Poznań, Capital City of Poznań (German Posen, Latin Posnania, Yiddish ‏פּױזן Pojzn‎) - a city with county rights in western Poland, located in the Wielkopolska Lake District, on the Warta River, at the mouth of the Cybina River. The historical capital of Wielkopolska, since 1999 the seat of the authorities of the Wielkopolska voivodship and the Poznań district.

The fifth most populous city in Poland (546,859 inhabitants in December 2021) and the eighth largest in terms of area (261.9 km²). Poznań together with the Poznań district and the communes of Oborniki, Skoki, Szamotuły and Śrem form the Poznań agglomeration, inhabited by over 1.2 million people. In 2018, the think tank Globalization and World Cities (GaWC), which studies the mutual relations between the cities of the world in the context of globalization, recognized Poznań as a global metropolis (Gamma-). Poznań is often ranked among the top cities with a very high quality of education and a very high standard of living. It also ranks high in terms of safety and quality of healthcare. The city of Poznań has also won the "Superbrands" award many times for the city's brand of very high quality.

The city is an important road and railway junction, there is also the Poznań-Ławica international airport. Poznań is a center of industry, trade, logistics and tourism. The Poznań International Fair - the largest and oldest exhibition center in Poland - operates here. Poznań is an academic, scientific and cultural center. Over 110,000 students study at 25 universities. people. Opera, philharmonic, ballet, theaters, cinemas, museums, art galleries, orchestras and folklore ensembles operate here. The International Violin Competition named after him takes place in Poznań every five years. Henryk Wieniawski – the oldest violin competition in the world. Poznań is also the seat of the Stuligrosz Choir, the Institute for Western Affairs and the highest tactical command of the US Army in Europe. In the astrogeodynamic observatory near Poznań, as the only one in Poland, the European Galileo localization system is co-created.

Poznań was one of the capital and religious centers of the Piast state in the 10th and 11th centuries, in the past it served as the seat of Polish rulers, and was also one of the most developed fortresses in Poland at that time. Poznań was also the capital of Poland in the years 1290–1296. It is one of the oldest chartered cities in Poland - it was granted city rights in 1253. The city had the right to actively participate in the act of electing the king. In the Poznań cathedral there is a symbolic tomb of the first rulers of Poland - Mieszko I and Bolesław I the Brave. On the island of Ostrów Tumski, there is the seat of the curia of the Archdiocese of Poznań - the oldest in Poland, and the second oldest university in Poland. The capital of Greater Poland was one of the royal cities of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland. The meeting place of the election assemblies of the Poznań Voivodship from the 16th century to the first half of the 18th century. Shows of the nobility of the Poznań Voivodship of the First Republic took place near Poznań. In 2008, the complex of the oldest districts of the city was declared a monument of history.

Five Greater Poland uprisings are associated with Poznań: from 1794, from 1806, from 1846, from 1848 and from the years 1918-1919. Two of them (from 1806 and from 1918–1919) ended with a complete victory of Poles and are included, along with the Sejny Uprising of 1919 and two Silesian Uprisings of 1920 and 1921, among the five victorious national uprisings in the history of Poland. The victory of 1806 had a direct impact on the creation of the Duchy of Warsaw, while the period between the victorious Greater Poland uprisings is described in the series: The Longest War of Modern Europe. By virtue of the peace signed in the same year in Poznań, Saxony became a kingdom.

The 14th Wielkopolska Infantry Division from Poznań received the Virtuti Militari order for fighting in the Polish-Bolshevik war. Thanks to the work of cryptologists from Poznań, the cipher of the German Enigma encryption machine was worked out. The first and only uprising of the communist period (Poznań June 1956), which was the main cause of the Hungarian uprising of 1956, also took place in Poznań.

Poznań is the only city mentioned in the words of the Polish national anthem. The patrons of the city of Poznań are the apostles Peter and Paul, saints of the Catholic Church. The city's festival, as the day of its patrons, is celebrated on June 29.



Poznań is in fourth place in terms of visits by tourists city in Poland. In 2012, a total of 621.8 thousand people used the registered accommodation facilities here. tourists, including from abroad - 175.0 thous. people.

The study of tourist traffic shows that approx. 38% of tourists come to the city for business purposes - these people participate in fairs, conferences, business meetings and trainings. The next largest group is made up of tourists visiting Poznań for sightseeing, rest and recreation - they account for approx. 30-35% of the tourist traffic.

At the end of July 2012, there were 154 all-year-round accommodation establishments (including 77 hotels) in Poznań and the Poznań poviat. They had a total of 11.7 thousand. beds (in hotels - 7.7 thousand places).

There are 6 tourist information points in Poznań (e.g. at the railway station, airport and at the fair). In addition, 7 tourist multimedia infokiosks have been installed in the city.


Tourist attractions

The following tourist routes run through Poznań: the Royal-Imperial Route, the Piast Route, the Romanesque Route, the Kórnicka Route and the Greater Poland Way of St. Jacob. Around the city, the so-called The Bicycle Ring Around Poznań, connected with the center by seven access routes.

A new product of cultural tourism is being implemented in the city - the Royal-Imperial Route - leading through places associated with rulers (kings and emperors). The route was designed to show changes in the architecture and development of Poznań over the centuries. The route is marked along its entire length - both for pedestrians and those traveling by tram (tram line No. 17 has been adapted to serve tourist traffic on this route).

The main promenade leading to the Old Town is Półwiejska Street. The Stary Browar shopping and art center is located there, recognized in 2008 by the International Council of Shopping Centers (ICSC) as "the best shopping center in the world".

In the Old Market Square you can find a model example of Renaissance architecture - the town hall with two goats butting each other on its tower. From the town hall tower, daily at At 12.00 the bugle call of Poznań is played on the trumpet.

Other interesting buildings on the market include: building houses, the city scales, or the guardhouse. Another valuable monument is the Baroque parish church and the former Jesuit college complex adjacent to it. On the hill above the Old Market Square there is the Royal Castle with a fragment of defensive walls. Since 2011, the reconstruction of the historic complex has been underway. The building will be open to visitors in the summer of 2015. On the top of the castle tower there will be two viewing terraces (covered lower and open upper), from which you will be able to see the panorama of the Old Town.

The oldest part of Poznań is Ostrów Tumski, which used to be one of the centers of power of the Polish state. There is the oldest cathedral in the country, which is the burial place of the first Polish rulers and the alleged baptismal place of Poland. On the island, archaeologists discovered the remains of a ducal palas from the 10th century and the Dąbrówka chapel. In 2012, the "Genius Loci" Archaeological Reserve was opened there, where you can see e.g. the only surviving fragment of the 10th-century defensive rampart in the world (the rampart of Mieszko I's stronghold).

In 2014, the construction of the ICHOT "Brama Poznania" center was completed, which was built in Poznań's Śródka, on the banks of the Warta River. It is a multimedia museum presenting the virtually created past of the city on Ostrów Tumski and over a thousand years of history of the Polish state.

In the city, you can see numerous historic churches, Art Nouveau tenement houses, monuments, as well as monumental buildings of the former Imperial District erected around the Wieniawski Park - e.g. The Imperial Castle, Aula and Collegium Minus UAM and the opera. Two zoological gardens (Old and New Zoo), a botanical garden, Wilson Park with a palm house and other historic parks open their doors to those who want to commune with nature.

To this day, 15 forts erected by the Germans in the 19th century have survived in Poznań. They are a remnant of the fortification system of the former Poznań Fortress. Currently, tourists can visit three facilities - Fort Va at ul. Lechicka, Fort III in the New Zoo in Malta and Fort VII, where the Museum of Martyrdom of Wielkopolska Citizens functions. Historical reenactments commemorating the liberation of Poznań are held every year on the site of the former Fort Winiary. This outdoor spectacle is organized with the participation of dozens of reconstruction groups from all over the country.

In the spring of 2013, the presidential anti-nuclear shelter from the 1960s was made available to visitors. This facility, belonging to the Wielkopolska Museum of Independence Struggles, is located in Krzyżowniki in Poznań.

In the northern part of Poznań, you can visit the nature reserve Meteoryt Morasko. There are 7 craters formed as a result of the fall of meteorites (the largest of them has a diameter of 85-95 m). It is also home to rare varieties of plants and animals.

The showpiece of the city are the recreational areas around Lake Maltańskie. In addition to numerous bicycle and walking routes around the regatta course, there are, among others, the year-round Malta Ski ski slope built on the Wolności Mound, the mini-golf course, Bula Park, 2 rope parks (Pyrland Park and Explorer Park), the year-round Adrenaline roller coaster, zoo (New Zoo), Termy Maltańskie water park (aqua park, sports pools, sauna complex and Spa centre), Galeria Malta shopping center as well as playgrounds and food outlets. In the summer season, an illuminated fountain gushing to a height of 60 m floats on the reservoir, the narrow-gauge train Maltanka runs along the northern shore of the lake, and there is a summer toboggan run, a summer cinema and a swimming pool at the ski slope. In winter, on the side of ul. John Paul II, there is an indoor ice rink.

In Poznań, there are also monuments of industrial architecture (e.g. Stary Browar, Stara Gazownia or Stara Rzeźnia) and modern sports facilities (e.g. the Municipal Football Stadium, the Malta regatta track, a complex of sports swimming pools in Termy Maltańskie, and the racing track Poznań). You can also visit the oldest and at the same time the largest exhibition center in Poland - the Poznań International Fair.

In the summer season, historic vehicles run around the city - the Konstal N tourist tram on line No. 0 and the Jelcz 043 (so-called "cucumber") tourist buses, Jelcz PR110, Ikarus 280, Ikarus 260 and DAF MB200 on line No. 100. Those interested can also use from sightseeing flights over Poznań in the An-2 plane. The popular "Antek" takes off from the airport of the Poznań Aeroclub in Kobylnica.

Every year, numerous festivals and fairs are held in Poznań, attended by crowds of residents and tourists. The events that are permanently included in the calendar include: Kaziuk (March), Ułana Days (April), St. (September), Franciscan Fair (September), Bread Festival (September), Name Day of Święty Marcin Street (November) and Poznań Bethlehem (December).

Numerous attractions await tourists in the communes near Poznań. These include, among others: Cascader Park rope park in Kobylnica, Moto-Armia base in Golęczewo (rides with armored military equipment around the training ground), open-air museum of miniatures of the Piast Route and a reconstructed wooden fortress from the early Middle Ages in Pobiedziska, a palace complex in Rogalin ( a palace, a coach house, a painting gallery, a park with the famous "Rogalin oaks"), a castle complex in Kórnik (castle, outbuildings, a coach house, the largest arboretum in Poland), Wielkopolska Ethnographic Park in Dziekanowice, Zielonka Forest Landscape Park with a lookout tower on Dziewicza Góra, The Spatial Orientation Park in Owińska, the Wielkopolski National Park, the National Museum of Agriculture and Agricultural and Food Industry in Szreniawa with its branches - the Museum of Nature and Hunting in Uzarzewo and the Open Air Museum and Beekeeping Museum in Swarzędz, as well as historic churches, including wooden buildings (built between thirteenth and nineteenth centuries).




Poznań is located in central-western Poland, in the central part of the Greater Poland Voivodeship. The city is located in the area of three physiographic mesoregions: the western part in the Poznań Lake District, the eastern part in the Wrzesińska Plain, and the oldest part of the city is located at the bottom of the Poznań Warta Gorge, oriented along the north-south axis. These three areas are parts of the Pojezierze Wielkopolskie macroregion.

Poznań is located in the valley of the Warta River, as well as in the valleys of smaller watercourses: Bogdanka, Cybina and Główna.

According to data from January 1, 2012, the area of the city is 261.91 km². The extent of Poznań's administrative borders on the north-south axis is approx. 22 km, and on the east-west axis approx. 21 km.

Poznań is the central part of the Poznań agglomeration. The city borders 11 communes of the Poznań district, including two cities - Luboń and Swarzędz.


Terrain and geology

Over 56% of the area of Poznań is located in upland areas, located above 80 m above sea level. – about 36% of the area on higher river terraces and within glacial channels, and about 8% on the floodplain of the Warta valley. The highest point in the city is Góra Moraska (154 m above sea level), which is located in its northern part. The lowest situated area is the Warta valley (50 m above sea level). The area of Poznań and its vicinity is characterized by a relief of summer, petrified origin.

Most of the city's area is covered with layers of glacial formations of the ablative and bottom moraine of the Poznań Stadial of the Baltic Glaciation. They are mostly sandy loams or glacial sands, which is why sandy and clay-sandy soils predominate in the Poznań region. Tertiary clays of the Poznań facies (the so-called Poznań clays) occur on the surface only on the lower terraces of the Warta valley.


Water relations

Poznań is located in the catchment area of the Warta River and its tributaries: Bogdanka, Cybina, Główna, Głuszynka-Kopla, Strumień Junikowski and Różany Potok.

The city has several larger lakes and several dozen smaller water reservoirs, both of natural origin and created artificially in recreational areas. Natural glacial lakes are Kierskie and Strzeszyńskie, while the largest artificial reservoirs are:
Rusalka in the Bogdanka valley;
Maltańskie Lake on the Cybina River;
Olszak pond;
Browarny Pond;
Mill Pond (Antoninek)
Antoninek pond;
Kajka pond in the catchment area of the Główna river
Baczkowski Pond;
Pond Spilled;
Old Baba;
Pond Kachlarski;
and Głęboki Dół in the valley of the Junikowski Stream.

Several smaller reservoirs also exist in the catchments of the Czapnica and Różany Potok streams, as well as in Dębina. A large number of ponds are also located in park areas (e.g. in Park Sołacki or in the New Zoo).

In the area of Poznań, the hydrographic network was strongly changed. Not only was the number of Warta branches reduced, but also small watercourses were filled in, and some, such as the lower course of the Bogdanka, Seganka or Wierzbak, were introduced into the municipal sewage system. Despite this, the bottoms of the valleys of these tributaries are still wedges of greenery.

There are rich resources of groundwater in the Tertiary and Quaternary layers in Poznań. These include the Wielkopolska Kopalna Valley, which is a strategic reservoir of drinking water. Thermal artesian waters with a temperature of 45-51 °C were also found at depths of 1100-1300 m, and mineral-rich thermal waters with a temperature of 150 °C at a depth of 4000 m.



Poznań is dominated by the influence of polar sea air masses coming from the Atlantic Ocean. Polar-continental and tropical air masses are much less important. In the area of Poznań, westerly winds with speeds from 2 to 10 m/s are the most common. The Poznań region is one of the areas with the lowest precipitation in Poland. On the basis of data from the years 1971–2000, it was calculated that the average annual amount of precipitation is 634 mm, with the highest average monthly precipitation in July (76 mm). The lowest average monthly air temperature in Poznań is −1.0 °C for January. The highest average monthly air temperature is 18.2 ° C for July.


Green areas

The natural system of the city is based on a ring-radial arrangement of green areas in the form of wedges, extending from the center towards the periphery. There are five wedges of green:
the eastern one in the Cybina Valley, starting with a recreational complex on Maltańskie Lake;
the western one in the Bogdanka Valley, starting with Park Sołacki and Wodziczki;
northern in the Warta Valley, starting near Szeląg;
southern in the Warta Valley, starting with sports and recreation areas south of ul. Queen Jadwiga;
south-west, which includes a forest complex on the outskirts of the city with Lasek Marceliński, allotment gardens and greenery at the Junikowski Cemetery, as well as greenery located along the streams of Stream Junikowski and Górczynka, as well as on the so-called Shafts.

The system of wedges is supplemented by a ring system of green areas, which consists of park complexes in the belt of so-called plantations (Ring Stübben) and greenery located in the ring of forts. The keystone of the city's wedge-shaped system is the Citadel Park, near which three of them start (eastern, western and northern).

Meadows and pastures cover an area of 645 hectares, while parks and green areas cover an area of 552 hectares. Green areas cover a total of over 70 km², which is 27% of the city's area.



In 2013, there were 4,121 ha of forest areas in Poznań (15.8% of the city's area), of which 2,467 ha were municipal forests. Forest resources are co-created by e.g. 23 wilderness areas, 4 viewpoints and 84 km of recreational roads and paths.


Nature conservation

In order to protect the most valuable natural sites, two nature reserves have been established in the city: Morasko Meteorite and Żurawiniec, three nature and landscape complexes: "Morasko", "Michałówka" and "Głuszyna", and the Cybiny Valley protected landscape area. In addition, the local government created ecological grounds: Fort V, Wilczy Młyn, Główna, Olszak I, Traszki Ratajskie, ecological grounds "Bogdanka I" and "Bogdanka II" and Strzeszyn. Due to the occurrence of bat habitats, the historic fortifications of the Poznań Fortress have been protected under the Natura 2000 Network. Within the administrative borders of the city there are also fragments of larger areas covered by the Natura 2000 Network - Biedrusko and Dolina Samicy.

There is also a national park and three landscape parks in the vicinity of Poznań: Puszcza Zielonka, Promno and Rogaliński Landscape Park.


Getting here

Poznan is an important transport hub in western Poland.

By plane
Poznan-Ławica Airport (IATA: POZ) “Henryk Wieniawski” is located about 7km west of the city center. It can be reached daily with Lufthansa from Munich and Frankfurt am Main. The Polish Lot offers several daily connections with Warsaw, SAS flies daily from/to Copenhagen. Otherwise, the low-cost airlines Ryanair and Wizzair are mainly represented. fly to/from London (Luton or Stansted) and seasonal charters to holiday destinations around the Mediterranean.

The public transport direct bus line L runs about every 45 minutes from the airport to the main station and back. In addition, bus lines 45 and 59 also run from the airport to the city.

By train
From Berlin there is a direct Eurocity connection to Poznań five times a day. The journey from Berlin takes 2:45 hours, from Frankfurt (Oder) 1:40 hours. Coming from the rest of Germany, Switzerland or western Austria, the journey usually goes via Berlin. Coming from Vienna, on the other hand, you can get to Poznań by changing trains in Katowice. From the south-west of Germany, the Euronight (Paris–Moscow line) is also an option, you can board in Karlsruhe or Frankfurt a.M. (South), but it only runs once a week (Thursday there, Wednesday back).

Within Poland, you can reach Poznań six times a day with IC/EC/EIC from Warsaw (a good 3½ hours) and four times with the slightly slower TLK (3:50 hours). From Szczecin you can get to Poznań about every hour with IC or TLK in 2:15 to 2½ hours. There are also IC or TLK connections from Wroclaw almost every hour (around 2½ hours). An EC, IC or TLK runs ten times a day from Gdansk directly to Poznań (3-3½ hours), the route leads via Bydgoszcz (about 1½ hours). From Katowice there are daily new IC or TLK connections (4 to over 5 hours). An IC runs six times a day from Kraków to Poznań (6–6½ hours), four of which also stop in Lodz (around 3½ hours). There is also a night train connection from south-eastern Poland (Przemyśl, Rzeszów, Tarnów, Kraków). TLK runs four times a day from Olsztyn (3 hours 45 minutes) via Toruń (1 hour 40 minutes) to Poznań. (Status: November 2018)

The main train station Poznań Główny is located just outside the city center, about 2km southwest of the Old Market. Numerous tram and bus lines stop in front of the station and behind it, allowing you to quickly get to the old town or other parts of the city.

Regional trains stop z. T. also at other stations in the city, for example at Poznań Garbary station, which is closer to the old town than the main train station (1 km north of the Old Market).

By bus
Long-distance buses can be used to travel from Berlin, Prague and numerous Polish cities such as Warsaw, Gdansk and Wroclaw. Flixbus also offers the Berlin-Posen connection. The bus station is directly east of the main train station.

In the street
The German Autobahn A12 (Berlin–Frankfurt (Oder)) continues on the Polish side as the Autostrada A2 (European route E30) to Poznań. For the 270 km from Berlin, with undisturbed traffic, a little more than three hours can be expected. Ride-sharing opportunities (e.g. via Blablacar) are often offered on this route. Coming from northern Germany, there is the alternative option of driving on the A20 and A11 to Stettin. From there, the expressway S3 (E65), which is similar to a motorway, leads to Jordanowo, where there is a connection to the A2 to Poznań.

To the east, the A2 motorway connects Poznań with Lodz and Warsaw. Well-developed trunk roads also connect Poznań with Wroclaw, Bydgoszcz, Gdansk (5), Katowice and Koszalin (11).

By boat
The Warthe is a navigable waterway.

By bicycle
The European long-distance cycle routes EuroVelo 2 ("Capital Route", Berlin-Poznan-Warsaw, continuation of the European Cycle Route R1) and EuroVelo 9 ("Baltic-Adriatic Route", Gdansk-Poznan-Wroclaw-Brno-Vienna, route in expansion) lead through Poznań ).

On foot
Poznan is on the E11 European long-distance path (Berlin-Frankfurt (Oder)-Poznan-Olsztyn-Masuria) and on a Polish branch of the Way of St. James that connects with Görlitz (via Głogów and Bolesławiec).


Local transport

There are 19 tram lines in Poznań, plus one night line. There are also numerous bus and night bus routes. Buses and trams are operated by the company ZTM.

Fares: There are three types of single tickets, valid for 15, 45 and 90 minutes, respectively, and costing 4, 6 and 8 PLN. There is also a 24-hour card (PLN 15) and a 7-day card (PLN 50). Seniors over the age of 70 can use public transport in Poznan free of charge.

Especially for tourists there is the Poznań City Card, which not only allows you to use public transport, but also gives you free entry to most museums. Depending on the period of validity, it costs PLN 30 (one day), PLN 40 (two days) or PLN 45 (3 days). Validity ends at midnight.

The historic old town center (within the former city wall), in which many sights are concentrated, has a diameter of only 700 meters - everything is within walking distance here. The Cathedral Island (1 km north-east of the old town) and the 19th-century district around Plac Wolności (formerly Wilhelmsplatz) immediately west of the old town can still be easily reached on foot.



City Name

The town has a medieval record and has been recorded since the 10th century. As a center of political life, Poznań is one of the first Polish cities recorded in history. Since at that time Latin was the language used by the educated part of society, these records are in Latinized form. The first known record is in the chronicle of Thietmar under the year 970 in the form of episcopus Posnaniensis (bishop of Poznań). In the same chronicle under the year 1005 we find the term ab urbe Posnani (from the city of Poznań). The city in the form of Poznań is recorded by Gallus Anonim in his Polish Chronicle written in the years 1112–1116.

Currently, linguists agree that the name Poznań derives from the Old Polish male name Poznan or Poznamir and originally meant the city of Pozan or Poznamir. It was created by adding the possessive suffix *-jь to the name of Poznan, which in pre-literate times merged with the preceding letter n, softening it to the modern ń.

While the explanation of the name is not a problem for scientists, the name Poznan itself is not entirely clear. Historical sources do not provide information about the person after whom the town on the Warta River was named. It is also not certain whether this Slavic name derived from the verb "to know" belongs to the so-called group of participle names, such as Miłowan and Biegan, or it was created as a shortening of a two-part name, e.g. Poznamir.

In order to preserve tradition, the name Stołeczne Miasto Poznań is used on ceremonial occasions.

As nominative Poznań appears in 1236 as Posnania and 1247 as Poznań. In addition, there are records from 1146 and 1244 in the form in Poznań, which allow us to conclude that the name Poznań has not changed over the centuries.



The city of Poznań has been associated with national liberation uprisings since 1794. They took place in the years: 1794, 1806, as well as 1846, 1848 and 1918–1919.

Two of them (from 1806 and from 1918–1919) ended with a complete victory of Poles and are included, along with the Sejny Uprising of 1919 and two Silesian Uprisings of 1920 and 1921, among the five victorious national uprisings in the history of Poland.

The victory of 1806 had a direct impact on the creation of the Duchy of Warsaw, while the period between the victorious Greater Poland uprisings is described in the series: The Longest War of Modern Europe. By virtue of the peace signed in the same year in Poznań, Saxony became a kingdom.

Poznań became the site of the only uprising in the People's Republic of Poland. Poznań June 1956 was the main cause of the Hungarian uprising of 1956.


The times of the Piasts

Originally, the city was located on the banks of the Cybina River and the right bank of the Warta River. At that time, a pagan temple and a duke's castle stood there on a nearby hill. Poznań is also associated with the beginnings of Polish statehood. It is one of the hypothetical places where Mieszko I was baptized in 966. In 968, Jordan, the first bishop of Poland, placed his seat here, in the first Polish cathedral, where the graves of the first Polish rulers are located. During the reign of Bolesław I the Brave, it was also a stronghold of very important military importance. Gallus Anonymous in his Chronicle of Poland written in the years 1112–1116, in a fragment describing Polish combat forces deployed in individual strongholds, notes that Bolesław had "1,300 armored men and 4,000 shield bearers" in Poznań. The city functioned as the capital city until 1039, when it was burnt down by Brzetysław I along with other cities of Greater Poland and Silesia. Although Poznań lost its political importance, it still remained a thriving economic center. The next period of prosperity falls on the time of the division of districts, when the stronghold on Ostrów Tumski became the capital of the Greater Poland line of the Piast dynasty. In 1231, Władysław Odonic located the right-bank market settlement of Śródka under German law. It was the first city location in Wielkopolska (Gniezno in 1239, Powidz in 1243, Lądek in 1250). Odonic's sons, princes Przemysł I and Bolesław the Pious, having far-reaching plans for the restitution of the kingdom, in 1253 made the second city location on the left bank of the Warta river under Magdeburg law. The work initiated by his grandfather and father was continued by Przemysł II, who was the first ruler in 200 years to be crowned king of Poland in Gniezno (1295), and he chose the new left-bank city of Poznań as his seat. His father's ducal castle on Przemysł Hill became his residence. After the tragic death of the king (1296), the development of the city stagnated for almost a century. Remains of the city walls can still be found today.


The times of the Jagiellons and the First Polish Republic

Another successful period in the history of Poznań came after the accession to the throne of Władysław II Jagiełło (1386). The opening of the route connecting Lithuania with Europe and the closure of Gdańsk for Polish goods meant that Poznań became a junction where trade routes intersected. Poznań obtained the right of warehouse in 1394. Over time, a network of competing towns developed around the city, belonging mainly to the clergy and the nobility, creating a thriving conurbation together with Poznań.

The city was located in 1580 in the Poznań district of the Poznań Voivodship.

The favorable conditions for the development of the town, lasting several hundred years, were interrupted in 1655 by the Swedish Deluge. In the short period of peace that followed, Poznań tried to recover, but subsequent military conflicts, such as the Great Northern War, the War of the Polish Succession, the Seven Years' War and the Bar Confederation, left the city ravaged by various armies. Hope for peace was brought only by the election of Stanisław August Poniatowski, but also at the beginning of his reign, Barzans fought for the city with Prussian and then Russian troops, which left the city only in 1775.

The next few years are another period of prosperity, related to the activities of the commission of good order and the reforms of the Four-Year Sejm. However, they were thwarted by the Targowica Confederation and the Second Partition of Poland, as a result of which Poznań came under Prussian rule.


The period of partitions

In the first period of the Prussian rule, the new authorities integrated the conurbation into one urban organism and created the basis for the expansion of Poznań towards the west. The defeat of Prussia and the victorious uprising in 1806 made Poznań one of the main cities of the Duchy of Warsaw. However, the ongoing Napoleonic wars were not conducive to the development of the city. After Napoleon's defeat, as a result of the decisions of the Congress of Vienna, Poznań found itself under Prussian rule again in 1815, this time as the capital of the autonomous Grand Duchy of Poznań. In the same year, the city becomes the capital of the Poznań Regierungs in the Province of Poznań, and three years later, the city poviat (Stadtkreis). In the new post-congress order, Poznań became a front city for Prussia. In 1828, the authorities established a fortress in the city to protect Prussia against an attack from the east. The decision to fortify Poznań directed its development until the end of the 19th century. The fortifications built around the city did not allow for spatial development, and numerous areas inside the walls were reserved for military purposes (barracks, maneuvering areas, artillery depots). Despite the formal autonomy of the region, Prussian policy led to the displacement of the Polish population of Poznań and Wielkopolska from social and economic life. An expression of the dissatisfaction of the Polish community was the support of the November Uprising in 1830 and the armed uprisings of 1846 and 1848. As a result, the Prussian authorities first drastically limited the autonomy and then in 1848 completely abolished it. Poznań became the capital of the province.

The inability to fight the invader by force led to the emergence of a new type of resistance: organic work. In order to counteract their exclusion from social life, Poles began to organize themselves. Organizations were established to cultivate Polishness or to develop science. Modern public institutions were created from a private or social foundation, which the Prussian authorities could not provide or deliberately limited Poles' access to. In the years 1822–1828, the first public library in the territories of the Prussian partition was founded by Count Edward Raczyński. Then, in the years 1838–1842, the Bazar Joint Stock Company, established by Poles, built a hotel that was the center of Polish social and cultural life in Poznań. In the absence of higher education in the city, in 1857 the Polish elite established the Poznań Society of Friends of Science, conducting scientific research, among others, on the history of Poland. Due to restrictions on staging Polish plays at the Municipal Theater in 1875, after many years of efforts, the Polish Theater was built with contributions.


The Second World War

During World War II, Poznań was incorporated into the Third Reich within the borders of the so-called Greater Poland. Wartheland. Most of the Poles were displaced from the city to the General Government, and in return Germans were brought in as part of the Heim ins Reich colonization action.

Politically inconvenient Poles were tortured and murdered in the Gestapo torture chambers at ul. Młyńska (death sentences were carried out by guillotining and hanging there) and the "Soldier's House" (in 1944, the personal secretary of the Reich Governor Greiser, who was arrested after he stated that Germany would lose the war, and several Italian generals and American prisoners of war also stayed there) at . Ritterstrasse 21. There were also several German labor camps for Jews from Poland and Germany around Poznań, e.g. in Krzesiny (approx. 10,000 prisoners), Smochowice (approx. 2,000 people, then transported to the camp in Krzesiny-Piotrow), Dębiec (approx. 2,000 people transported to Auschwitz). In the period 1940-1945, there were also about 7,000 prisoners of war in the POW camp in Poznań's Junikowo. French, British and Soviet soldiers. During the German occupation, Polish underground organizations were also active in Poznań and Wielkopolska, conducting sabotage, intelligence and sabotage activities, e.g. ZWZ-AK, Peasant Battalions and GL/AL.

In the years 1940–1942, the surrounding villages such as Antoninek, Kobylepole, Chartowo, Żegrze, Szczepankowo, Spławie, Głuszyna, Marlewo, Minikowo, Fabianowo, Kotowo, Junikowo, Ławica, Smochowice, Krzyżowniki, Psarskie, Strzeszyn, Podolany and Naramowice were incorporated into Poznań. It was the largest expansion of the city in its entire history. A total of 15,278.99 ha were connected, which doubled the area of Poznań.

In January and February 1945, heavy fighting took place over Poznań (especially for the Poznań Citadel) between the Red Army and German forces. The defense of the city transformed into a fortress was commanded by General Ernst Gonell. The Russians attacking the city (detachments of the 8th Guards Army commanded by General Vasily Chuikov) were helped by the inhabitants of Poznań, the so-called Citadel men, who delivered ammunition, helped in the construction of crossings over the moat in Fort Winiary. The city was captured on February 23, 1945. War damage reached 55%. The old part of the city and most of the historic buildings, equipment of water and sewage plants, gasworks, power plants and industrial networks were almost completely destroyed. All bridges (with the exception of the Dworcowy Bridge) were torn down, and public and railway transport facilities were seriously damaged. Other historic residential districts, such as: Jeżyce, Łazarz, Wilda, Sołacz, were not damaged.


Architecture and urban planning

The natural conditions of the catchment areas of the Warta and Cybina rivers were the main factor shaping the functional and spatial structure. In the Middle Ages, the fortified princely city of Poznań was located in Ostrów Tumski. In 1253, Poznań was located in a different place, on the western bank of the Warta River, where currently about 60% of the potential of the modern city, the medieval Old Town and the 19th-century downtown are located. The eastern part of Poznań was incorporated into the city limits after 1900.

In 2008, Poznań - the historic complex of the city - was recognized as a monument of history. It covers the Old Town and the area north of Królowej Jadwigi Street and Towarowa Street, south of Północna Street, between the railway line and the Warta River, as well as the southern part of Ostrów Tumski, Zagórze and Fort Winiary (Park Cytadela).

The area of the city is separated by the valley of the Warta River. In Poznań, 7 road bridges and 3 railway bridges were built over the Warta River, and 2 road and 2 railway bridges over the Cybina River.

The tallest skyscraper in the city is Collegium Altum with 22 floors and a total height including the mast of 103.35 m. The building serves as an educational center for the University of Economics.

In Poznań, there is a system of fortifications built in the 19th and early 20th centuries, called the Poznań Fortress, which is the third largest system of this type in Europe. 15 out of 18 forts and a number of supporting structures, located in a ring with a diameter of 9.5 km and a circumference of 30 km, have been preserved. There are also several relics of a polygonal fortress from the beginning of the 19th century in the city. nineteenth century, which left a permanent mark in the form of the layout of streets and city parks.



Poznań is one of the largest economic centers in the country. It is an important center of industry, trade, logistics and business tourism.


Macroeconomic picture

In 2011, the value of the gross domestic product (GDP) generated in Poznań amounted to PLN 42.1 billion, which was the fifth result in the country, after Warsaw (204.1 billion), Kraków (45.6 billion), the Katowice subregion (42.8 billion ) and Tricity (42.5 billion). This value is greater than the value of GDP, e.g. Wrocław (38.1 billion), Łódź (35.4 billion) or Szczecin (19.6 billion). In 2011, Poznań generated 2.8% of Poland's GDP, which at the same time accounted for 29.5% of GDP generated in the Wielkopolskie Voivodship. In 2017, the value of GDP generated in Poznań amounted to PLN 55.8 billion, which accounted for 2.8% of Poland's GDP.

The unemployment rate in Poznań is the lowest in the country. At the end of April 2022, the unemployment rate in the city was 1.4% (4,800 unemployed people); the same ratio was recorded in the Poznań poviat - 1.4% (2.9 thousand unemployed people). A similarly low level of unemployment was found only in Sopot (1.7%) and Wrocław (also 1.7%).

In 2005, the city was among the most attractive places to invest in Poland. According to information provided by investors, it is estimated that the value of accumulated direct foreign investments in Poznań in the years 1990–2010 amounted to USD 6.6 billion.

The city's budget in 2013 closed with revenues of approximately PLN 2.66 billion (2,664 million) and expenses of approximately PLN 2.69 billion (2,693 million). The budget deficit amounted to PLN 29 million. The city's debt at the end of the year amounted to approx. PLN 1.85 billion (PLN 1,849 million), which accounted for 69.41% of the city's income.

According to external assessments carried out by the rating agency Moody's Investors Service, in terms of credibility for investors, Poznań is slightly inferior to the much larger Warsaw. In March 2013, the city once again received an A3 rating with a stable forecast. It means that Poznań has a very high ability to meet its financial obligations, and this credibility should not change in the near future. In November 2013, Poznań received an A- rating from Fitch Ratings with a stable outlook corresponding to Poland's rating. This rating corresponds to the previously assigned Moody's A3 rating. The city's rating has remained unchanged since 2006.



At the end of 2012, there were 102,513 business entities registered in Poznań. 3,099 of them are commercial companies with foreign capital. Another 50,810 companies operated in the Poznań poviat, of which 947 were foreign entities[78]. According to the rankings, the largest enterprises include[79]:

Bridgestone - 2000 employees,
Poznań University of Technology - 2000 employees,
Municipal Transport Company - 2,500 employees,
University of Adam Mickiewicz - 5,000 employees,
Volkswagen - 11,000 employees,
Pekabex - 2000 employees,
Aluplast - 550 employees,
H. Cegielski – 500 employees,
Lisner - 1000 employees,
Allegro - 3,000 employees.


Trade fair center

Poznań is the oldest exhibition center in Poland. The Poznań Fair was established in 1921 on the model of the Leipzig fair. Eight years later, the largest exhibition of the interwar period in Poland - the General National Exhibition - took place there. It presented the achievements of the first decade of the country reborn after the partitions.

Currently, the Poznań International Fair is the largest fair center in the country and one of the largest in Europe. They have over 110,000 m² of exhibition space located in 16 pavilions and nearly 35 thousand. m² of exhibition space in the open area. Located in the very center of the city, the Fair has 23 hectares of exhibition area. According to the international ranking conducted by the German association of exhibition companies, MTP is ranked 42nd in the world and 30th in Europe (according to exhibition space in January 2012).

In 2014, 69 trade fair events were held on the premises of Międzynarodowe Targi Poznańskie, attended by 11.3 thousand people. exhibitors from 67 countries around the world. These events were visited by a total of 651,000 people. people.

Poznańskie Centrum Kongresowe (Poznań Congress Center) is located at Targi Poznańskie. The main building of the center is the three-level Pavilion 15 with an area of 13,000 sq. m. m². The largest of the rooms - the representative Earth Hall - can host 2,000 people at a time. people. PCC is adapted to organize congresses and events for over 11,000 people. participants. In 2014, 199 events were organized, attended by over half a million people from all over the world.



There are 5 national roads (including a motorway) and 7 provincial roads converge in Poznań. The Poznań Railway Junction, through which 8 railway lines run, is one of the largest and busiest in the country. The airport located in the city served nearly 2.5 million passengers in 2018.

Within the city, 44% of trips are made by public transport, 39% - by car, and 4% by bicycle (the highest rate in Poland).


Road transport

Five roads of national importance converge in the Poznań road junction: the S5 expressway, the S11 expressway, the A2 motorway with the national road 92 parallel to it, and the national road 32 ending its course in Stęszew near Poznań. The A2 motorway has the status of the E30 European route, while the S5 motorway has the status of the E261 route. Seven voivodeship roads also terminate in or near Poznań: No. 184 from Wronki, No. 194 from Gniezno (a fragment of the former road No. 5), No. 196 from Wągrowiec, No. 307 from Bukowiec, No. 311 from Czempiń and No. 430 from Mosins. In addition, the provincial road No. 433 runs through the city (former urban section of road No. 11 after the construction of the S11 expressway). Since December 1, 2011, Poznań has had a direct motorway connection with the countries of Western Europe, and since June 6, 2012 also with the capital of the country.

On June 4, 2012, the Eastern Bypass of Poznań was opened along the S5 expressway (from the "Poznań Wschód" junction to the "Gniezno Południe" junction). Since December 19, 2014, the Western Bypass of Poznań runs continuously (from the "Poznań Zachód" junction to the "Poznań Północ" junction). It is part of the S11 expressway.

The city's road system is based on a radial-ring system of streets. It consists of road rings called frames and radial exit streets from the center. In the process of shaping the urban structure of the city, three communication frames have developed. Currently, the first frame and the second frame exist in their entirety, and the third frame only fragmentarily. The first frame is located closest to the center and acts as its bypass. The second frame, on which most of the transit and intra-city traffic is based, is located on the outskirts of the city center, constituting its contractual border. The still non-existing III communication frame was conceived as a fast inner-city ring road, which would take over most of the inter-district traffic and heavy target traffic. Its construction was postponed due to the huge investment costs. The construction of a 36-kilometre-long, collision-free expressway surrounding the city was valued in 2008 at PLN 9.14 billion.

All public roads in Poznań, with the exception of the motorway and the expressway, are managed by the Municipal Roads Authority - a budgetary unit subordinated to the mayor of the city. This institution takes care of 1,927 streets with a total length of 1,040 km, of which 86.3% (898 km) have paved surfaces. National roads are 52 km long, provincial roads - 13 km, and poviat roads - 269 km. The rest are municipal roads with a total length of 706 km. ZDM also manages 136 engineering structures (20 bridges, 69 viaducts, 35 underground passages, 12 footbridges), nearly 46 thousand. lighting points and 567 km of rain water drainage system. This unit is also responsible for 304 traffic lights, most of which are connected to the Traffic Control Centre. The Poznań Paid Parking Zone has 9.4 thousand parking spaces. parking spaces serviced by 422 parking meters.

The urban section of the A2 motorway measuring 13 km (the so-called southern bypass of Poznań) is managed by Autostrada Wielkopolska on behalf of the State Treasury. Due to the increased traffic on the motorway bypass (exceeding 60,000 vehicles per day), it is planned to add a third lane in both directions. The extension of the route was made in 2019.

On the edge of the Kiekrz housing estate in Poznań, there is a section of the S11 expressway, managed by the General Directorate for National Roads and Motorways. It is crossed by the district road from Kobylniki to Sady without collisions and without the possibility of entry or exit.


Railway transport

The Poznań Railway Junction is one of the largest, busiest and most important in the country. 8 railway lines converge in the junction, leading in 9 directions: to Warsaw, Ostrów Wielkopolski, Wrocław, Wolsztyn, Berlin, Szczecin, Piła, Wągrowiec and Gniezno. Five of them are lines of state significance. In Poznań itself, there are 12 active stations and passenger stops. The PWK main track system is supplemented by a system of ring lines that allows freight trains to bypass the Poznań Główny station. In the eastern part of the city, on the railway bypass, there is the Poznań Franowo freight station, which is the second busiest marshalling yard in Poland. There are also 6 rail transhipment terminals in the Poznań area.

The central point of the junction is the Poznań Główny station, where most of the railway lines running through the city intersect. On average, 300 trains pass through it daily, and the station is used by about 17.2 million passengers annually. In mid-2012, a new station building was opened, located above the eastern platforms (1-3). It is part of the so-called integrated communication center, which (apart from the new railway station) consists of a bus terminal, parking lots for cars and bicycles and a large shopping mall. The combined stations will be used by approximately 24.5 million passengers annually.

Thanks to the convenient location of Poznań in the structure of the railway network, the inhabitants of the city have the possibility of direct access by long-distance trains to most of the major centers in the country. International trains to Berlin and Moscow stop in the capital of Wielkopolska, as well as the Moscow-Berlin-Paris train serviced by Russian Railways. A network of regional and agglomeration connections leads to Poznań, transporting the inhabitants of the voivodeship to work and school. During peak hours, these trains run every 30-60 minutes. Most regional trains are operated by Przewozy Regionalne. Trains on the Poznań-Gołańcz, Poznań-Wolsztyn and Zbąszynek-Poznań-Kutno routes are run by the local government company Koleje Wielkopolskie. In December 2012, an agglomeration ticket was introduced under the name "Bus-Tram-Railway - One Ticket", enabling the purchase of a joint season ticket for public transport and railway routes up to 30 km from Poznań.

The beginnings of the railways in Poznań date back to the first half of the 19th century. On August 10, 1848, the Stargard – Poznań railway line was launched, connecting the city with Szczecin and then with Berlin. Its final point was the Poznań Jeżyce railway station, which operated in the area of today's ul. Zwierzyniecka and Gajowa (currently the area of the Old Zoo). In 1879, the building was closed due to the construction of the Central Railway Station (later renamed Poznań Główny).


Air Transport

The city has an international airport, Poznań-Ławica. In March 2013, it was possible to fly from it to 25 airports located mainly in Western European countries. Additionally, in the summer season of 2013, charter planes departed from Poznań to 36 popular resorts. In 2012, Ławica served nearly 1.6 million passengers, thanks to which it was ranked 6th in Poland in terms of the volume of air traffic.

In the years 2011–2013, thanks to European funds, the Ławica Airport was expanded. Currently, it has a complex of passenger terminals capable of handling up to 3.5 million passengers a year. Regular passenger traffic checks in two passenger terminals: T2 - departures and T3 - arrivals. In addition, a separate General Aviation terminal operates in the old passenger terminal (T1). The airport also has a cargo cargo terminal. On Ławica there are two bases from which helicopters take off - the Polish Medical Air Rescue and the Aviation Section of the Provincial Police Headquarters in Poznań. The European Cirrus Aircraft Simulation Center has been established in the Aero Poznań training center operating at the T1 terminal. It is equipped with a flight simulator that simulates the conditions identical to real piloting of an aircraft. In the north-eastern part of the airport, the construction of a new 34-meter air traffic control tower with a radio communication center is underway.

The 31st Tactical Air Base, where F-16 fighters are stationed, is located in Krzesiny in Poznań.

In addition, there is a sports airport near Poznań. In Kobylnica there is a training center of the Poznań Aeroclub (Poznań-Kobylnica airport), and in Gądki there is a private Airport Biernat (Żerniki airstrip). In the commune of Pobiedziska (at the former military airport), the Poznań-Bednary airstrip was established.

The history of aviation in Poznań began over 100 years ago. On August 26, 1913, in Ławica near Poznań at that time, the official opening of the Poznań Air Station took place. It was a Prussian military airport to strengthen the IV Army Corps stationed in the city. On the area of about 300 ha, there was a grassy field of take-offs, next to which barracks, workshops and three halls that could accommodate 30 machines were erected. One of them was a plane named Poznań, funded as part of a public collection organized by the newspaper "Posener Tageblatt". In 1921, the first commercial passenger flights were launched from Poznań (to Gdańsk and Warsaw), which were operated by the "Aero-Targ" company.


Public collective transport

The basis of public transport in the city is 18 tram lines, supplemented by 50 regular bus lines and 65 suburban bus lines. At night, public transport is based on 24 bus lines and one tram line. Most night lines run every 30 minutes, and their central transfer points are Rondo Kaponiera and Poznań Główny (railway and bus station). The network of night connections is the second largest in the country and the first in which most night lines run every 30 minutes. In 1995, 122 MAN and Neoplan low-floor buses were purchased. It was the first such large delivery of low-floor buses in the country, thanks to which both companies installed their production lines near Poznań (in Sady and Bolechów, respectively). After ownership transformations in Bolechów, Solaris Bus & Coach sp. z o.o. was established, which soon achieved international success.

In autumn 2013, tram routes formed a network of connections with a total length of 70.5 km. They spread radially from the center of Poznań towards 14 tram loops located in the vicinity of larger housing estates, production plants, cemeteries and shopping centers. In 2012, a 2.5-kilometre tram route from Osiedle Lecha to Franowo was launched, while in 2013 a 2-kilometre extension of the PST to the Zachodni Railway Station was opened.

At the end of 2012, bus routes in Poznań formed a network of connections with a length of 296 km. Bus lines run through all districts of the city, with the highest density in the area of larger housing estates in Grunwald, Piątkowo and Rataje. They end their course at numerous bus loops and at 4 modern bus stations constituting transfer centres.

The study of public transport accessibility in Poznań conducted in 2008 shows that the network of public transport connections in the city should be considered relatively good, although it requires some improvements. Since then, numerous changes have been made to the network of connections and many investments have been made. Currently, bus communication still does not serve all areas where housing development is developing, including primarily single-family housing. This problem mainly affects Junikowo, Krzyżownik, Naramowice / Umultowa, Osiedle Warszawskie / Antoninek, Szczepanków and Starołęka. The map of accessibility to the tram also includes the so-called "White stains". These include, among others: new housing estates in Naramowice and Osiedle Kopernika.

The local public transport in Poznań is organized by the Public Transport Authority. Most of the communication lines are operated by the Municipal Transport Company in Poznań. The ticket tariff is based on time tickets enabling transfers and season tickets. Stop tickets are also valid on bus lines. The public transport ticket tariff is divided into three zones - urban A and covering suburban communes B and C. Tickets can be purchased: in 70 ticket machines located at the busiest public transport stops, in 25 points of sale (ZTM points and Ruch kiosks), in mobile ticket vending machines installed in buses and via a mobile phone.

In November 2010, the Intercommunal Association "Transport of the Poznań Agglomeration" was established, which deals with the organization of joint public transport in the municipalities near Poznań. Currently, the process of integrating suburban bus lines with the city system is underway. The City of Poznań, on the basis of inter-municipal agreements, takes over responsibility for further bus lines - ZTM supports, among others, all connections in Luboń and the communes of Komorniki and Suchy Las. In the winter of 2013, there were 29 agglomeration lines (27 day and 2 night lines) that ran outside the area of the capital of Wielkopolska. Communes bordering Poznań also have their own carriers.

At the beginning of 2013, there were 227 trams and 320 buses in Poznań. The capital of Wielkopolska was the first large city to start buying a modern low-floor bus fleet en masse. Currently, all buses running on the line in the colors of MPK are low-floor. The tram rolling stock is also being replaced with low-floor vehicles - in January 2013, 70 low-floor vehicles and 13 low-floor vehicles were running on Poznań tracks.

In autumn 2013, MPK in Poznań had 5 depots: Głogowska (for approx. 85 trams), Madaliński (for approx. 45 trams), Forteczna (for approx. 60 trams), Pusta (for approx. 195 buses) and Kacza (for approx. 125 buses). In 2014, a new depot was opened in Franowo, which will accommodate 150 trams. After its full launch in 2014, the depot at ul. Madaliński and holding tracks at ul. Budziszyńska.

The beginnings of organized public transport in Poznań date back to the end of the 19th century. On July 30, 1880, the first horse-drawn tram appeared on the streets of Poznań, serving the line from the Central Railway Station to the Old Market Square. In the same year, the Poznań Horse Railway Company launched a tram depot at today's ul. Zwierzyniecka and Gajowa. It consisted of a coach house, stables, a forge with a horseshoe shop and a residential building. In 1898, the horse tram was replaced by an electric tram. There were 3 lines in operation at the time. In 1925, city bus transport was launched in Poznań on lines with little passenger traffic, where tram transport was not profitable. The trolleybus line, which was established in 1930 (from Śródka to Wiejska Street), was the first in Poland and the only one in the country until 1939.


Bicycle transport

Poznań is located on the European network of bicycle routes EuroVelo, designed by the European Cyclists' Federation. The EV9 route from Gdańsk on the Baltic Sea to Pula on the Adriatic Sea runs through here.

At the end of 2014, there were 134 km of bicycle paths in Poznań, which accounted for 12.9% of the total length of streets in the city.

Bicycle, pedestrian and bicycle paths and designated special lanes connect the two largest residential districts located on opposite sides of the city center - Rataje and Piątkowo. The capital of Wielkopolska has a network of routes leading cyclists out of the city without collisions. They can be reached by to the Rusałka and Strzeszyńskie lakes, and further to Szamotuły and Międzychód; to the Morasko Meteorite reserve; along the Piastowskie Cycling Route to Gniezno; and the Earth Bike Trail to the Wielkopolski National Park and further to Kościan and Rawicz. From Malta you can reach Kalisz and Ostrów Wielkopolski. From Starołęka you can get to Kórnik and Rogalin, and from ul. Bukowska - to Lusowo.

There are about 700 signs in the city leading bicycle routes to the central point, which is the intersection of ul. John Paul II and Archbishop Baraniak on Lake Malta. This place was called the Poznań Bicycle Junction.

14 public bicycle racks have been installed in the capital of Wielkopolska. Free guarded car parks for cyclists are located in 8 buffer car parks of the Poznań Paid Parking Zone.

In the summer season of 2017, there were 88 bike rentals in Poznań: 15 belonging to the Poznański Rower Miejski system managed by Nextbike, 2 MaltaBike rentals, Malta Ski rental, ZTM rental, free Enea rental and electric bike rental of the Kupiec Poznański department store.



Poznań is a city with poviat rights. It is the seat of the authorities of the voivodeship and the Poznań district. The city is the administrative center for Wielkopolska, it is home to regional offices. Poznań also performs some supra-regional administrative functions for north-western Poland.


Local government

Poznań has the status of a city with poviat rights. This means that the municipal commune performs the tasks of the poviat. The governing body of the local government is the Poznań City Council, consisting of 37 councilors elected in 7 electoral districts. The president of the city is the executive body of the local government. Currently, in the 2018–2023 term, this function is held by Jacek Jaśkowiak.

The city is the seat of the authorities of the Greater Poland Voivodeship. Residents elect 6 out of 39 councilors to the Sejmik of the Wielkopolska Region. Poznań is also the seat of the authorities of the Poznań district.

Poznań is a member of the Association of Polish Cities and the Union of Polish Metropolises.


An administrative division

Since 2011, the area of Poznań has been divided into 42 auxiliary units of the city, called housing estates. The residents of each auxiliary unit elect the estate council, and their executive body is the estate management. They represent local communities of residents in the implementation of the tasks of the municipal government. The tasks of own housing estates include taking care of the order and order of the local space and maintaining the local urban infrastructure. In order to support the activities of housing estates within the structures of the City Hall, the Department for Supporting Auxiliary Units of the City was established. It also supervises their activities.

In the years 1954-1976 and 1984-90, the city was divided into 5 large districts: Grunwald, Jeżyce, Nowe Miasto, Stare Miasto, Wilda. Despite being outdated, this division is sometimes used by residents. It also appears in statistics and in the activities of some offices.


International cooperation

There are about 30 consular offices in Poznań. Most of them are honorary institutions. The only regular post is the Consulate General of the Russian Federation. There are also 2 consulates headed by honorary consuls general in the city. These are the posts of Albania and Turkey. The United States, on the other hand, has a consular agency that replaced the consulate general that existed until 1989.

The city government has established a number of close, direct contacts with partner cities. The first cooperation agreements between Poznań and the Czech city of Brno were concluded in 1966. In 1979, the city concluded two more cooperation agreements with the Finnish Jyväskylä and the German Hanover, however, most of the partnership agreements were concluded by Poznań in the 1990s. Currently, it has 14 partner cities and one friendly city - Georgian Kutaisi. Poznań maintains the closest partnership with Hanover, Rennes and Nottinghamshire.


Goverment administration

The Voivode of Wielkopolska, who is the representative of the government administration in the region, has its seat in Poznań. The voivodship office subordinated to it, together with the units of combined administration at the voivodship level, form a regional complex of government administration. From January 29, 2021, the office of the voivode is held by Michał Zieliński.

In the parliamentary elections, the citizens of Poznań elect 10 deputies to the Sejm of the Republic of Poland in constituency no. 39. The city is an independent single-member electoral district for the Senate. Poznań residents elect Members of the European Parliament from constituency no. 7.



The city area is divided between 3 different district courts. These are district courts for the following districts: Grunwald and Jeżyce, Nowe Miasto and Wilda and Stare Miasto. Their local jurisdiction, apart from the titular districts, extends beyond the city limits to include neighboring communes. The Grunwald and Jeżyce District Court deals with cases from the communes (or parts thereof) of Dopiewo, Komorniki and Tarnowo Podgórne. The Nowe Miasto and Wilda District Court is responsible for cases from the Czerwonak, Luboń, Puszczykowo and Swarzędz communes. The Stare Miasto District Court, on the other hand, is competent for cases from the Murowana Goślina commune and part of the Suchy Las commune.

In Poznań there is a district court whose area of jurisdiction is 12 district courts from central and north-western Wielkopolska. There is also an appellate court in the city, whose appeal area includes the district courts in Poznań, Konin and Zielona Góra. There is also a provincial administrative court here, which is the first instance in court and administrative proceedings for the whole of Wielkopolska.

The structure of common prosecutor's offices corresponds to the boundaries of the jurisdiction of the courts. Four district prosecutor's offices were established: Grunwald and Jeżyce, Nowe Miasto, Stare Miasto and Wilda. District and appellate public prosecutor's offices have the scope of activity in accordance with the jurisdiction of their respective courts.

Poznań is the only military judiciary center next to Warsaw. There is a military garrison court (equivalent to a district court) and a military district court with authority over the garrison courts in Gdynia, Poznań, Szczecin and Wrocław. Military courts are accompanied by the corresponding organization of the military prosecutor's office: the military garrison prosecutor's office and the military district prosecutor's office.

at ul. Młyńska, there is a detention center. It has branches located at ul. Nowosolska and in Baranów and Komorniki. On the other hand, right next to the city border in Koziegłowy near Poznań, there is a penitentiary facility.



As of December 31, 2012, Poznań was inhabited by 550,742 people (fifth place in the country), and the population density was 2,103 people per square kilometer. Poznań was inhabited by 15.9% of the population of the Wielkopolskie Voivodship, which at the same time accounted for 1.4% of the population of Poland.

At the end of December 2012, the entire Poznań agglomeration (Poznań, the Poznań district and the communes of Oborniki, Skoki, Szamotuły and Śrem) was inhabited by a total of 1,009,028 people.

The research conducted in 2011 shows that the average life expectancy of men living in Poznań is 74.9 years. The average Poznań woman lives longer than a man by 6.5 years, dying at the age of 81.4. The life expectancy of the inhabitants of Poznań is similar to that of the inhabitants of Warsaw (75.4/82.0), Kraków (75.6/81.9), Tri-City (75.1/81.8) and Wrocław (74.0/81.8). 81.6), while higher than the average life expectancy in Szczecin (72.8/81.1), Katowice conurbation (70.6/78.5) or Łódź (70.1/78.4).

In the years 2008–2011, about 5.8–6.2 thousand babies were born annually. children born to Poznań women.

In 2011, the fertility rate for Poznań was 1.24. Similar results were recorded in the Katowice conurbation (1.26) and Warsaw (1.26); lower in the Tri-City (1.20), Kraków (1.16), Wrocław (1.16), Łódź (1.14) and Szczecin (1.10). For generational replacement, this factor should be 2.10-2.15.

The highest number of people so far lived in Poznań in the early 1990s. According to the Central Statistical Office data from 1990, there were 590.1 thousand people registered in the city at that time. inhabitants. Since then, this number has slowly and gradually decreased. This is related to the relocation of residents to towns in the municipalities near Poznań, as well as to the general trend of negative birth rate. The opposite situation takes place in the Poznań district - over the last 17 years, the number of inhabitants has increased by 43.2% from 240.7 thousand. people in 1995 to 344.7 thousand. in year 2012.



In the academic year 2017/2018, there were 25 universities in Poznań (8 public and 17 private), with a total of 110,346 students. In the same year, 32,531 people graduated from universities in Poznań. In the capital of Wielkopolska, there is a five universities; almost 3/4 of students are educated at public universities.

In the ranking of academic universities conducted in 2018 by the educational monthly "Perspektywy", the University of Adam Mickiewicz (4th place), then the Poznań University of Technology (17th place), the University of Economics (17th place), the Medical University of Karol Marcinkowski (21st place) and the University of Life Sciences (27th place). Over 90 universities from all over the country were included in the study.

The largest universities according to data from 2015 are: Uniwersytet im. Adam Mickiewicz University (39,000 students), Poznań University of Technology (over 20,000 students), University of Life Sciences (over 10,000 students), University of Economics (over 10,000 students) and the WSB University (9,000 students). In 2017, over 4,000 students studied in Poznań. foreigners.

There are 18 scientific and research institutions of the Polish Academy of Sciences in the Poznań region, including: the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences together with the Poznań Supercomputing and Networking Centre, the Institute of Dendrology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Molecular Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Human Genetics of the Polish Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Plant Genetics Polish Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Agricultural and Forest Environment of the Polish Academy of Sciences, or the Space Research Center of the Polish Academy of Sciences with the accompanying Astrogeodynamic Observatory in Borówiec.


Culture and art

Numerous cultural institutions operate in Poznań, including:
opera (The Stanisław Moniuszko Grand Theatre),
8 theaters with their own stage (including the Musical Theatre, Animation Theatre, Nowy Theater and Polish Theatre),
8 theaters without a professional stage (e.g. O.B.O.R.A. Artistic Platform, Biuro Podróży Theater or Strefa Ciszy Theatre),
in a barrack at ul. Grunwaldzka, there is the Theater Residence Center "Scena Robocza" established on the initiative of the Strefa Ciszy Theater - it is a place for the repertoire of theaters that do not have their own stage
at ul. Behind the Citadel, the Theater Education Center for children has been opened - there is a performance and educational hall hosted by Łejery and the Children's Art Center in Poznań
Poznan Philharmonic Tadeusz Szeligowski,
12 cinemas (including 5 multi-screen multiplexes and an IMAX 3D cinema)
28 museums (e.g. Mock-ups of Old Poznań, the Museum of Bambrów Poznańskie, the Gallery of Painting and Sculpture of the National Museum, the Museum of Musical Instruments, the Museum of the Poznań Uprising, and the Lech Touring Centre),
over 40 art galleries (with the largest one being the Arsenał Municipal Gallery),
20 choirs (including AMU Academic Choir, Poznan Nightingales, and Poznan Cathedral Choir).

There are also numerous orchestras, music and folklore groups in the city[188]. Works here, e.g. The Amadeus Polish Radio Chamber Orchestra under the direction of Agnieszka Duczmal, the representative Orchestra of the City of Poznań at MPK, as well as the ballet (Polish Dance Theatre) presenting their performances to audiences around the world. The capital of Wielkopolska is also home to the TV Animated Film Studio, which produces animated puppet and cartoon films.

Poznań is an important publishing and literary center. The city and the University of The Adam Mickiewicz Foundation has been awarding the Poznań Literary Award since 2015.

Cultural institutions in Poznań:
museums in Poznań
theaters in Poznań
cinema in Poznań
choirs in Poznań.

The first center of design and creativity in Poland - Concordia Design - was established in the historic building of the Concordia Printing House.

The oldest squat in the country - Rozbrat - operates in Poznań. It is a center of alternative culture and a meeting place for activists of the Poznań section of the Anarchist Federation, Rytmy Oporu and Food Instead of Bombs groups. As part of the functioning of this center, numerous concerts, discussions and meetings with social activists as well as happenings and social protests are organized. Among the cyclical events taking place in Rozbrat, the following can be distinguished: DIY Art Festival (Do It Yourself).

Numerous festivals take place in the capital of Wielkopolska, including the most recognizable ones - Malta Festival (theatrical), Ale Kino! (films for children and young people), Animator (animated films), Off Cinema (independent films), Art & Fashion Festival (fashion and art), Pyrkon (fantasy), International Festival of Ice Sculpture, Poznan Poets (poetic), and Festival of Fiction (prose).

Every 5 years, international violin and violin making competitions are organized in Poznań. Henryk Wieniawski, and every two years the international choir festival Universitas Cantat.

Poznań was a candidate for the title of the European Capital of Culture 2016, but in 2010 it was not qualified for the second stage of the competition.


The history of musical culture in Poznań

The establishment of the bishopric made Poznań the first center of chant, introduced here by the Benedictines. One of the Poznań bishops was Jan Łodzia, considered to be very musical, the creator of the Polish sequence. In 1400, the organ in Poznań was mentioned for the first time. From the 15th century, there are messages about the performance of mysteries in the Corpus Christi church. In the 16th century, the main centers of religious music were the cathedral and the collegiate church. Secular music was nurtured by the Górka family, whose members were patrons of Hermann Finck. He dedicated his treatise Musica practica (1556) to them. Presented as an outstanding composer of this period is Jan Brant known as "Posnaniensis". Before 1650, a permanent music ensemble was formed in the cathedral, consisting of 5 singers and 8 instrumentalists. In the richest churches there were bands, eg in 1774 a 12-member collegiate band. In the years 1783–1784, the first opera performances, performed by Wojciech Bogusławski's troupe, took place in the building of the Jesuit college.

Since the early 1990s, Poznań, along with such cities as Katowice, Szczecin, Warsaw and Kielce, has been an important center of hip-hop culture and music in the country. Numerous performers gained nationwide popularity, including, among others, Slums Attack, Sudden Welder Attack, Peja, Five Dwa Dębiec, Killaz Group, Ski Skład, WSRH, K.A.S.T.A., Beat Squad, Shellerini, Rafi, Paluch, Mezo and Medi Top Glon.



One of the first sports organizations in the city was the "Sokół" Gymnastic Society in Poznań, founded on June 2, 1886 on the initiative of Ignacy Andrzejewski.

Numerous international and national sports events are organized in the capital of the voivodeship. The World Cup, European and World Championships in rowing, canoeing and canoe polo, as well as nationwide dragon boat competitions, are regularly held at the Malta Regatta Course in Poznań. The ATP Poznań Open International Tennis Tournament has become a permanent fixture in the calendar of tennis players. Swimming competitions are organized at the Olympic swimming pool of the Maltańskie Baths, and international and national horse show jumping competitions are held in the MTP halls and at the Wola Hippodrome. On the Poznan Track, the competitions of the Polish Motor Racing Championship and the Polish Motorcycle Racing Championship are organized.

Every autumn in Poznań there is a marathon run Poznań Maraton im. Maciej Frankiewicz. In 2012, 5.7 thousand people started the race. people from 31 countries. They faced a distance of 42.2 km. In 2015, the first edition of the Challenge Poznań triathlon competition was launched.

Selected sports events organized in Poznań:
Speedway World Pairs Championship 1991
2006 UEFA European Under-19 Football Championship
2006 Academic Futsal World Championship
2006 European Youth Fencing Championships
2006 European Athletics Veterans Championships
Academic European Tennis Championships 2009
2009 European Men's Basketball Championship
Academic European Basketball Championship 2010
2010 World Canoe Championships
2011 World Indoor Field Hockey Championship
World Masters Rowing Regatta 2011
2012 Disabled Canoeing World Championships
European Football Championship 2012
GAC World Tour – Polish Open 2012 (international table tennis tournament from the ITTF Pro Tour series)
4th Maciej Frankiewicz Memorial 2013 (international show jumping competition with CSI4* rank)
Canoeing World Cup 2013
2013 FIFA World Homeless Championship
1st round of the Speedway Junior World Championship 2017

In 2006 and 2007, the route of the Tour de Pologne cycling race ran through Poznań.

The capital of Wielkopolska applied for the organization of the 2010 Summer Youth Olympic Games and the Summer Universiade in 2007, 2009 and 2011. However, the city lost the competition to Singapore, Bangkok, Belgrade and Chinese Shenzhen.

In 2011, there were 105 youth sports centers in Poznań, which gathered 4.5 thousand people. young athletes. The Poznań branch of the Academic Sports Association consisted of 26 clubs with over 300 sports, recreational and tourist sections. More than 6,000 people were associated with them. students.

The most successful team in the city is KKS Lech Poznań - eight times Polish football champion, five times winner of the Polish Cup and six times the Polish Super Cup. The team of Warta Poznań won the title of Polish Football Champion twice. Other first-league sports teams from Poznań are:
KS Enea Energetyk Poznań (women's volleyball)
PSŻ Poznań (speedway)
Polonia Poznan (women's soccer),
Inea AZS Poznań (women's basketball),
MUKS Poznań (women's basketball),
AZS Politechnika Poznań (men's basketball),
WKS Grunwald Poznań (men's handball),
KS AZS-AWF Poznań (women's handball),
PTH Poznań (ice hockey)
WKS Grunwald Poznań (field hockey),
AZS Politechnika Pocztowiec Poznań (field hockey),
KS AZS-AWF Poznań (field hockey),
KS Warta Poznań (field hockey),
Alstal Waterpolo Poznań (water polo),
KS Posnania Poznan (rugby),
Army "Poznań" (American football),
Cadet Futsal Team Poznań (men's futsal)
AZS UAM Poznań (women's futsal).



Four summer bathing areas have been designated in Poznań:
Malta bathing beach on Lake Malta (covering 200 m of shoreline),
Krzyżowniki bathing beach on Lake Kierskie (75 m of coastline),
the Strzeszynek swimming pool, on the Strzeszyńskie Lake (50 m of the shoreline),
Rusałka (Mermaid) swimming pool, on Lake Rusałka (100 m of the shoreline).

Since 2012, a city beach has been opened in the old Warta riverbed (at ul. Uniiwska, in the vicinity of KontenerArt). In addition to using the sun loungers, you can play beach volleyball or badminton there. Balls, boards and fresbiees are available. Exhibitions, workshops and music events take place on the beach, apart from it, three other city beaches on the Warta River operate seasonally in Poznań, and these are: Beach Wilda, Beach Rataje, Beach Szeląg.


Euro 2012

Poznań was one of the host cities of the European Football Championship "Euro 2012", which took place from June 8 to July 1, 2012.

During the tournament, the football team of Portugal used the accommodation center in Opalenica near Poznań. Among the players who lived there were m.in. Cristiano Ronaldo.

Three matches of the group stage of the tournament were organized at the Municipal Stadium in Poznań: Ireland-Croatia (June 10), Italy-Croatia (June 14) and Italy-Ireland (June 18). These matches were watched in the stands by 106.4 thousand spectators. people (34% were Poles, 29% - Irish, 15% - Croats, 12% - Italians, and 3% - Germans).

The city authorities estimate that around 125,000 people visited Poznań during the group stage of the tournament. foreign tourists - 70 thousand Irish, 40,000 Croats and 15 thousand. Italians. More than 400 journalists from all over the world have been accredited in the press center. The guests were helped by 540 volunteers, and the order was guarded by nearly 1.4 thousand people every day. policemen. In the Poznań fan zone located at pl. Over 60 artists performed. Throughout the entire championship period, a total of 705,000 people played there. people (2nd place in the country), the most on the day of the match between Poland and Russia - 60.5 thousand. people. Thousands of people also cheered and had fun in the nearby Old Market Square, around the Arena hall (at Carlsberg FanCamp) and by Lake Malta (at Malta Fun Zone).



TV stations
TVP3 Poznań (Telewizja Poznań)
TV fan club (formerly: Lech TV)

Cable TV stations
TVK Winogrady (formerly Winogradzka Telewizja Kablowa)
Ratajska Cable Television

Radio stations
Radio Poznań (former name: Radio Merkury) – 100.9 FM
Radio Afera – 98.6 FM
Radio Eska Poznan – 93 FM
Radio Emmaus – 89.8 FM
Golden Oldies Radio – 88.4 FM
Meloradio - 90.6/99.4 FM
Rock Radio - 105.4 FM
MC Radio - 102.7 FM
RMF Maxxx Poznań – 93.5 FM
Radio Vox FM - 107.4 FM
Radio Weather – 103.4 FM

Voice of Greater Poland
Linguistic Quarterly
Economic Guide
Reign over us Christ
Catholic Guide
University Life
IKS Poznań Cultural, Sports and Tourist Guide


Religious communities

Poznań is the seat of the curia of the Poznań Archdiocese of the Roman Catholic Church, which was established from the first missionary bishopric in Poland, established in 968. The main temple of this Church in the city is the Archcathedral Basilica of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul, located in Ostrów Tumski. The second temple in Poznań is the Collegiate Church of Our Lady of Perpetual Help, St. Mary Magdalene and St. Stanisława Biskupa, also known as the Poznań parish church.

There is a Greek Catholic parish in Poznań. Protection of the Mother of God, which belongs to the Wrocław-Koszalin eparchy. Services of this parish are held in the Church of the Protection of the Mother of God.

The city has two Old Catholic communities: the Polish Catholic parish of St. Kazimierz (established in 1947 and holds its services in the church of St. Casimir) and the parish of Reformed Catholics dedicated to Saints Cyril and Methodius (established in 2007, services are held in the chapel at Powstańców Warszawy 9A). The faithful of the Old Catholic Mariavite Church who belong to the parish of St. Matthew and St. Roch in Nowa Sobótka.

The Polish Autocephalous Orthodox Church has an orthodox church in Poznań. st. Nicholas (co-cathedral and at the same time parish), which belongs to the diocese of Łódź and Poznań.

The Evangelical-Augsburg Church has one parish centered around the Church of the Grace of God. In this parish, in the green pavilion at ul. Obozowa 5, some services of the Evangelical Reformed Church are held, whose diasporal group is served by Fr. Tadeusz Jelinek from the Evangelical-Reformed parish in Żychlin.

Church of the Holy Cross at ul. Ogrodowa is the temple of the parish of the Evangelical-Methodist Church.

In Poznań there are several communities belonging to Pentecostal churches. The Pentecostal Church in Poland has three churches here: the church in Poznań, the church "Lifehouse Church" and the church "Dom Bleba". The Church of God in Christ is also active in the city, to which the Poznań Centrum Community and the "Salt of the Earth" facility in Poznań, subordinated to the church in Kutno, belong.

The Baptist Church has 10 churches here. These include: 1st Congregation in Poznań "Community of the New Covenant", 2nd Congregation in Poznań "Koinonia", 3rd Congregation in Poznań "Kościół 5N", 4th Congregation in Poznań "Genesis Community", Congregation "Amazing Grace", Congregation "Droga Życia" ", Church on the Rock, Church "New Life", Church "Wspólnota Kaleb" and Poznan International Church.

The Seventh-day Adventist Church in Poland has a church in Poznań, and the seat of its western diocese is also located here. There is also a Reformed Seventh-day Adventist church here.

In Poznań, there are also such Protestant churches as: Confederation of Evangelical Reformed Churches (Evangelical Reformed Church in Poznań), Arka Christian Church, Church of Evangelical Christians in Poland ("Emmanuel" congregation), Messianic God's Assemblies (mission point in Poznań subordinate to the Warsaw) and the "Agape" Evangelical Church.

In the city there is also the Unity of the Polish Brethren and the congregation of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) and the congregation of the New Apostolic Church.

From December 29, 2009 to January 2, 2010, Poznań became a stage of the Pilgrimage of Trust through the Earth, organized by the ecumenical Taizé Community.

In Poznań, there are 25 congregations of Jehovah's Witnesses (including a sign language congregation and three other language congregations: English, Russian and Ukrainian, as well as Bulgarian, Chinese and Spanish speaking groups) gathered in eight Kingdom Halls. Other Restorationist denominations in Poznań include: Christadelphians, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (a commune in Poznań), the Secular Missionary Movement "Epiphany" (a congregation in Poznań) and the independent Epiphany community "Christian Community".

There is a prayer house of the Muslim Religious Union in the city. The second Muslim religious group in Poznań is the Muslim League in Poland, which has its own mosque.

There is also the Jewish Religious Community in Poznań, which belongs to the Association of Jewish Religious Communities, which has its synagogue in the city.

Every week, practices of the Garuda Association in Poland take place in Poznań. The city is also home to the Engakuin (Sōtō Zen and Nyingma) Buddhist temple and the center of Diamond Way Buddhism.


Public safety

Poznań and the Poznań poviat have joint organizational units of the Police and the State Fire Service - they operate in an area of 2,161 km² inhabited by nearly 900,000 people. people.

The Municipal Headquarters of the State Fire Service in Poznań employs a total of 495 officers. The operational security of the city and the Poznań district consists of 9 rescue and firefighting units (JRG), most of which have their own specialization. Rescue operations are also supported by 68 volunteer fire brigades, including a specialist rescue group and a water rescue unit operating in the national rescue and firefighting system. In addition, there are 2 company fire protection units (at the airport and in the Municipal Transport Company) and a military fire protection unit in Krzesiny. at ul. Bobrzańska in Poznań (JRG 7) houses a modern Threat Analysis and Forecasting Station of the Municipal Headquarters of the State Fire Service, which performs functions in the area of rescue, civil protection and crisis management. It is connected by an ICT network with similar facilities in Kalisz, Konin, Leszno and Piła. In 2012, the fire brigade recorded 4,249 events in Poznań, including 1,656 fires, 2,154 local hazards and 439 false alarms.

The Municipal Police Headquarters in Poznań employs approx. 1,800 police officers, has 7 police stations located in the city and 15 police stations and 2 district police departments serving the communes of the Poznań poviat. In 2014, in Poznań, the police recorded 22.7 thousand crimes. In the analyzed period, criminal offenses dominated (84.1%), including mainly thefts, burglaries and drug offences. Economic crimes (10.6%) and traffic crimes (3.5%) were ranked next. 298 road accidents. The detection rate of perpetrators of Poznań crimes in 2014 was 52.1% and is lower than in 2013 and 2012.

There is a command of the Municipal Police of the City of Poznań at the municipal office, which is subordinated to 5 district departments. These units employ about 300 guards. In 2012, this institution fined 43.1 thousand people. people for the total amount of PLN 4.5 million. 58.7 thousand were also identified. people, 11.5 thous. admonitions-instructions, 19.4 thous. wheel locks for improperly parked vehicles, 119 car wrecks were removed, and 599 people were referred to the sobering-up centre.

From the funds of the Poznań City Hall, a video monitoring system has been implemented since 2000 to improve security and crime detection. In mid-2013, 395 cameras were in use. The monitoring image is watched and analyzed by employees of 6 Supervision Centers established in police stations. In addition, the image from the cameras reaches: the Municipal Police Headquarters, the ZDM Traffic Control Center, the MPK dispatch room, the Crisis Management Center and the seat of the Municipal Guard.

In 2011, an SMS system was launched in Poznań to transmit warnings about crisis situations threatening health and life and the need to evacuate from specific areas of the city.

In Poznań, there is an emergency notification center that handles emergency calls to emergency numbers 112, 997, 998 and 999.



At the end of 2014, there were 19 civilian hospitals operating in Poznań with a total of 5.7 thousand beds. beds. Patients' health was monitored by 3.4 thousand doctors, 4.2 thous. nurses and 0.8 thous. midwives.

Poznan's hospitals are of supra-local importance - residents of Wielkopolska and the rest of the country are also hospitalized here. In 2012, 303.1 thousand people were treated here. people, and the average length of stay was 4.4 days.

There are 5 teaching hospitals in Poznań (at the following streets: Długa, Przybyszewskiego, Polna, 28 Czerwca 1956, Szpitalna). They ensure that the health needs of residents are secured in terms of the most specialized medical services and procedures. They are a didactic and scientific base for the Medical University, which is also their founding body.

The basis for health care in the city is provided by 4 general hospitals, including two subordinated to the city government - Fr. Raszei at ul. Mickiewicz and them. J. Strusia at ul. Szwajcarska, as well as the Provincial Hospital at ul. Juraszów and the private hospital Centrum Medyczne HCP at ul. June 28, 1956

at ul. There is a general departmental hospital of the Ministry of Interior and Administration. Medical support is supplemented by specialist hospitals, including: a children's hospital, a rehabilitation hospital for children, the Wielkopolska Oncology Center and the Wielkopolskie Center of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery, which has branches in Poznań and Ludwików near Mosina. In Puszczykowo, there is a multi-profile Hospital of T. Dąbrowski.

There are 7 private hospitals in Poznań - Centrum Medyczne HCP, Certus, Klinika Grunwaldzka, Klinika Radiant, Klinika Pro Bono, Med-Polonia and Medica Celsus.

In 4 hospitals - them. J. Strusia, Provincial, HCP and them. T. Dąbrowskiego (Puszczykowo) - there are Hospital Emergency Departments (so-called HEDs). In addition, at the Municipal Hospital of Strusia, one of fourteen Trauma Centers in the country was established.


Emergency medical Services

The State Medical Rescue Service in the capital of Wielkopolska provides medical services by providing first aid, it also runs outpatient clinics and patient transports. The Regional Ambulance Station in Poznań has 8 substations and waiting places in the city and 9 substations and waiting places in the Poznań poviat. This institution is subordinated to the Self-Government of the Wielkopolska Region. There is also a private ambulance service in the city, MediFast, serving mainly clients of private insurance companies, medical centers and hospitals. At the Ławica airport in Poznań, there is a regional base of the Polish Medical Air Rescue (HEMS base). In the Poznań area, there are 3 professional LPR helicopter landing sites (Poznań-Szpital Wojewódzki, Poznań-Szwajcarska heliport at the J. Struś Hospital and the helipad at the T. Dąbrowski Hospital in Puszczykowo), another one will be opened at the HCP Medical Center. The creation of landing pads in these four facilities is a prerequisite for the functioning of the Hospital Emergency Departments serving the residents of Poznań and the Poznań district.

In 2012, outpatient care under contracts with the National Health Fund was provided by 677 facilities located in Poznań.

Safety over water reservoirs in the Poznań area is guarded by 3 rescue teams belonging to the Wielkopolska Volunteer Rescue Service (WOPR).


People related to the city

The president of the Weimar Republic, Paul von Hindenburg, was born in Poznań.
Many people associated with Polish cinematography were born in Poznań, e.g. Emilia Krakowska, Hanna Stankówna, Roman Wilhelmi, Zofia Czerwińska, Andrzej Szczytko and Daria Trafankowska.
Many people from the world of Polish music come from Poznań, e.g. Anna Jantar, Urszula Sipińska, Hanna Banaszak, Halina Frąckowiak and Krzysztof Grabowsk


Decorations and awards

The city of Poznań was honored with:
Order of the Builders of People's Poland awarded to the city on April 16, 1966.
The First Class Cross of Grunwald awarded on December 18, 1978 during the celebration of the anniversary of the Greater Poland Uprising.
Award of the Minister of the Environment and the National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management "Leader of Polish Ecology" in 2002 and 2009 - Poznań is the only city that has been honored with this award twice.