Tata (Latin: Dotis, German: Totis) is a town in Hungary, Komárom-Esztergom county, in the area of the Győr – Tatai terrace region, which forms the eastern edge of the Kisalföld, in the western foothills of the Gerecse Mountains. It is the center of the Tata district. It is the third largest settlement in the county after Tatabánya and Esztergom. The “City of Living Waters” and in 2010 it became the capital of biodiversity in Hungary, thus acknowledging the city's attachment to natural values.
It is located in the northern part of Transdanubia, at the confluence of the Kisalföld and the Transdanubian Central Mountains, at the northwestern gate of the Tatai Trench, which separates the Gerecse and Vértes Mountains. Its highest point is Calvary Hill, which is 166 meters high, and its lowest point is the Bright Bath, which is 120 meters above sea level.
Neighboring settlements: Almásfüzitő, Baj, Dunaalmás, Kömlőd, Kocs, Környe, Mocsa, Naszály, Neszmély, Szomód, Szőny, Vértesszőlős
The county seat, Tatabánya, is located about 9 kilometers southeast, 60 kilometers from Budapest.
The main road 1 and the Budapest – Hegyeshalom – Rajka railway line pass through the city. Next to it passes the M1 (E60, E75 Vienna-Budapest motorway, to which the city has a direct connection).
From the nearby settlements it is connected to Bőny (via Kocs) by road 8136, to Kömlőd by road 8137, to Naszály by road 8138, to Szőny (touching Grébicspuszta) by road 8139. From Lioness and Lake Venice, the more than 60-kilometer road 8119 leads to the city.
The prehistoric and ancient founders
Tata has been inhabited since ancient times, as evidenced by the archaeological finds excavated here. Over the millennia, favorable living conditions and heat sources have always attracted people to the area. In the Tata powder mine, a hundred-thousand-year-old settlement from the early stages of the Würm glaciation was excavated. The prehistoric man settled here in dried-up limestone tuff pools. In addition to diatomaceous earth and quartzite tools, an important memorial is the marmot tooth plate. The authenticity of the Nummulites frame, previously described as a scratched amulet, is in doubt as it was not unearthed during the excavation. The Tata prehistoric group may have been a temporary accommodation in the nearby Szelim-hole in Tatabánya. After the Romans occupied Pannonia, one of the limes' important military camps, Brigetio (Ószőny), was built along the Danube. The camp near Tata was supplied with drinking water from the so-called Kismosó springs on a Roman aqueduct running along the side of Látó Hill. During the migration, Germanic and Avar finds were found in greater numbers in and around Tata.
The city in the Middle Ages
Tata was a royal estate during the reign of the Árpád dynasty. The Benedictine abbey here is reported in written relics from the 9th century.
Deodatus came first from the clan of the counts of Sanseverina in Apulia, he founded and equipped the monastery of Tata. Together with Bishop St. Adalbert of Prague, he baptized King St. Stephen; therefore he gave that monastery the name Tata, for King St. Stephen did not honorably call him by his name, but called him Tata; the name of Deodatus was lost, but Tata remained; hence the so-called cluster chrome. He has no genus in Pannonia because, although she was married, she ended her life without a remnant.
- The source of the Latin Able Chronicle. Chronicle of Márk Kálti about the deeds of the Hungarians. Translated and noted by László Geréb. The toponym Tata in Komárom county is etymologically related to the name Deodatus.
The chronicle also reports that King Louis I (the Great) once visited the Benedictine monastery accompanied by Mark Kálti. The name of the settlement first appeared in the form of Tata in 1221. From the 13th century until 1326, it belonged to the Csák family estate. Construction of the castle also began at the time of their possession. After the reign of the Csák clan, Tata received the market town right from King Sigismund.
After 1410, the castle of Tata was the lovely residence of Sigismund. He often stayed here, and in 1412, in the castle of Tata, he received King Ulagló Jagello of Poland, VII. King Erik of Denmark, Chief Inquisitor Jakab Marchiai. Historians call the time of his reign the first heyday of Tata. Albert Habsburg, who ascended the throne after Sigismund's death, died in October 1439 in Neszmély, near Tata. His wife, Queen Elizabeth, to steal the crown for her unborn son, stole it from the Visegrád Castle with his court lady, Jánosné Kottaner. On February 21, 1440, the boy, the later László V., was born in Komárom. When the baby was taken from Komárom to Székesfehérvár for coronation, on May 14, 1440, the aristocratic escort and the Hungarian Holy Crown spent the night in Tata Castle. Then, twenty years later, in 1459, we read in a charter the name of the Lake City, which was later fully integrated with Tata: “Thata hungaricale et slavonicale”, then in 1489 in the form “Tothwaros”. . As a result of the Old Lake separating Tata from Tóváros, the name Tótváros changed to Tóváros from 1755. The two settlements lived their lives side by side for centuries, but with separate administrations. After Sigismund, Tata, together with the castle, became the property of the Rozgonyians, one of the most powerful families of the 15th century. The quarrels between the Rozgonyi brothers were of no use to either the castle or the two settlements.
The slow destruction was stopped by King Matthias when he rebuilt
the castle in 1467, so it came into royal possession again. Matthias
converted the castle into a late Gothic-style residence described by
Bonfini. From 1472, Matthias hunted Tata once a year, and returned
here to rest from the fatigues of the wars with the Habsburgs. From
1485, Matthias often traveled from here in a chariot to Vienna,
which changed from the name of the village of Kocs adjacent to Tata
to the name of the fast chariot made here in European languages. The
king's mother, Elizabeth Szilágyi, also visited the Franciscan
monastery founded by King Sigismund. After Matthias' death, the
castle and the market town were briefly owned by his son, János
Corvin. From 1494 onwards II. The castle is mentioned as the
property of King Ulászló. Apart from some hunting and betting II.
Ulászló was not in Tata. An exception to this is the Parliament of
1510, which was held in the main square of the later Lake City due
to the plague that broke out in the country.
Tata in the new age
After the defeat of Mohács, the Turkish troops raided the Tata area, but Captain György Cseszneky successfully defended the castle. The Turks occupied Tata Castle in 1543. During the 145-year Turkish rule, he changed hands nine times and the castle was in Turkish hands for a total of sixteen years. After the recapture of Buda and the expulsion of the Turks, Tata also prospered rapidly. In 1695, there were already 223 families living in the market town. During the Rákóczi War of Independence, in 1705, during the Transdanubian campaign led by János Bottyán, the castle fell into the hands of the Kurucs for a short time.
The Tata estate, the Tata and the surrounding villages were bought in 1727 by József Esterházy, who belonged to the branch of the younger Count of Fronno. Architects invited to the market town: Jakab Fellner (1722–1780), József Éder, József Grossmann (1747–1785), Antal Schweiger, engineers: Ferenc Bőhm (1736–1799), Tata formed by Sámuel Mikoviny (1698–1750), Tóváros and Wait. In the life of the first four counts of Esterházy, between 1721 and 1811, Tata was not only the administrative center of the manor, but also developed into one of the most beautiful market towns in Komárom county, rich in Baroque buildings, drained by swamps. In February 1733, Count József Esterházy issued a proclamation with the aim of recruiting Catholic settlers from the German provinces. The German settlers arrived in Tata between 1733 and 1750. Birth registers kept in the Catholic parish show that about 50-60 families came to the city during these twenty years. Most common surnames: From, Hőger, Engszt, Hermann, Swabian, Nikits, Camel, Giber, Ertl, Hotzer, Henzer, Suster, Starus. The Catholic German settlers received housing from the Esterházy estate outside Kertalja, inhabited by Hungarian Protestant serfs, in the area towards the village of Kocs. From then on, to this day, this part has retained the name Nájstik, translated from the German word Neu-Stift. On the outskirts of Tata, in the Neu-Stift, from 1736 there was a permanent school with a separate German master. We learned of the cessation of this school in 1830, when the inhabitants of the settlement asked the ecclesiastical and city authorities for a teacher to teach at least from St. Michael to St. George in the New Settlement. Education was permitted in this form. Teaching was held at different houses each year, and then the winter school was abolished in 1835. In 1743 the Capuchins arrived in Tóváros, in 1765 the Piarist in Tata, where they opened a grammar school.
Description of the settlement at the end of the 18th century:
Tata: Significant Mezőváros Komárom Várm. lord of the earth Count Lord Eszterházy, the ‘whose Castle is adorned with, the inhabitants are Catholics, and others. The ‘Piarists have famous clusters here, their lakes are several, S. Ivan also has marble quarries; it is inhabited by many craftsmen and tsapos; it used to be more famous, its pasture is enough, its meadow is suitable, and it occupies half a day's walking land, among forests; they produce mediocre wines.
(András Vályi: Description of the Hungarian Country, 1796–1799)
In 1809, after the defeat of Győr by the French, Ferenc stayed in the court of Tata, the count's castle, in Tata for two months. He signed the Schönbrunn Peace on October 14, 1809, in the north tower room of the castle.
In the last stage of the Revolution and the War of Independence in 1848-49, Tata and its surroundings played a significant role due to the proximity of Komárom Castle. In the first days of May 1849, Chief Artúr Görgey moved his headquarters to Tóváros, the Szarka inn, and on May 3 he left for the siege of Buda. On July 25, 1849, György Klapka, the commander of the Komárom fortress, sent Colonel Mór Kosztolányi with the 8th Infantry Battalion, a Hussar Regiment and four cannons to occupy the Tata Castle in the hands of the enemy. The defenders opened the gate after the third cannon shot and surrendered. The prisoners, their weapons, their horses and the mail car, in which they found the plan of the Austrian march, were taken to Komárom at night.
After the compromise of 1867, the large-scale urbanization of
Tata and Tóváros began, and the construction of smaller factories
(sugar factory, leather factory, steam brick factory, blanket,
cricket and carpet factory) began. Tata-Tóváros was connected to the
railway transport, the railway line connecting Komárom and Budapest
with the station was built in 1883-1884. In the second half of the
19th century, Count Miklós Esterházy built the horse race track in
today's Kertváros and introduced the regular annual horse races in
Tata. The first competition on this track, on September 30, 1886,
was watched by 3-4 thousand guests from Budapest and Vienna. In
addition to the racecourse, the count had a railway station called
Tóvároskert built at his own expense. The benders unanimously
acknowledged that the “Tata lawn” is best suited for the training of
running horses in the country. Between 1867 and 1914, the best-known
stable owners in Tata were: Antal Dreher, Miklós Esterházy and Count
Ferenc, Barons of Harkány, Miklós Szemere, Andor Péchy and Baron
Zsigmond Üchtritz. In addition to the horses, famous English fitters
such as Róbert Adams, János Beeson and Alfréd, Vilmos Maw, György
Hich, Henrik Milne and Róbert Smart were contracted from the 1860s,
who formed a separate English colony in the city and even had an
Anglican church. in the castle. Count Miklós Estánházy (Caunt Niki)
of Tatán built his horse stables, which became famous from the
1860s, from the so-called Swajtzerey (Swiss cowsheds). In 1948, the
horses of the pentathletes (Frigyes Hegedűs and others) preparing
for the London Olympics were also housed here. The castle theater
was built in 1888, where guests were entertained with concerts and
theatrical performances during horse races.
An article in the great lexicon of Pallas
The great lexicon of Pallas wrote about the town as follows: (Totis), a pretty and developing large village in Tatai j., Komárom county, with (1891) 895 houses and 6925, predominantly Hungarian. (among them 3633 r. cat., 2518 Helvet and 673 Israelites), the office of the district slave judge, the district court, the royal notary and the tax office, with a monastic monastery and algimnázium, a railway station, a post office and telegraph office and a post office savings bank. Tata, with its large village of Tóváros (4257 inhabitants), is located around a beautiful large lake, on the latter plane, while Tata itself was built on a hillside. Between the two villages on the shore of the lake rises the castle of Count Miklós Esterházy, who died in 1897, and the old castle; the castle has a rich archive, a collection of steel engravings and a gallery (with a work by Leonardo da Vinci), in one of the rooms of the castle was signed by King Francis on 14 October 1809 in Vienna; notable is the ornate theater built in 1889 according to the plans of Ferdinand Fellner and Hermann Hellmer. 140 m is connected to the castle. extensive, beautiful English garden with Lake Cseke. There are many lukewarm springs in the Tata region, which also came into combination when supplying water to Budapest, but could not be taken into account due to their high temperature. Today, Tata is a popular excursion destination for the capital city; visited horse races are also organized here and the Esterházy race stable is notable.
The theater was demolished in 1913 by Mrs. Ferenc Esterházy, who feared her son for the actresses. The theater chairs were placed in the gymnasium of the grammar school. Between the two world wars, election rallies were often held in the Lovarda, and theater companies visiting the Tatar also held performances here. After World War II, the Riding School was used as a warehouse, and in 1948 it was a gym for the Olympians. In the mid-1960s, the Tata State Farm established an Equestrian School in the Riding School. Count Miklós Esterházy also supported the education of the youth. He built a small grammar school to accommodate the Piarist grammar school expelled from the convent, which operated in the area next to today's Eötvös grammar school from 1892 to 1911, then in Tanoda Square. After the Treaty of Trianon, in 1921, IV. King Charles and his wife and ministers stayed in the Esterházy Castle in Tata from October 24 to 26. Between the two world wars, the urbanization of the two twin villages accelerated, in 1927 the new town hall of the lake town was inaugurated.
In 1930, the St. Imre boys' school was handed over to the
students, and in the same year, the convent was handed over in the
Piarist monastery, and finally, in 1943, the Agricultural Folk
School next to the New Road. In 1938, the Patai Museum housed the
Tatai Museum. Tata's healthcare began to develop in 1929. At that
time the village already had an ambulance, and in 1930 in the house
at 32 Esterházy Street (now Ady Endre Street) dr. József Mike, chief
surgeon, opened his sanatorium. The sanatorium was opened by dr. On
the recommendation of József Karnis, he took the name of St.
Elizabeth's Hospital. In the 1920s and 1930s, the meetings of the
representative bodies were loud from the debate over the unification
of the two municipalities. Despite the protest of the Esterházy
estate, the administrative unification of Tata and Tóváros took
place on June 1, 1938. On both sides of the bridge in front of the
Cifra mill, the nameplates of Tata and Tóváros, indicating the
boundaries of the villages, were removed. The Minister of the
Interior established the name of the united large village in
Tatatóváros, which changed to Tata in the early 1940s. After the
German military occupation, from March 19, 1944, restrictive
measures against Jewish citizens also accelerated in Tata. The
ghetto was housed in the 100-meter-long cattle barn of the Tatai
major. Here, 650 Jews living in Tata and the surrounding villages
were gathered, who, on June 6, 1944, accompanied by gendarmes,
walked to the large station, where they were transported to the
Komárom concentration camp. From here they were taken to the
Auschwitz death camp. After World War II, only 38 returned home.
Tata was captured by Russian troops on March 19, 1945, after a
series of bombings in the spring of 1945. The years after 1945,
although great changes were made in the life of the large village,
the development and construction did not start much later, when Tata
was declared a city. On January 31, 1954, Tata, Kazincbarcika,
Keszthely, and Oroszlány were declared administratively cities, and
streets were named after these towns. At that time the population of
the city was 18,205 people.
In 1985, the village of Agostyán was added.
The city is a military city. The 25th György Klapka Rifle Brigade can be found in the Tata garrison. He is one of the two shooting brigades of the Hungarian Armed Forces. Previously, in 1961, the first stage of the Hungarian People's Army, the 11th Tank Division of the Hungarian People's Army, was established in the Klapka György Barracks. The corps ceased to exist in 1986 and was succeeded by the 1st Mechanized Corps. Following the change of regime, the higher unit was transformed into the 1st Military District Command as a peace corps, which was again only liquidated.