Marijampolė

 

Marijampole - a city in the south-west of Lithuania, the seventh in terms of population; administrative center of Marijampole county and Marijampole municipality. The center of the Lithuanian region Suwalkia is one of the four historical regions of the country.

 

Name
The city owes its name to the Marian monks, that is, the brothers of the congregation of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, who were invited here in 1758 by the Countess Butlerena, the owner of the local small village, and who built a monastery here.

In 1955-1989 the city was officially called Kapsukas - after the party pseudonym of the leader of the Lithuanian Communist Party Vintsas Mitskevičius-Kapsukas.

Emblem
The coat of arms of Marijampole depicts Saint George slaying a dragon. The historical coat of arms, granted together with the rights of the city in 1792, was restored on December 18, 1997.

History
Even before the end of the Middle Ages, the outskirts of the city were inhabited by the Baltic Jotving tribe. This is evidenced by the Marijampole mound. The history of the city dates back to the village of Pashepulis, mentioned in documents since 1667. Since the 18th century, a church has already functioned in the village. In 1717, the Kvetiskis manor of the Prienai head Count Markus Anton Butler was built in the neighborhood. Count Butler transformed the village into a trading place called Staropolie. The development of the city was facilitated by the activities of the Marian monks.

Nearby, Countess Butlerene founded another city, giving the Marian monks a piece of land between the rivers Javonis and Sesupe. In 1758, a church and a monastery were built, around which a city arose, called Marijampole.

The cities were distinguished by the fact that in Marijampole it was forbidden to open taverns and engage in trade, while in Staropol it was allowed. In the 1780s and 90s. both townships merged and received the name Marijampolė. On February 23, 1792, the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania Stanislav August Poniatowski granted the city Magdeburg rights. After the division of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1795, Marijampole became part of Prussia as a county town in the Bialystok department of the province of “New East Prussia” (Neue Ostpreussen).

After Napoleon's victories over Prussia in 1807-1815, he entered the Duchy of Warsaw. In 1815, Mariampol became part of the Russian Empire, from 1816 it belonged to the Augustow Voivodeship of the Kingdom (Kingdom) of the Polish Russian Empire. In 1837 it was assigned to the Augustov province, and in 1867 - to the Suvalki province, it was the district town of this province. In 1820-1829. through Marijampole the Petersburg-Varshavskoe highway (with a branch to Konigsberg) was laid. On April 22, 1831, the Battle of Marijampole took place between the rebels and government troops. In 1854, the St. Petersburg-Warsaw telegraph line began operating, passing through Marijampolė. It was later extended from Marijampole to the Prussian border (to Virbalis), where it linked up with the Western European telegraph network. In 1863, during the uprising, fierce battles were fought near the city. Around the same time, the Mariampolis Monastery gained fame as it was the only monastery in Lithuania owned by the Marians that was not closed by the tsarist authorities. The city became the center of the Lithuanian national revival. The proximity of the Prussian border facilitated the smuggling of books in Lithuanian, which were banned in the Russian Empire. In 1868 the city was badly damaged by fire.

During the First World War from the summer of 1915 until 1918, it was occupied by the German army.

In 1918, the Mariampolsky district went to Lithuania. In 1923, the Kazlu-Ruda - Šeštokai railway line passed through the city. In 1931 AB Lietuvos cukrus built the first sugar factory in Lithuania.

Since 1940 as part of the Lithuanian SSR. During the Great Patriotic War on June 22, 1941 it was occupied by the German army. Soon, in June, the executions of the Jewish population, communists and Soviet prisoners of war began; On September 1, 1941, according to the Jaeger report, 5090 Jews and mental patients were killed. On July 31, 1944, the city was liberated by the troops of the Third Belarusian Front during the Kaunas operation. Since 1950 it has been the center of Marijampole (1955-1989 Kapsuk) region of the Lithuanian SSR. Since 1994 it has been the administrative center of Marijampole County and Marijampole City Headman (since 1999). In 2018, on the 100th anniversary of the restoration of the statehood of Lithuania, Marijampole became the cultural capital of Lithuania.