On the south outer wall of the sanctuary is a fragment of a fresco by St. Christopher - in the form of this St. Joseph, the artist immortalized King Sigismund. The church, damaged during Turkish times, was restored by Bishop Márton Padányi Biró of Veszprém in 1756-1757, and a Baroque ship was built at the same time. At the end of the 19th century, the parish priest Joseph Ley had two oratorios built and a neo-Gothic altar from Innsbruck. The facade, which is decorated with the statues of St. Stephen and St. Imre, was excavated and preserved by restorer Margit Haraszti. Attached to the north side of the church is the convent and kindergarten of the Sisters of Mercy, built by Bishop John Ranolder in 1872.
Protestant church. The church, reminiscent of the churches of Kalotaszeg, was built in 1936.
Holy Trinity Statue - Main Square (N: 46.882824, K: 17.440712). The group of baroque limestone sculptures on a hexagonal stepped pedestal was erected by Bishop Márton Padányi Biró of Veszprém in 1757. It was restored in 1998.
Many public works by László Marton:
Little Princess, 1990. Main Square (N: 46.882708, K: 17.440678)
The original (50 cm) sculpture of the sculpture was modeled in 1972 by the artist from his eldest daughter, Évik, then 5 years old. The original small sculpture is the property of the Hungarian National Gallery. Its larger version has been sitting on the Danube Promenade since 1990, in front of the Vigadó, the duplicate was sent to Tapolca. Another copy can be seen in the hall in front of the concert hall of the Tokyo Metropolitan Art Space Cultural Center in Tokyo.
Szent Borbála, 2000. Kisfaludi utca 2–6. (Opposite the Spring
Cave, in front of the City House of Culture; N: 46.883124, K:
The bronze statue stands on a pedestal made of basalt stones. He has a crown on his head, a candle in one hand and a palm branch in the other, next to a castle tower. The inscription on the base of the copper plate: St. Barbara is the patron saint of miners. It was built in 2000 by the Bakony Bauxite Mine Company
Our Past, 1988. Church Hill 6. (In front of the Church Hill School; N: 46.880549, K: 17.442014).
Bronze male figures squatting on a marble pedestal, with a fragment of a Roman earthenware in his hand.
Our Sad History, 1990. Heroes' Square (N: 46.882067, K: 17.435350).
A hooded bronze figure standing in front of a ruined stone wall.
Shepherd Boy, 1943. Republic Square (in front of the sculptor's birthplace; N: 46.885056, K: 17.442624)
Bronze figure standing on a low stone pedestal. One of the very first works of the artist.
Four Seasons, 1992. Mill Park (N: 46.881770, K: 17.440238)
Allegorical figures standing on low stone columns.
Miners - space sculpture, 1972. Kossuth utca 2. (in front of the headquarters of Bauxitbányászati Kft .; N: 46.882768, K: 17.441472)
450 cm x 25 cm x 175 cm figural limestone composition in socialist style.
Wass Albert - bust, 2008. Batsányi J. u. 1.
The sculptor's last work. The bronze statue of the poet-writer stands in front of the library and museum bearing its name (Veszprém).
János Batsányi - György Segesdi, 1960. In the north-western part of the promenade around the Great Lake; É: 46.882004, K: 17.440689)
The bronze figure of the poet stands on a limestone pedestal.
Batsányiné Baumberg Gabriella - Kocsis András, 1964 (Public map), 1966 (Excursion planner). Arany János utca (on the western shore of Lake Kis; N: 46.880802, K: 17.441225)
The bronze bust of the Austrian poetess Gabriella Baumberg, the wife of Batsányi, can be seen on a limestone pedestal near Lake Malom. The inscription on the pedestal: BATSÁNYINÉ BAUMBERG GABRIELLA 1766-1839.
Girl picking grapes - the work of Mária R. Törley (sculptor) and Tamás Zoltán Papp (architect), 2010. Batsányi Square (on the western side of Lake Alsó, between the playground and the spring; N 46.880831, K 17.440683).
The barefoot bronze girl with feminine hips is approx. 120 cm high. The work of the architect is the pedestal and the environment made of stone blocks.
Sitting soldier - the work of Lajos Ungvári, 1970. Dobó István tér (near the former barracks, at the entrance of the garrison club; É: 46.880274, K: 17.408953).
The posture of the seated figure is artificial, unreal.
Geometric figures - Gyula Nyírő, 1969. Ady Endre utca 12. (on the wall of a housing estate; É: 46.883900, K: 17.439513).
Modest flat decoration with stylized figures.
World War I Memorial - Gyula Maugsch, 1930. Heroes' Square, (in the middle of the square; N: 46.882430, K: 17.435496).
On a large stepped pedestal stands a bronze soldier; holding flag and rifle. On the pedestal on a bronze plaque are the names of the fallen, the inscription 1914-1918 and a crowned Hungarian coat of arms.
Kosvedes drinking fountain - Béla Raffay, 1995. Mill Park (É: 46.882890, K: 17.441358).
Relief by Ferenc Batsányi Tapolca High School, work by Tibor Túri Török