Törökszentmiklós is the third largest settlement in Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok county, the seat of the Törökszentmiklós district.
Törökszentmiklós is located 20 km east of Szolnok, on the edge of Nagykunság. Historically, it does not belong to the Nagykun area, in the past it was always part of Külső-Szolnok county.
It is bordered on the north by the Tisza as a natural border, as well as its gunwaters, and it is also adjacent to Fegyvern, Armenia, Kuncsorba, Kétpó, Tiszatenyő, Szajol, Tiszapüspök.
The most important (inner) outer parts of the settlement: Óballa, Surjány and Szakállas.
On the road
The main road 4 runs through the city in an east-west direction, the most obvious approach route from the more distant parts of the country. The current route of the main road avoids the interior, it used to run through them; since then, the old route 4 from the western border edge to the center is part of the main road 46, to the Mezőtúr junction, and from there to the eastern border edge it is numbered 42 103. By definition, from Mezőtúr and its surroundings, the main road 46 is the most obvious access route in the city.
From the surrounding settlements, Tiszatenyő and Martfű are connected by road 4629; There are several other routes that can be considered public roads, but they mostly only connect the center and the outer parts of the city. These include the 11.5-kilometer-long 32,126 road, which serves Óbball, and the much shorter 32,124, which serves Szakállas, and the 42,101 road, which leads to Pusztaszakállas, which already belongs to Armenia. The southern border is even affected by the 4204 road between Kuncsorba and Fegyvern.
By rail, the city can be reached on the MÁV 100 Szolnok – Debrecen – Nyíregyháza – Záhony railway line. Törökszentmiklós railway station is located in the southern part of the city center, between Szajol railway station and Fegyvernek-Armenian railway station, its road access is provided by the side road No. 46 344 (Almásy út). Available by train from Budapest-Nyugati, Záhony, Miskolc, etc. The train station was renovated in 2014.
Its territory has been inhabited since ancient times by various ethnic groups, in whose settlement the Tisza and its tributaries, the swampy floodplain parts, played a decisive role. Tile fragments characteristic of the Neolithic Great Plain line ornament culture were collected from several parts of the city and its surroundings. The ethnic groups living here in the Copper Age left spectacular memories, the kunhalmas, of which only two are now in the vicinity of Törökszentmiklós, the others fell victim to agricultural cultivation. The remains of a settlement from the Bronze Age and a cemetery from the Iron Age were excavated. The Celts also left their mark here.
The most famous local find of the time of the conquest is the silver cup of Kétpó. The names of the tribes settled here did not even survive as toponymic data. During the county organization, the area of Törökszentmiklós was transferred to Szolnok county, which became independent from 1437 under the name Külső-Szolnok. During the formation of the church organization, it became part of the diocese of Vác. After the Tartar invasion, Cumans settled in the depopulated areas. The settlement names of the border of Törökszentmiklós begin to appear in the documents in the time of Sigismund of Luxembourg. The first identifiable owner was the Bala family, named after this family, long known as Balaszentmiklós. The family's properties gradually fell into foreign hands, so Balaszentmiklós also fell into the hands of several owners, including the famous and infamous László Móré and Ferenc Zay, the renowned diplomat and writer who was several ambassadors to Constantinople.
In 1552, Balaszentmiklós was a populated and inhabited place, as 32 gates were listed. This year, the Turks occupied the settlement and the associated Palán Castle, which was the only Turkish fortress in the Trans-Tisza region until 1566, when Gyula was occupied. The number of Turkish mercenary guards during the existence of the castle was around 200-250. The castle soldiers did not take part in raids or skirmishes in more than one case, but according to the letters of the time, the Hungarian soldiers from Kálló, Szendrő and Ónod also reached the castle. In 1570, the armies of György Karácsony, the "Black Man", besieged the castle, but no major damage was done to it, but the village was preached. The destruction of the castle occurred in 1685, during the recapture battles. Szentmiklós was one of the relatively high-income places in the Turkish era, thanks, among other things, to the trade route through it from Buda to Debrecen and Transylvania.
Between 1685 and 1720, the area was mostly uninhabited. From 1720
it settled at a rapid pace, mainly from Szabolcs and Békés counties.
By this time the landlord Almásy II. It was John who contracted that
the settlers would not pay any gentlemanly services for five years.
This was one of the biggest concessions of the time. Those who moved
here did not become robotic but taxi serfs, that is, they could
exchange land use with money. Today there are quite a few families
living in Törökszentmiklós, whose surnames can be read on the
"population register" lists at that time. In the first wave
Reformed, later Catholics arrived. To avoid religious flashes, they
were installed separately. In 1738, with the support of a landlord,
he was given the rank of a market town under the name of St.
Nicholas of Turkey.
In 1771, after the introduction of the urbarium (the decree of Mary Theresa in 1767 regulating the relationship between serfs and landlords), the inhabitants asked for the separation of the lord's lands, but this had to wait until 1845. In 1847 the town offered an inheritance to the Almásy family. In 1848 it may have become a town with an orderly council. During the dictatorship following the fall of the War of Independence in 1848, he was able to retain the city rank of Törökszentmiklós, and even temporarily became a district seat.
Significant progress in industrialization has also been made in this era. The beginnings of modern manufacturing in the city date back to the middle of the 19th century, when in 1848 János Lábassy opened his workshop producing plows, plowshares, harrows and ring cylinders. From this workshop, the farm machine factory and foundry were built in the 1950s. In the 1850s, the flood relief of the settlement border began. In 1857, the Szolnok-Debrecen railway line, which affected the city, was opened, which helped agriculture become a commodity producer and accelerated the development of industry and trade. In the years 1870-1880, several plants were established. The First Törökszentmiklós Steam Mill started operating. Despite economic development, it was downgraded to a large village on July 27, 1872. In 1890, the Hoffmann brick factory began operations. The first part of the building complex was demolished with the first chimney, but the eastern part with the other chimney is still in operation today.
After the two world wars, which did not pass unnoticed over the settlement, the land was divided. By 1950, however, lands and industrial plants had been nationalized. The formerly large number of artisans have gradually ceased their activities. In December 1948, the coalition parties jointly applied for the settlement to be declared a city. The request was granted in 1952.
There were two agricultural cooperatives in the city, but with compensation and impossible conditions, the property of the producer cooperative was transformed into individual and entrepreneurial land ownership. Wheat, barley, corn, sugar beet, vegetables, sunflowers and rape are grown on the fields. The two state farms operating in the administrative area merged in 1970 and are still operating today. In animal husbandry, pigs, cattle and poultry are dominant. Alföldi Gabona Rt. Was previously one of the most significant mill and feed plants in the country. At present, it has reduced its scope of activities, its production has declined, and today it operates only a mill, a pea and rice husking plant.
After the industry settled here in 1960, it started a spectacular development after the 1990s with the help of several companies settled here. The companies formed a consortium in 1999 and transformed the industrial zone into an Industrial Park.
On June 4, 2011, the runic place name plate of the settlement was inaugurated.