Częstochowa - a city with poviat rights in southern Poland, in the
Silesian Voivodeship, the seat of the Częstochowa poviat. In the years
1975–1998, the capital and seat of the authorities of the Częstochowa
Voivodeship. Częstochowa, despite being located within the Silesian
Voivodeship, historically and culturally belongs to Lesser Poland.
Academic center (5 universities), including the two largest public universities in the region with the rank of University of Technology and University. Constantly expanding its educational offer, and the creation of a medical faculty at the University of Humanities and Life Sciences in 2022 is not without significance for the rank of the region. Jan Długosz in Częstochowa.
Częstochowa is the central city of the Częstochowa agglomeration, as well as the largest economic, cultural and administrative center in the northern subregion of the Silesian Voivodeship.
Częstochowa is located in the northern part of the Silesian Voivodeship, on the Warta River, in three physico-geographical mesoregions belonging to the Krakow-Częstochowa Upland and the Woźnicko-Wieluńska Upland. According to Central Statistical Office data from December 31, 2020, the city was inhabited by 217,530 people. It is the 13th city in Poland in terms of area and population.
Old Częstochowa, now part of Częstochowa, was incorporated between 1370 and 1377. Modern Częstochowa was created from the merger of Old Częstochowa and Częstochówka on August 19, 1826.
In the city there is the Jasna Góra Basilica and the Jasna Góra Monastery with the image of Our Lady of Czestochowa, venerated as a miraculous image and national relic, which is surrounded by a special cult in Poland. It is the main Polish center of Marian worship and pilgrimages
Częstochowa is a city founded in the Middle Ages. Over the centuries, numerous buildings have been built in the city, which are now monuments and tourist attractions. The most important are the historic tenement houses and the urban layout of the historic centers of Old and New Częstochowa and the Aleja Najświętszej Maryi Panny connecting them. The largest and most visited of Częstochowa's monuments is the monastery complex at Jasna Góra, and tourism related to the monastery is mainly pilgrimage.
Avenue of the Blessed Virgin Mary — a complex of historic tenement
Viewing terraces on the Jasna Góra tower
Jasna Góra parks and the exhibitions of the Częstochowa Museum - Iron Ore Mining Museum and others
7 Tenement Street with 19th-century buildings
Wieluńska Street with 18th and 19th century buildings
Town Hall in Częstochowa — 19th-century classicist
Stary Rynek — the Old Town square with tenement houses
Museum of Match Production in Częstochowa — a historic match factory
Hantke's Palace in Częstochowa - a neo-baroque villa of the founder of Huta Częstochowa, Bernard Hantke
The Brass Palace in Częstochowa — the 19th-century palace of the Austrian entrepreneur Wilhelm Brass
Motte's Palace - the villa of the director of the Elanex worsted spinning mill from 1909
urban layout of Częstochowa (ul. Wieluńska, Rynek Wieluński, ul. św. Barbara)
Railway History Museum (Dworzec Stradom)
Halina Poświatowska Museum
House of Władysław Biegański
Museum of the Pontificate of John Paul II
Municipal Art Gallery
Gorge of the Warta and Start of the canoeing trip "Mirowski Gorge of the Warta"
Fountain Girl with Pigeons
Monumental benches in al. Blessed Virgin Mary: Halina Poświatowska, Marek Perepeczka, Władysław Biegański and Piotr Machalica
Archaeological reserve of the Lusatian culture
Historic locomotive at the main railway station
Jasna Góra — the monastery complex of the Pauline Order, the largest
and most famous monument of Częstochowa
the neo-gothic cathedral of the Holy Family - built in the years 1901-1927
Church of St. Jakuba — located on Biegański Square, which was originally an Orthodox church
church of st. Zygmunt - the oldest in Częstochowa, on Daszyński Square
Cathedral of Our Lady Queen of the Apostles - Polish Catholic church at ul. Jasna Góra
Orthodox Church of the Częstochowa Icon of the Mother of God at ul. Copernicus
the Evangelical-Augsburg Church of the Ascension of the Lord in Śródmieście at Kopernika Street
church of st. Barbara in the Podjasna Góra district
sanctuary of st. Józefa in Raków at ul. Okrzei
Church of the Holy Name of Mary in the Avenue of the Blessed Virgin Mary
the church of the Agonizing Lord Jesus and the church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross in Częstochówka
Chapel of the Transfiguration in the central part of the Kule cemetery
Church of Saints Roch and Sebastian in the cemetery of St. Roch
A religious monument is the Jewish cemetery in the Zawodzie district.
Tours around Częstochowa are often combined with visiting the
Krakow-Częstochowa Upland. The following hiking trails start in the
red tourist trail Trail of the Eagles' Nests
red tourist trail Trail of Jura Wieluńska
green tourist trail The Battle Trail of the 7th Infantry Division
yellow tourist trail Częstochowa - Olsztyn im. Z. Łęski
Częstochowa is the cultural center of the region, and is also an
important cultural center on a national and international scale. Many
local, national and international events take place in the city.
There are many municipal and independent cultural institutions in Częstochowa, whose committed activities create a diverse cultural offer of the city.
In addition to the monastery of Jasna Góra, museum and exhibition
activities are also conducted by other institutions.
The oldest museum institution. Its exhibition facilities include:
City Hall — a historic complex of buildings of the former city hall, currently the main seat of the Museum
The archaeological reserve of the Lusatian culture in the Raków district — a unique archaeological reserve
Good Art Gallery in Częstochowa
Iron Ore Mining Museum
Museum of Halina Poświatowska, a poet from Częstochowa
Other exhibition institutions in the city:
Municipal Art Gallery - exhibits paintings, sculptures, prints and photographs - with a particular emphasis on contemporary works. Particularly famous is the exhibition of works by Zdzisław Beksiński, which in 2006 was transformed into the permanent Museum of Zdzisław Beksiński
Museum of Matchmaking - a closed factory using technology from the third decade of the 20th century (private)
Railway History Museum at Częstochowa Stradom station (temporarily closed, private)
Museum of the Częstochowa Archdiocese
Zdzislaw Beksinski Museum
Museum of Imagination - gallery and studio of Tomasz Sętowski (private)
Museum of the Pontificate of John Paul II (private)
Gallery of the Conductor House
Lonta Petra Gallery (private)
archaeological reserve in the Old Market
Czestochowa Philharmonic Bronisław Huberman
The philharmonic orchestra inaugurated its activity in 1945, giving a concert in the city theater. In 1955, on the site of the New Synagogue destroyed by the Germans occupying Częstochowa, the construction of the philharmonic building began. Construction ended in 1965. In January 1976, the State Symphony Orchestra in Częstochowa received the name of the Philharmonic. On October 3, 2012, she received the name of Bronisław Huberman.
Theatre. Adam Mickiewicz
The theater in Częstochowa began operating in 1927. In the 1920s, the current seat of the theater was built - a building built especially for its needs at Kilińskiego Street. In 1949, the theater was nationalized, and six years later it was named after Adam Mickiewicz.
Center for the Promotion of Culture Gaude Mater
A municipal cultural institution, which is the main organizer of the International Festival of Sacred Music "Gaude Mater" and the Festival of Kalina Jędrusik "Kalina Nights, Kalina Days".
In Częstochowa, there are two multiplex cinemas belonging to the Cinema City chain: Cinema City Wolność, opened in 2004, and the multiplex located in Galeria Jurajska, opened in 2009. Since 1991, the studio cinema of the Film Culture Center has also been operating in the city.
Numerous women's, men's and mixed choirs operate in Częstochowa. The
oldest is the Men's Choir "Pochodnia" (dir. Jarosław Łyczba). Others
include: Choir of the Częstochowa Philharmonic "Collegium Cantorum"
(cond. J. Siadlak), Jasna Góra Boys and Men Choir "Pueri Claromontani"
(cond. Maria Bujalska PDDM) and the Choir of the Cathedral of St.
"Basilica Cantans" families (director Włodzimierz Krawczyński, currently
Zygmunt Nitkiewicz). These choirs have won numerous awards at national
and international festivals.
Music festivals in Częstochowa
International Sacred Music Festival "Gaude Mater"
Jazz Spring Czestochowa
But here's what's going on
HIP HOP Elements
Jasna Góra Violin Competition
In Częstochowa, there is a Complex of Art Schools named after Jacek
Malczewski, Jasna Góra Music School, Complex of Music Schools. Marcin
Żebrowski. There are also several music centers for children and
teenagers and a Community Ballet School in the city.
The activity is run by the Youth Cultural Center and the Regional Cultural Centre, which organizes many cyclical events, e.g. National Poetry Competition named after Halina Poświatowska. This poet was born and raised in Częstochowa. A modest museum is organized in her family home, which collects exhibits related to the life of Poświatowska.
The first mention of Częstochowa comes from 1220, in a document of
the bishop of Kraków, Iwo Odrowąż, in which the town is mentioned as
Czanstochowa. The name was later also recorded in the forms Chastochowa
(1250), Czanstochowa, Antiquo Czanstochowa, Noua Czanstochowa (1382),
Czestochowa (1542), Czenstochow (1558), Częstochowa (1564), w
Częstochowa (1658), w Częstochowey (1670), Częstochowa (1680),
Częstochowa (1787), Częstochowa (1827), Częstochowa (1880).
The name Częstochowa is a possessive name formed from the personal name Częstoch with the possessive suffix -owa, -ow. It originally meant 'property of Częstochowa'. The name Częstoch, which in the form of Chestoch appears already in the Gniezno bull of protection of Pope Innocent II dated July 7, 1136 and issued in Pisa, is a shortening of Old Polish compound names like Częstobor, Częstomir, containing the Proto-Slavic root *čęstъ 'frequent'. Folk etymology derives the name of the city from the expression often (to) hide. The name Częstochowa would arise due to the frequent hiding of the view of the city among the surrounding hills from the pilgrims approaching the city. In the dialectal pronunciation of the local rural population, the sound cy̨stoxova with a visible mazurka phenomenon (č > c) and a slanted pronunciation ę, which turns into a nasal y - y̨, was noted.
Historical records show that until around the middle of the 16th century the name of the city had no fixed gender and appeared in two forms: Częstochowa and Częstochowa, therefore the modern form of the locative in Częstochowa can be explained as a result of mixing two paradigms of the inflection, and not only as a relic of the inflection uncompound (noun).
The Jewish population living in the city used the Yiddish name Czenstochow (Yiddish: טשענסטאָכאָוו). During the period of partitions, the forms Czenstochowa, Czenstochow, and rarely Czenstochowo (Russian: Ченстохова, Ченстохов, Ченстохово) appeared in Russian sources. In German, there is a form Tschenstochau, which was used e.g. during the Nazi occupation during the Second World War.
Częstochowa lies at the junction of three geographical mesoregions - the Częstochowa Upland, commonly known as Jura, the Upper Warta Depression and the Wieluń Upland. These mesoregions belong to a common sub-province — the Śląsko-Krakowska Upland.
The area of Częstochowa after the creation of the city at the beginning of the 19th century was 33.06 km² and did not change until the interwar period, when in 1928 and 1930 areas of 14.13 km² were incorporated into the city. At that time, the area of the city was 47.16 km². The borders were extended again in 1952, when areas with a total area of 45.88 km² were added, which gave an area of 93.04 km². Since 1977, the area of the city is 160 km².
Within the city, absolute heights of 250–270 m above sea level prevail. There are several hills in the city with heights ranging from 280 to 300 meters. The highest hill is Góra Ossona, which is 316.7 m above sea level. Other hills located within the city limits include Jasna Góra, Błeszno, Prędziszów, Liszka, Góry Kawie, Parkitka. The lowest point is the place on the Warta River east of Mirów - 236 m above sea level.
The territory of the city is part of the Silesian-Cracow monocline, located at its south-eastern end, near the border with the Nida Basin. The area of the city is geologically diverse, the upper part consists of post-glacial sediments: gravels, sands, clays, and the deeper part consists of limestones from the Upper Jurassic period.
Częstochowa is located in the temperate climate zone. On average,
there are 4 hours of direct sunlight per day. In the course of the year,
the greatest insolation is observed in June, due to the greatest length
of the day.
There are few windless days in Częstochowa. Quiet periods per year account for an average of 9.2%. The prevailing winds are west - 18% and south-west - 18.2%. At the same time, they reach the highest speeds from these directions — 2.2 m/s. The least frequent are northern winds - 7.7% and north-eastern ones - 7.4%.
The total area of forests within the boundaries of Częstochowa is
648.8 ha, and the area of parks and squares is 155 ha.
Parks and squares with an area of over 1 ha by size:
Angel Forest Park (North) — 69 ha
Lisiniec Park (Lisiniec) — 36 ha
Podjasnogórska parks - (Podjasnogórska) - 11.6 ha
Czesław Niemen Promenade (North) - 7.8 ha
Tysiąclecia Park (North, Tysiąclecie) - 5.6 ha
Narutowicza Park (Zawodzie-Dąbie) - 3.8 ha
park at ul. Fieldorfa (North) — 3.5 ha
Piastów Park (Old Town) - 3.3 ha
square at ul. Zagłoby (Sabinów) - 2 ha
Parkitka Park (Częstochówka-Parkitka) - 1.8 ha
Śródmieście Promenade (Three Bards) - 1.5 ha
square between al. Niepodległości and al. WP (Ostatni Grosz) - 1.4 ha
square between al. AK and ul. Kiedrzyńska (Millennium) - 1.4 ha
Solidarity Square (Śródmieście) — 1.3 ha
Kaliny Jędrusik Square (Tysiąclecie) - 1.2 ha
St. Patrick's Park Barbara (Podjasnogórska) - 1.2 ha
Sokołów Square at ul. General Casimir Pulaski (Three Bards) - no information about the area
Aviators' Square at ul. Wojciecha Korfantego (Zawodzie-Dąbie) - no information about the area
park at ul. Gajowa (Wrzosowiak) - 1.7 ha
The tallest buildings in Częstochowa:
the tower of the Jasna Góra monastery - 106.3 m
chimney at ul. Mirowska - 90 m
towers of the Holy Family Cathedral - 80 m
TON radio mast Błeszno Częstochowa in the Wrzosowiak district (formerly Błeszno) - 71 m
tower of the church of St. Antoniego Padewskiego in the Last Grosz district - 50 m
"Centrum" office building at ul. Decembrists - 40 m (tallest office building)
apartment block "Mrówkowiec" - 33 m
building at ul. POW (the so-called first skyscraper) - 26.34 m
Częstochowa is located in the former Krakow land of historical Lesser
Poland, in the 15th century it was located in the Lelów district in the
Krakow voivodship. As a result of the administrative reform of 1999,
Częstochowa was incorporated into the Silesian Voivodeship. Before World
War II, Częstochowa belonged to the Kielce Voivodeship, hence some local
politicians applied (together with Kielce and Radom) for the creation of
the Staropolskie Voivodeship.
Częstochowa, wanting to emphasize its historical and cultural ties with the Małopolska region, joined the Association of Małopolska Communes and Poviats in April 2007, bringing together areas historically belonging to Małopolska, and as a result of administrative reforms attached to other voivodeships. In the same year, the city received the title of Lesser Poland Leader for the revalorization of Aleja Najświętszej Maryi Panny. On August 23, 2006, the coat of arms of Częstochowa was hung in Krakow's Sukiennice. In 2008, once again, Częstochowa was awarded the title of the Leader of Lesser Poland, this time for the revalorization of parks near Jasna Góra.
According to legend, the name Częstochowa means a settlement founded
by a person named Częstoch, but the first mention of it dates back to
1220, in a document of the bishop of Kraków, Iwo Odrowąż. In the bull of
Pope Innocent IV dated 1250, it was mentioned among the villages paying
tithes to the canons from Wrocław. At that time, there was another
village near Częstochowa, Częstochówka. Once again, Częstochowa was
mentioned in 1325 in the records of the Holy Pietra collection as one of
the least populated towns in the region. In 1356, the village was
founded under the Średzki law. The issue of the date of granting city
rights to the settlement is ambiguous, but this event is defined for the
period between 1370 and 1377. From 1393 Częstochowa was a royal city.
In the years 1370–1393 Częstochowa was a fief of Władysław Opolczyk. During this period, the name of the city of Częstochowa was established as Stara Częstochowa, and the village on the hill of Częstochówka belonging to the Jasna Góra monastery founded in 1382. In the Old Polish period, the city of Stara Częstochowa sued the monastery of Jasna Góra many times over the violation of city rights by the Order and the seizing of profits from trade with pilgrims.
Częstochowa experienced a dynamic development in the 14th century, which was facilitated by its location on the route connecting Lesser Poland with Greater Poland. In addition, information about the existence of an ironworks dates back to 1377, and at the end of the 14th century Częstochowa's ironworks and iron ore mines were known throughout the country. In 1430, robbers from Bohemia and Moravia attacked the town. In the 14th and 15th centuries, Częstochowa was poorly developed and populated. Another period of development took place in the 16th century in connection with the activities of the starost Mikołaj Szydłowiecki and the generosity of the Polish king Zygmunt I, who granted the town numerous privileges, including a copy of the location (1502), the privilege of collecting the bridge toll on the Warta River (1504, 1512), the privilege of organizing fairs (1508) and exemption from duties and market taxes for the townspeople for 12 years. In 1531, defensive walls were built. In the years 1625–1630 the region was affected by the plague.
In 1587, the army of the pretender to the royal crown, Maximilian III Habsburg, plundered the town. In 1620, due to the peripheral location of the Jasna Góra monastery, the kings of the Vasa dynasty decided to fortify the nearby monastery with modern Dutch-type fortifications with bastions.
The number of inhabitants grew from approx. 1.5 thousand. in the 16th century, for about 2,000 at the beginning of the 17th century to approx. 2.5 thousand. in the middle of the 17th century
After the beginning of the Swedish Deluge, the Jasna Góra Pauline
monks paid homage to the king of Sweden, and at the same time began
preparations to defend the monastery in the event of an attack on the
On November 18, 1655, the Swedish army came to Jasna Góra and began the siege of the monastery, which consisted mainly of minor skirmishes and exchanges of artillery fire. Chaotic military operations were also interrupted several times due to negotiations, and the Polish garrison tried several times to force prior Augustyn Kordecki to surrender the fortress to the enemy. On the night of 26/27 December, the Swedish army finally withdrew from the fortress.
During the Deluge, the city was largely destroyed and was rebuilt long and slowly. In 1665, the battle of Częstochowa took place here, part of Lubomirski's rebellion. On February 27, 1670, the wedding of the Polish king Michael and Archduchess Eleonora took place in the Jasna Góra monastery.
On February 29, 1768, the Bar Confederation was established. The
Confederates occupied the Jasna Góra fortress, led by Casimir Pulaski.
The period after the Deluge was successful for Częstochówka, which dynamically developed and expanded. The monastery, which was the owner of the village, made intensive efforts to develop the settlement. In 1717, the monastery received a privilege granting Częstochówka city rights as Nowa Częstochowa. However, the new town was ruined during the Bar Confederation.
After the adoption of the Constitution on May 3, the place of the sejmik for the Lelów and Książ districts was designated as Old Częstochowa.
After the Second Partition of Poland, both towns found themselves in Prussia, after 1807 within the Duchy of Warsaw, and from 1815 within the Kingdom of Poland.
The plan to connect the towns was undertaken in 1823, and its
development was carried out by the provincial engineer Jan Bernhard, who
in 1819 marked out Aleja Panny Maryi (now Aleja Najświętszej Maryi
Panny). Formally, both cities were merged into one on August 19, 1826.
After the merger of the two cities, Częstochowa in terms of population
ranked fourth in the Kingdom of Poland, after Warsaw, Lublin and Kalisz.
During the January Uprising, there were numerous skirmishes between insurgent units and Russian troops in the vicinity of the city.
Industry began to develop in Częstochowa in the early 1870s. The first major entrepreneur in Częstochowa was Berek Kohn, who in 1869, together with Adolf Oderfeld, launched a printing house and a lithographic workshop. In 1897, in Raków near Częstochowa, Bernard Hantke launched the present Huta Częstochowa.
In 1904, a revolutionary movement began to form in Częstochowa. After the revolution broke out in January 1905, Częstochowa workers announced a general strike in February. In 1909, the Great Agricultural and Industrial Exhibition was held in the city.
Shortly after the outbreak of World War I, Częstochowa was occupied without fighting (August 3, 1914) by the German army. During the occupation, the situation of the city's population deteriorated rapidly, with over 20,000 workers leaving the city. As early as August 7, 1914, murders were carried out in the Podjasna Góra district. Unlike the town of Jasna Góra, from April 1915, it was occupied by the Catholic Austro-Hungarian Empire.
On November 10, 1918, the disarmament of the German troops stationed
in the city began. On November 12, 1918, three companies of the Polish
Army under the command of Capt. Ludwikowski.
On May 27, 1919, pogroms against Jews took place in the city, as a result of which 7 people were killed.
During the Silesian Uprisings, Częstochowa was the main center of aid for the insurgents. Collections of money and medicines as well as volunteer recruitment points were organized in the city. After the collapse of the Polish offensive on Kiev in 1920, Czestochowa had to house and feed the Ukrainian government of Semen Petliura together with two thousand refugees for several months. During the Polish-Bolshevik war, several hundred volunteers from Częstochowa fought in defense of Warsaw.
In the interwar period, the city continued to develop, but the local industry declined and developed at a much slower pace, which was the result of war damage and the economic downturn. At that time, the city was equipped with a sewage system, public transport was launched and many public buildings were erected (including a theater, post office, numerous schools). In 1939 Częstochowa already had 138,000 inhabitants. inhabitants, which placed it in 8th place in terms of the largest cities in Poland.
From 1925, Częstochowa was the seat of the bishopric (since 1992, the archbishopric).
In June 1937, anti-Jewish riots took place in the town. Jewish shops were plundered for a week.
After the outbreak of World War II, the Germans entered the city on
September 3, 1939, and the very next day they committed murders that
went down in history as Bloody Monday. During the occupation,
repressions against the social elite and the Jewish population took
place. In 1942, a separate district was created for the increasingly
numerous German community.
In 1941, a Jewish district was established in Częstochowa, which began to be liquidated in 1942 by transporting the population to the extermination camp in Treblinka. The population remaining after this action was terrorized and murdered in several subsequent actions, e.g. June 25, 1943, when the Jewish population put up armed resistance.
During the war and immediately after it, strong partisan units of the pro-independence underground operated in the Częstochowa area. After the fall of the Warsaw Uprising, Częstochowa was the capital of the Polish Underground State. On January 16, 1945, after all-day fighting, the German garrison left Częstochowa, and the city was occupied by the Soviet troops of Major Semyon Chochriakow.
In the period of People's Poland, the rapid expansion of the
steelworks, which was named after Bolesław Bierut, resulted in the
dynamic development of the city. In addition, Zakłady Przemysłu
Bawełnianego im. Zygmunt Modzelewski, Linen Industry Plant "Warta",
metal, glass and chemical industries have also developed. On the
initiative of prof. Jerzy Kołakowski, the Higher School of Engineering
in Częstochowa was established, now the Częstochowa University of
John Paul II visited Częstochowa six times: in 1979, 1983, 1987, 1991, 1997 and 1999. On August 15, 1991, a holy mass was celebrated with his participation. (ending the 6th World Youth Day) gathered 1.5 million faithful, and the pope received the key to its gates and the title of honorary citizen from the city authorities. Częstochowa became the first city in the world to receive such a distinction.
On November 15, 2009, a referendum was held in the city on the dismissal of Mayor Tadeusz Wrona. The president was dismissed by 39,284 votes. Currently (2022), the mayor of the city is Krzysztof Matyjaszczyk, a representative of the SLD.
Częstochowa is the second largest city in the Silesian Voivodeship
both in terms of population and occupied area. It is a supra-regional
center of companies from the automotive industry, metallurgy and metal
processing, glass processing and IT. The city thrives in world giants
such as ZF Group, Guardian Glass, Stoelze, Liberty Steel, TS Tech and
In 2008, the Częstochowa Industrial and Technological Park was completed, which has modernized and modernly arranged offices, warehouses and production halls. In 2023, the budget of Częstochowa will amount to PLN 1 billion 855.3 million, of which PLN 516.7 million for investments (almost 28% of total expenditure).
Currently, it is of particular importance for the city to attract investors interested in running service centers for business facilities (so-called BPO - Business Process Outsourcing) and logistics services, as evidenced by large Hillwood investments (two locations: Hillwood Częstochowa - Zachód with an area of over 24,000 m2 and Hillwood Częstochowa - City with an area of over 64,000 m2) and Panattoni - Panattoni Park Częstochowa with an area of over 30,000 m2. In addition, near Częstochowa, in the town of Libidza, the Polomarket chain has its logistics center (with an area of over 40,000 m2). Stoelze Glass Group (more than 20,000 m2) has a significant distribution center in Częstochowa.
Częstochowa, thanks to its excellent location and large-scale investments in road infrastructure, attracts investors from industries so far absent from the city, e.g. from the medical devices industry, the best example of which is the construction of a modern plant for the production of technologically advanced wound treatment products by Hartmann Manufacturing Polska near the "Jasna Góra" motorway junction, which is part of the Częstochowa ring road.
The city gives you the opportunity to reach an area inhabited by 8.5 million people within 90 minutes by car. Such a huge market of human resources means that the Protective Equipment Company MASKPOL S.A. also locates its investments here. being part of Polska Grupa Zbrojeniowa SA.
There are branches of the most recognizable companies in the IT industry, such as X-KOM, Comarch, Assecco, ZF IT Center, SII Polska, K Dystrybucja (Kaspersky Lab), Computer Center and many others.
An important and well-known global investor in Poland is the Klimas Wkręt - Met company, which in 4 locations concentrated around Częstochowa conducts production activities in the field of manufacturing construction fasteners on over 80,000 m2.
According to the latest data, the total number of companies in Częstochowa is 20,121 business entities, represented by the Regional Chamber of Industry and Commerce in Częstochowa.
The main initiator of activities related to development and investments in the economy is the Regional Development Agency in Częstochowa. In 2011, three industrial clusters were established in Częstochowa - the Plastosphere Polymer Processing Cluster, the Częstochowa Municipal Cluster Agglomeration and the Regional Częstochowa Construction and Infrastructure Cluster "Budosfera".
Several dozen manufacturers of prams still operate in Częstochowa.
As a result of the creation of the Polish Investment Zone in 2018,
the city found itself in the zone of influence of KSEZ S.A. The offer of
investment areas in Częstochowa currently includes three subzones:
KSEZ "Kusięcka" with a total area of 13.2 ha, where there is already a CGR POLAND Sp. z o.o..
KSSE "Korfantego" with a total area of 34.4 ha.
Skorki II - 17.5 ha at the existing Economic Street - area in preparation.
KSSE "Skorki I" the youngest and fastest growing subzone in Częstochowa with a total area of 23.3 ha. Its activities include ZF Electronics Plant and European Shared Services Center (the third newest ZF production plant in the city producing car cameras).
Częstochowa's "Investor Assistance Center" cooperates with the Katowice Special Economic Zone as an institution supporting the economy, which initiates organizational changes to improve service for entrepreneurs and investors in Częstochowa.
Since 2014, in Częstochowa, in areas included in economic zones, the minimum investment outlays have amounted to PLN 1 billion 700 million.
The city of Częstochowa also offers its own attractive plots for
investors looking for a place to start their business in cities with
more than 200,000 inhabitants. The most important of them are:
Rząsawa - 0.37 ha
Elanex - with an area of 8.9 ha on the site of the former Elanex industrial plant.
The Prince's House - with an area of 6,670 m2
Barbara - with an area of 2.21 ha in the vicinity of the national road No. 46.
Częstochowa is the main center of the Częstochowa Industrial
District, the third largest in the Silesian Voivodeship. Since the
Middle Ages, the metal industry developed here, thanks to the abundance
of iron ores. The largest and most famous industrial plants in the city
X-KOM - the seat of a network of computer shops and the main sponsor of the Raków Częstochowa football club.
ISD Huta Częstochowa — one of the largest steel mills in Poland
ZF Automotive Systems Poland (formerly TRW) — manufacturer of car safety systems
TS Tech Poland - the activity of the concern focuses mainly on the design and production of seats and other elements of car interiors.
Protective Equipment Company "Maskpol" SA - manufacturer of military equipment.
DTR VMS Poland Sp. z o. o. - manufacturer of rubber-metal elements for the automotive sector.
Wiko Klebetechnik - is part of the international GLUETEC GROUP, originating from Germany, dealing in the production and distribution of industrial chemicals.
CSF Poland (Cooper Standard group; former Polymer Systems Barre Thomas Poland) — producer of, among others cables, anti-vibration systems and seals for cars
Brembo Poland - manufacturer of brake system components
CGR Polska - manufacturer of automotive components for companies such as TRW, Faurecja.
Sila Poland - manufacturer of integrated gear shifting systems.
Koksownia Częstochowa Nowa — a leading producer of coke in the country, separated from the structure of Huta Częstochowa
Guardian Czestochowa — glassworks
Stoelzle Częstochowa - artistic and utility glassworks
Iron Foundry Wulkan — iron foundry, the oldest factory operating in the city. It was founded in 1894.
Metalplast-Częstochowa — a leading manufacturer of locks and construction fittings. Established in 1899.
ViperPrint — one of the largest online printing houses in Poland. Established in 2002.
Dospel — manufacturer of ventilation systems
Bud-Trans — the scope of the company mainly includes works related to the transport of construction waste, demolition and cleaning works,
Polontex — a manufacturer of mainly decorated fabrics, the plant is located in the building of the former "Ceba".
There are shopping malls, shopping centers, hypermarkets and a large
number of supermarkets in the city. The most important of them are:
Jurajska Gallery, al. Polish Army 207
Gallery Al. NMP 49, al. Blessed Virgin Mary 49.
M1 shopping center, ul. Kisielewskiego 8/16
Kwadraty Shopping Center, al. Freedom 4
DL Center Point Częstochowa, ul. Jagiellońska 1
Aniolów Park retail park, ul. Roadworkers 43
Jagiellonian Shopping Center, ul. Brzozowa 2/8,
Shopping Center Centrum, al. Freedom 4
commercial and service area - DK1/DK46 junction (e.g. Castorama),
VENDO PARK shopping center (2020),
Makro Cash&Carry, ul. Jagiellońska 38/40
OBI, ul. Generała Leopolda Okulickiego 16/18 and OBI at ul. Kisielewskiego 8/16
Leroy Merlin, ul. Krakowska 7, Poczesna /k. Czestochowa
Auchan Poczesna Shopping Centre, ul. Krakowska 10 Poczesna /k. Czestochowa
Carrefour hypermarket, ul. Roadworkers 43
Agata Meble, ul. Roadworkers 39
The "Market na Czerwony" shopping center and many smaller markets and shops.
Initially, only 87 stores selling alcohol were allowed to operate in the city. In 2001, the limit was increased to 245, in 2009 to 440, in 2010 to 500, and in 2015 to 550.
Częstochowa is intersected by a network of national roads and
motorways that allows car transport with the largest Polish cities:
A1 motorway - part of the European route E75: Gdańsk - Grudziądz - Toruń - Włocławek - Łódź - Częstochowa - Pyrzowice - Gliwice - Żory - Gorzyczki - running through the northern and western outskirts of the city, forming the western motorway bypass.
national road No. 43: Wieluń - Rudniki - Kłobuck - Częstochowa
national road No. 46: Klodzko - Nysa - Pakoslawice - Jaczowice - Niemodlin - Karczow - Opole - Ozimek - Lubliniec - Blachownia - Czestochowa - Janów - Szczekociny
national road No. 91: Gdańsk - Tczew - Toruń - Włocławek - Kutno - Łódź - Piotrków Trybunalski - Kamieńsk - Radomsko - Kłomnice - Częstochowa - Podwarpie
The network is complemented by provincial roads:
provincial road No. 483: Łask - Szczerców - Nowa Brzeźnica - Częstochowa
provincial road No. 491: Działoszyn (Road 42) - Łobodno - Częstochowa
provincial road No. 494: Bierdzany - Olesno - Wręczyca Wielka - Częstochowa
provincial road No. 786: Częstochowa - Św. Anna - Koniecpol - Włoszczowa - Łopuszno - Ruda Strawczyńska - Kielce
provincial road No. 908: Częstochowa - Tarnowskie Góry (Road 78)
Railway lines No. 61 Lubliniec-Kielce run through the city (launched
gradually in the years 1903-1911) and No. 1 Warszawa Centralna-Katowice,
along with a branch line (line No. 146) to the Chorzew Siemkowice
station, which connects the city with the coal main.
On November 17, 1846, Częstochowa gained a railway connection with Warsaw (the Warsaw-Vienna Railway), in 1903 with Herby, and in 1911 with Kielce (the Herbsko-Kielecka Railway). The Częstochowa railway junction acquired its present shape during World War II.
Passenger rail transport is served by the Częstochowa Gnaszyn, Częstochowa Raków, Częstochowa Stradom, Rząsawa and Częstochowa Aniołów stations, and to the greatest extent by the modern - opened after reconstruction in 1996 - Częstochowa Osobowa (formerly Częstochowa Główna) station located in the very center of the city, at Council of Europe Square.
Częstochowa has one of the two youngest tram communication systems in
Poland, which was launched in 1959. The trams run on tracks with a gauge
of 1435 mm and a network of 14.7 km. It is de facto one route running
through the city from north to south with two branches at its southern
The organizer of public collective transport in the city of Częstochowa and some of the neighboring communes is the Municipal Road and Transport Authority in Częstochowa. At the request of MZDiT, transport is carried out exclusively by the city-owned company Miejskie Przedsiębiorstwo Komunikacyjne w Częstochowie. Public transport includes 3 tram lines, 24 city buses and 8 suburban lines in the communes of Blachownia, Konopiska, Mstów, Poczesna and Olsztyn. Night public transport is provided by the daily bus line No. 80, running along the tram network. On July 13, 2007, MPK Częstochowa introduced a universal electronic ticket.
The Bus Express company offers transport of people on the route from the city center to Blachownia.
Free transport to the Auchan hypermarket is provided by BK Bursiak, while to the Tesco hypermarket is provided by Kris-Tour. Transport within the city is also offered by PKS Częstochowa, which operates lines from the bus station to Kłobuck, Blachownia and other nearby towns, and the PKP - 5 stops in Częstochowa offers passenger transport.
Communication with the commune of Rędziny is provided by GZK in Rędziny by lines R, Rm and Rk to the Main Railway Station.
From September 1, 2021, Częstochowa is connected with the communes of the land poviat by bus transport organized by the Częstochowa Poviat.
The nearest international airport is the regional port of the
Silesian Voivodeship - Katowice Airport in Pyrzowice. It is located
about 40 km south of the center of Częstochowa.
The nearest active airstrip is the Częstochowa-Rudniki Airport, 10 km from the city centre. It is a post-military building currently in private ownership. It has sports functions - the Częstochowa Aeroclub operates on part of its area, and is also a place for organizing many outdoor events. The airport is not adapted to handle large aircraft, it is possible to land only small passenger aircraft. It has a neglected concrete runway (2000 × 60 m). The long-term intentions of the city authorities to transform the airport into a passenger or cargo airport have not yet resulted in financial support from any source, or even legal regulation of its status according to the intentions of local government officials. The last time the airport was used by airlines was in 1983 - LOT Polish Airlines offered connections from it for one season.
The following newspapers are published in Częstochowa:
"Gazeta Wyborcza" - since 1991 published with a local supplement
"Dziennik Zachodni" - there is a local branch of this newspaper
"Życie Częstochowy i Powiatu" - a continuation of "Życie Częstochowy", a newspaper published since 1947, the prototype of which was "Życie Warszawy"
"Gazeta Częstochowska" — since 1956
'Niedziela' — a nationwide Catholic weekly
Several other magazines are also published, including the cultural quarterly Aleje 3, Bulion, the monthly Puls Regionu and the yearly Land of Częstochowa.
Local radio stations:
Radio Jasna Góra - a radio station operating at the monastery in Jasna Góra
Radio Fiat — a Catholic radio station belonging to the Archdiocese of Częstochowa
Radio Jura - a local radio station launched by Radio 90 FM, which on July 14, 2010 received a broadcasting license in Częstochowa
Your Polish Station - a local radio station, presenting Polish music and knowledge about this music. The owner is Radio Park Advertising Agency, which received the broadcasting license on July 13, 2017, and on September 7, 2018, it began broadcasting
Local studies in Częstochowa have:
Polish Radio Katowice
Golden Hits Radio
RMF Maxxx - broadcasting in the so-called splitting local news from Częstochowa, in 2006 it replaced the local Radio Fon existing since 1995.
In the years 1995–2001, RMF FM radio had a local editorial office in the city.
Residents of the Tysiąclecie and Północ districts have access to the municipal TV Orion. There are also local editorial offices of TVP3 Katowice, NTL and TVSilesia in the city.
"Częstochowski Sports Portal" - a portal informing about sports events from Częstochowa and the surrounding area
"wczestochowie.pl" — a portal informing about events from Częstochowa and the surrounding area
"CzestochowaForum.pl" - independent and non-commercial, the largest forum with current information about Częstochowa
There are several local portals in the city. Several online newspaper journalists also work here.
The history of the first hospital in Częstochowa dates back to 1834,
when the City Council allocated land for its construction. Soon after,
the hospital of St. Benedict, in 1854 renamed the Hospital of the
Blessed Virgin Mary. For years, only one doctor was employed there, the
first one was Walenty Józef Siekaczyński. It was only Dr. Władysław
Biegański who brought specialists in various fields of medicine to him,
starting in 1883 with the arrival of a surgeon, Dr. Władysław
At the beginning of the 20th century, an Israeli hospital was established in Częstochowa at ul. Mirowska (buildings used until the 21st century). During World War I, at ul. Wieluńska, a venereal hospital was established, and an infectious diseases hospital was established at Washington (later moved to Dąbrowskiego Street). During the Second Polish Republic, a modern Kasa Chorych hospital was opened at ul. Mickiewicz (buildings used until the 21st century). During World War II, the buildings at ul. Kordeckiego and at ul. Vouchers. The hospital in Aleje was liquidated in the late 1950s, and in 1966 or 1969 the building was demolished and the construction of a department store began in this place. In 1961, a hospital was built in the Tysiąclecie district (later a provincial hospital), and in 1988 a hospital was opened in the Parkitka district (also a provincial hospital).
In 2000, hospitals at ul. Bona, Mirowska and Mickiewicz merged into the Municipal Hospital Complex, and in 2004 they were transformed into the Municipal Integrated Hospital. In 2009, the hospital in Tysiąclecie was incorporated into the hospital in Parkitka.
Provincial Specialist Hospital named after of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Częstochowa (ul. Nowobialska, ul. PCK, al. Pokoju)
Municipal Hospital in Częstochowa (ul. Bony, ul. Mickiewicza, ul. Mirowska)
Hospital R. Weigl in Blachownia near Częstochowa
There are 45 kindergartens in Częstochowa, including 6 private and 2
integrated kindergartens. There are also 50 primary schools, including 3
non-public schools, 5 special schools and 3 with integrated classes.
Some of the primary education institutions are run by the Catholic
There are 36 upper secondary schools, including 12 post-secondary schools, 10 general secondary schools and over a dozen school complexes with various profiles, including the Central School of the State Fire Service.
Among the universities with 8 operating in the city, the largest are: Częstochowa University of Technology, University of Humanities and Life Sciences. Jan Długosz, the Polonia University and the University of Management.
After the establishment of Częstochowa in the early 19th century,
education in the city was at a low level. In the existing towns of Old
and New Częstochowa, there was one elementary school each, and each of
them was run by one teacher. Immediately after the fall of the November
Uprising, apart from these two schools, three private schools operated.
In 1835, a Sunday crafts school was founded, but it attracted little
interest. In 1861, there were already four elementary schools in the
town, one male four-grade school and one female boarding school. Schools
were located in private homes, teachers were supported by contributions
and a small municipal subsidy.
Secondary education was established in the city only in 1862, when a special poviat school was established, later transformed into a five-grade junior high school, and from 1867 operating as a four-grade philological gymnasium. The seat of the school was a post-monastery building in III Aleja, currently it houses a secondary school named after Sienkiewicz. The first private secondary schools were established in 1871 and 1891.
In 1906, a Polish gymnasium was opened. The following year, there were 7 secondary schools and 13 elementary schools, as well as vocational and Jewish schools.
In 1918, there was not a single school building in the city, and elementary schools were located in rented premises that did not meet the standards. In order to improve the situation in education, in the years 1924–1936, the City Council built six buildings in the city at the cost of PLN 2.5 million (at Chłopickiego, Narutowicza, Olsztyńska, and Washington Streets, in the Narutowicza Park, on Last Groszu and Stradom), and in 1937 –1939 two more at the cost of almost PLN 0.5 million. Due to lack of time and then the outbreak of war, the next six were not realized.
In 1919, about 7,000 students attended 14 elementary schools, which constituted half of those of school age. In 1936, there were 34 elementary schools in the city, including 21 public schools, which were attended by about 15,000 students, i.e. about 87% of children. There were 303 classes in public schools, which held classes in 193 rooms. Despite the shortage of classrooms, some of the classes had to be held in other buildings, often far from each other.
At that time, there were 8 elementary secondary schools, 3 of which were public, and 16 vocational schools. Moreover, in the years 1935–1936, the Common University with 160 students functioned in the city.
During the Nazi occupation, secondary education was liquidated and public education was significantly limited. In addition, some school buildings were occupied for the needs of barracks. In the later period of the occupation, some teachers were arrested and placed in concentration camps, and the equipment of most schools was destroyed.
After the city was liberated from the occupation, the reconstruction of the school system began. In 1945, 17 state primary schools and 3 religious schools were opened; the latter were dismantled in 1949 and 1953. Of these 17 schools, only 10 had school buildings. In 1947, there were already 24 primary schools, in 1948/49 - 30, in 1956/57 - 33, and in 1960/61 - 36. In 1952, the first school building after the war was built. In 1956/57, a total of 99.3% of children complied with compulsory schooling.
The most famous sports clubs operating (currently or in the past) in
Częstochowa are: the volleyball club AZS Częstochowa (six-time Polish
champion), the speedway club Włókniarz Częstochowa (four-time Polish
champion) and the football club Raków Częstochowa (Polish champion,
two-time Polish vice-champion, winner of the Polish Cup and Polish Super
Cup). Other clubs operating in the city include: Budowlani Częstochowa
(athletics), Norwid Częstochowa, Eco-Team AZS Stoelzle Częstochowa (both
men's volleyball), Częstochowianka Częstochowa (women's volleyball),
Skra Częstochowa (men's and women's football), Gol Częstochowa ( women's
soccer). AZS UJD Częstochowa and AZS Politechnika Częstochowska clubs
operate at universities.
The main sports facilities in Częstochowa are:
Arena Częstochowa - a speedway stadium in the Zawodzie-Dąbie district with stands for 16,850 people.
Hala Sportowa Częstochowa — a sports and entertainment hall opened in 2012. The stands have 7,100 seats, of which about 5,900 seats are in permanent stands. The facility hosted, among others, matches of the 2015 Volleyball World League and the final tournament of the 2018 Volleyball Club World Championship.
Hala Polonia — a sports and entertainment hall located in the Tysiąclecie district with 1,165 stationary seats and 440 seats on fold-out stands.
Municipal Football Stadium "Raków" - municipal football stadium with stands for 5,500 people.
Municipal Athletics Stadium in Częstochowa - an athletics stadium with a roofed stand with 894 seats.
Częstochowa is a city with poviat rights. The inhabitants of
Częstochowa elect 28 councilors to their city council. The president of
the city is the executive body of the authorities. The seat of the city
authorities is the Częstochowa City Hall at ul. Śląska 11/13. The city
is home to many offices and institutions of regional importance. There
is, among others, the starosty of the land district of Częstochowa.
The inhabitants of Częstochowa elect deputies in the 28th district, and senators in the 69th district.
Administrative division of the city
The area of Częstochowa is divided into 20 auxiliary units of the city called districts. The inhabitants of each auxiliary unit elect the district council, which is its legislative body. The executive body of the district is the management board, headed by a chairman who represents the district outside.
Roman Catholic Church: the cathedral, the Jasna Góra monastery,
numerous monasteries and parishes
Polish Autocephalous Orthodox Church: Church of the Częstochowa Icon of the Mother of God (parish)
Old Catholic Churches:
Polish Catholic Church in Poland: Cathedral of Our Lady Queen of the Apostles (diocesan and parish church)
The Old Catholic Mariavite Church, the faithful belong to the parish of Our Lady of Perpetual Help in Starcza
Seventh-day Adventist Church: the church in Częstochowa
Church of God in Poland: Church of the Full Gospel in Częstochowa, Church of God "Eden" in Częstochowa
Baptist Church: Well Church
Church of Christians of Evangelical Faith: Community of Christians in Częstochowa
Christian Church "Word of Faith": the church in Częstochowa
Church of Glory: Church of Glory in Czestochowa
Christian Church in Częstochowa
Evangelical-Augsburg Church in Poland: parish in Częstochowa
Church of Free Christians: the church in Częstochowa
The Pentecostal Church in Poland: the "Shoreline" congregation, the OdNowa congregation
Messianic Assemblies of God (Seventh Day): mission point in Częstochowa (subordinate to the church in Bytom)
Jehovah's Witnesses: 7 congregations (including Ukrainian-speaking and Russian-speaking groups), 2 Kingdom Halls
Diamond Way Buddhist Association of the Karma Kagyu Lineage: center in Częstochowa