Location: Pomeranian Voivodeship Map
Area: 186 km² (72 sq mi)
Słowiński National Park is a nature reserve
situated in Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland. It covers an area of
186 sq km (72 sq mi). The park was created in 1967 with an initial
area of 180.69 km²; today it is only slightly larger - 186.18 km².
In 1997, UNESCO recognized the park as a biosphere reserve under the
Man and the Biosphere program; in 1995 was recognized as an object
of the Ramsar Convention.
In 1963, near the village of Kluki, in the territory of the subsequently established park, the Slovinsky Village ethnographic museum was created, demonstrating the rural life and culture of the Slovinians who lived here in the middle of the 19th century.
Słowiński National Park was established on January 1, 1967 on the area of 18,069 ha.
In 1977 it was included by UNESCO (under the "Man and Biosphere" program) to the network of biosphere reserves, and in 1995 it was entered into the list of areas protected by the Ramsar Convention on wetlands of international natural importance under the number 757.
In 2004, it was enlarged by 14,675 ha, including 11,000 ha of Baltic waters, and since then it covers an area of 32,744.03 ha.
The greatest value of the Słowiński National Park is not the flora and fauna, but inanimate nature - dunes, especially the wandering ones, moraines, spits, lakes, peat bogs and beaches. Dynamic processes of destruction and creation take place here, and an example may be the unveiling of a forest buried several thousand years ago by shifting dunes in the spring of 2016.
There are communities in the Park: dune, peat bog, meadow and forest. You can find here natural succession lines, from pioneering plants appearing on beaches to typical coastal bushberry forests. It occurs, among others sandblast, and other pioneering species are coastal rocket and sand honkenia. 80% of the park's forests are forest.
In total, the Park has about 920 species of vascular plants, 165 species of bryophytes, 500 species of algae, 424 species of fungi, 46 of which are under strict protection and 15 under partial protection. These include, among others: peat fork, seaside St. Nicholas, twinflower, round-leaved sundew, orchid family, king sundew, lake porcupine, cloudberry. The latter is a postglacial relic.
Among the more interesting species of mushrooms there are, among others: morels, giant skullcap, pine sucker and shameless stinkhorn; over 500 species have been found in total. Among the lichens, of which about 250 species have been recorded, there are, among others, protected representatives of the genera Usnea (bearded) and Bryoria (tufted duck).
The most important animals of the Park are birds. About 260 species of birds have been classified here, of which 170 breed (the remaining ones hibernate or appear during passages). During the autumn and spring migrations, species from the north pass this here, and some winter; the red dartfish (Calidris canutus) is observed during passages. There are also battalions (Philomachus pugnax), herring gulls (Larus argentatus), curlews (Numenius arquata), redshank (Tringa totanus), ohar (Tadorna tadorna), snipe snipe (Gallinago gallinago), greylag gull (Anser ansera), long tail (Aytha ansera) ferina) and cranes (Grus grus). On the other hand, in the forests you can meet the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), osprey and owls - incl. eagle owl (Bubo bubo) and woolly eagle owl (Aeogolius funereus). Among the claws there are also, among others lesser spotted eagle (Clanga pomarina), harriers (Circus spp.) and red kite (Milvus milvus). The very rarely smelling clawed pipit (Anthus richardi) has also been observed.
The Park is also home to insects, including rare butterflies, beetles and springtails, and from amphibians we can find toads and frogs. 490 species of insects have been recorded, including the strictly protected Carabus beetles (15 species), the Lapland float, the beech ibex, the lesser iris and the hermit beetle; 5 species are strictly protected from dragonflies, 3 species each from bumblebees and butterflies.
There are 10 species of amphibians, including the common toad (Bufo bufo) and natterjack toad (Epidalea calamita), grass frog (Rana temporaria), moor frog (Rana arvalis), lake frog (Rana lessonae), water frog (Rana esculenta) and frog Black-headed Gull (Rana ridibunda), Common Newt (Pelobates fuscus), Great Crested Newt (Triturus cristatus) and Common Newt (T. vulgaris).
Five species of reptiles have been found, these are the sand lizard (Lacerta agilis), the viviparous lizard (L. vivipara), the slow worm (Anquis fragilis), the grass snake (Natrix natrix) and the viper berus.
Mammals include the species listed in the Polish Red Data Book of Animals, such as Lesser Trichinella (Neomys anomalus), bats: silver-plated spotted moss (Vespertilio murinus), European marsh moth (Nyctalus noctula) and Western barbastellus (Barbastella barbastellus), porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and bats gray (Halichoerus grypus). There are also species rare all over Europe, such as European beaver (Castor fiber), European otter (Lutra lutra), 10 species of bats, red fox (Vulpes vulpes), European badger (Meles meles), European hare (Lepus europaeus), roe deer European red deer (Capreolus capreolus) and European red deer (Cervus elaphus).
Moving dunes, with the highest - Łączka and Czołpińska
The Natural History Museum of the Słowiński National Park in Smołdzino
Museum of the Slovinian Village in Kluki
The Czołpino lighthouse, 25 m high, and the Lighthouse nature path
Rowokół hill, 115 m high, the highest hill on the Słowiński Coast, the holy mountain of Kashubia, with an observation tower and the "Rowokół" nature path. By 2019, on the hill, within the protected area, the Smołdzino commune, in accordance with the decision received from the Minister of the Environment, Jan Szyszka, is to begin the construction of a wooden and brick chapel. st. Nicholas.
German training ground from World War II on the Łebska Spit near Rąbka