Szczecin (German: Stettin, Latin: Sedinum or Stetinum) - a city with
county rights in north-western Poland, the capital and largest city of
the West Pomeranian Voivodeship, located on the Szczecin coast, on the
Odra River and Dąbie Lake. The historical capital of the Duchy of
Pomerania; later within the borders of Sweden, Brandenburg, Prussia and
Germany, since 1945 it has been part of Poland (thus part of the
Recovered Territories). Szczecin is the third largest city in terms of
occupied area (300.55 km², of which almost 24% is covered by water) and
the seventh largest city in Poland in terms of population. It is located
in the center of the Szczecin agglomeration (one of the 8 Polish
metropolises according to ESPON). According to the data of the Central
Statistical Office of December 31, 2021, Szczecin had 394,482
Due to its border location and proximity (approx. 100 km) to the Baltic Sea, accessible via the navigable Oder River and the Szczecin Lagoon, Szczecin has become the economic center of the region. There are: a sea port, repair, yacht and shipping yards. The city is a tourist center with a large number of historical monuments. It is an academic and cultural center (opera and operetta, numerous theatres, museums and cultural centres), it is also the seat of the Catholic metropolis and the nominal co-seat of the Orthodox diocese.
Szczecin also affects the German border areas: the eastern part of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and the Uckermark district of Brandenburg. The city is surrounded by three large forest complexes, forests: Wkrzańska from the north, Bukowa from the south and Goleniowska from the east.
Szczecin is located in north-western Poland, in the western part of
the province. Zachodniopomorskie on the Polish-German border. The city
is located on the Odra River and Dąbie Lake, covering part of
Szczecin is the most distant provincial capital in Poland from Warsaw.
The city is the center of the Szczecin agglomeration.
Szczecin is located in the area of four geographical mesoregions - the Lower Oder Valley, the Szczecin Hills, the Beech Hills and the Goleniów Plain, which are part of the Szczecin Coast.
The distance from the city center to the Baltic Sea - if you do not count the Szczecin Lagoon, which is a sea lagoon - in a straight line is 65 km. The distance by water through the Lagoon is similar, while by land it is about 94 km (to Międzyzdroje). Szczecin borders on the city and commune of Police (from the north) and the communes of Dobra, Kołbaskowo from the west, Gryfino and Stare Czarnowo from the south, and Kobylanka and Goleniów from the east. The Polish-German border is 5 km from the city border.
The village of Pilchowo and the Pilchowo estate are divided by an administrative border between the city of Szczecin and the rural part of the Police commune, Bezrzecze - between Szczecin and the Dobra commune as a housing estate and village of the same name, Załom - between Szczecin and the Goleniów commune as a housing estate and village.
Szczecin is considered the historical capital of Western Pomerania.
The most architecturally interesting buildings in Szczecin can be
found in Wały Chrobrego. The buildings, which were erected here after
1901, in the style of historicism, refer to the Baroque and North German
Mannerism. Others, such as the Maritime Museum and the Contemporary
Theater, were built in the style of Art Nouveau and Modernism. The
buildings of the Embankments are complemented by observation decks with
stairs, as well as a fountain and sculptures referring to the culture of
ancient Egypt or Rome, made by German masters
The center of Szczecin is characterized by large roundabouts and streets lined with multi-storey, eclectic tenement houses. This star-shaped urban layout is often compared to the most famous realization of this type in Europe - Paris. Most of Śródmieście was built on a star-shaped layout with squares in the form of roundabouts and wide avenues planted with trees. The vast majority of tram routes run along separate lanes or in the middle of the avenue.
A characteristic element of Szczecin's streets are cast-iron pumps from the second half of the 19th century. They were produced in the local company of F. Poepcke. They served as a backup source of water for the city's inhabitants. They turned out to be very useful during World War II and in the first years after the war, when the water supply network was not fully operational. About 30 pumps (out of 70) have survived to this day. The pumps are richly decorated (a fluted column, the city's coats of arms, a crown on top), and the water is poured out of a stylized dragon's mouth.
In Szczecin, there are about 270 immovable monuments under legal
protection, and the city itself is on the European Route of Brick
The representative part of Szczecin is the Chrobry Embankment, which forms 500 m long viewing terraces along the Oder river. They are adjacent to public utility buildings with monumental architecture, such as the Main Building of the National Museum in Szczecin, the building of the Maritime University of Szczecin and the building of the Provincial Office.
Szczecin was the duke's seat, thanks to which the Pomeranian Dukes' Castle was built in the city. The city's past is also evidenced by the remains of city fortifications, such as the Tower of Seven Coats or the richly decorated Port Gate and the Royal Gate.
One of the outstanding buildings in Szczecin is the Basilica of St. Jakuba, which is the dominant feature of Wyszyński Street. Other churches to look out for are dedicated to: St. John the Evangelist, St. Peter and St. Paul and St. John the Baptist. Small churches of medieval origin, located in the peripheral settlements of the city: in Stołczyn, Krzeków and Pomorzany, also have a great historical value.
There are many former residences in Szczecin, such as: the Palace Under the Heads, the Classicist Palace, the Palace under the Globe, the Ionian Palace, the Palace of the Pomeranian Estates, the Palace of the Pomeranian Land and tenement houses: the Loitz House, Professors' Houses.
In Szczecin, which was one of the most important urban republics, the Old Town Hall was built in the Middle Ages (currently the seat of the Szczecin History Museum, a branch of the National Museum in Szczecin) with the Hay Market, and then the city as the seat of the province and district was enriched with other impressive public administration buildings, such as: Red The Town Hall, the Szczecin City Hall and the post office buildings at al. Niepodległości and at ul. Dworcowa.
In Szczecin, there are large clusters of urban greenery in the form
of urban forests, parks, cemeteries, green areas, squares and street
greenery. The City Forests of the city of Szczecin occupy a total of
2,780 ha. The remaining area of urban green areas (with cemeteries,
without city forests) is 605.3 ha, which is 2% of the area of Szczecin.
The largest area is occupied by walking and leisure parks, of which
there were 16 in 2006 and occupied a total area of 161.5 ha.
The largest and most popular park is Park Kasprowicz (with an area of 49 ha) located on a hill and slope of the Niemierzyńska Valley with an artificially created lake called Rusałka. The second largest park is the Żeromski Park (with an area of 24 ha), established on the grounds of liquidated cemeteries at the beginning of the 20th century.
Other parks include: the Dendrological Garden. prof. Stefan Kownas, Park Brodowski, Park Andersa, Park Pomorzański im. General Józefa Dowbór-Muśnickiego, Arkoński Forest Park, Noakowskiego Park, Jasna Błonia, Park at ul. Niemierzyńska, Park at ul. Goleniowska, Park at ul. Jasna, Park at ul. Neighbourhood, Park at ul. Roman Dmowski, Park im. Stanisława Nadratowskiego, Chess Park (Szczecin-West), Rose Garden, Park at ul. Wapienna (Warszewo).
Cemeteries with a total area of 182.6 ha are a large concentration of greenery. The largest of them (and the largest in terms of area in Poland) is the Central Cemetery located in the eastern part of Gumieniec (163 ha). There are 93 green spaces in the city with a total area of 48.5 ha.
The largest tree in the city is the St. Ottona - a natural monument and one of the most impressive lime trees in Poland.
According to data from August 31, 2009, Szczecin had 19 hotel
facilities with a total of 3,608 beds. Throughout 2009, 289.0 thous.
people, of which 44.0% were foreign tourists. The city had 42 collective
tourist accommodation facilities with a total of 5,431 beds. In 2009,
they were used by 354.2 thousand. tourists, of which 39.5% were foreign
tourists. In 2013, most foreign tourists staying overnight came from
Germany and Denmark.
The city is located on the route of the Berlin - Szczecin - Baltic water route and the European Route of Brick Gothic.
The capital of Western Pomerania is one of the most important Polish
cultural centers. The most important cultural institutions include the
National Museum in Szczecin, the Pomeranian Dukes' Castle, the
Pomeranian Library and the Filharmonia im. Mieczysław Karłowicz.
Maritime, regional and urban traditions are cultivated, as well as the
memory of the culture of the regions from which the inhabitants of
Szczecin came in the first years after World War II. The seats here
include The Song and Dance Ensemble of the Szczecin Land Krąg and
university choirs, e.g. Choir of the Maritime University of Szczecin.
The calendar of cyclical events includes, among others: Kaziuki's
Kresowy Week, Small Form Theater Review "Kontrapunkt" and Sea Days.
Szczecin was a candidate for the title of European Capital of Culture in 2016. The logo of the project entitled "Szczecin is the European Capital of Culture 2016" presents a sign whose prototype was the Grunwaldzki Square in Szczecin. The author of the logo is Ireneusz Kuriata.
According to data from 2007, there were 37 libraries in the city,
which were used by 80,250 readers. The largest library is the Pomeranian
Library. The size of the KP collection is about 1,500,000. The library
organizes many meetings and exhibitions devoted to general and regional
topics. In 1995, the Municipal Public Library was established, which
took over 51 branches from the Pomeranian Library, then the provincial
library. Currently, there are 35 MBP branches located in all parts of
Examples of university libraries include the Main Library of the University of Szczecin with 10 branches, the Main Library of the West Pomeranian University of Technology, the Main Library of the Pomeranian Medical University and the Main Library of the Maritime University.
The largest museum in the city is the National Museum in Szczecin. It
is a multi-department museum, gathering collections of archaeology,
ancient and contemporary art, history, numismatics, nautics and
ethnography. The museum is located in six buildings (one contemporary
and four historical buildings in the city center and one exhibition in
National Museum in Szczecin, ul. Waly Chrobrego 3.
National Museum in Szczecin - Museum of Regional Traditions, ul. Staromłyńska 27 – Palace of the Pomeranian Estates Parliament.
National Museum in Szczecin - Museum of Contemporary Art, ul. Staromłyńska 1 – Palace under the Heads in Szczecin,
National Museum in Szczecin - Szczecin History Museum, ul. Ksią Mściwoja II 8, Old Town Hall in Szczecin,
National Museum in Szczecin - Upheaval Dialogue Center, pl. Solidarity 1.
National Museum in Szczecin - Exhibition of the Seaside Narrow-Gauge Railway, ul. Błonie 2, Gryfice.
In addition, they operate:
Museum of Technology and Communication - Art Depot Museum of Technology and Communication in Szczecin
Museum of Literature in the Pomeranian Library
Castle Museum in the Pomeranian Dukes' Castle
Geological Museum of the Institute of Marine Sciences of the University of Szczecin
Archdiocesan Museum in Szczecin, at the Archcathedral Basilica of St. Jacob
Theaters operating in Szczecin:
Krypta Theater (in the Pomeranian Dukes' Castle)
Puppet Theater "Pleciuga"
There is no theater
small private theaters (including the Chamber Theater of the Szczecin Society of Friends of Art, Broadway Theatre)
Opera at the Castle
and the amphitheater in Kasprowicz Park (Summer Theatre).
Model Gallery - STiPS - Wielkopolska 27
Zona Gallery - Academy of Art pl. White Eagle 2
Presidential Gallery - Pl. Home Army 1
Captain's Gallery - Calbud - ul. Captain's
Gallery 111 - Pl. Soldier 11/1
There are 6 cinemas in Szczecin, which in 2007 were visited by 1.14 million viewers. The oldest cinema in the world, Pionier 1907, is located here, operating continuously in the same place since 1907. The other 3 cinemas are: Helios Film Center (4 screens), Multikino (9 screens), and Cinema Zamek. In autumn 2012, the Helios Film Center (7 screens) was opened. Multikino is planning to open its next cinema in Szczecin, this time in Aleja Slonca Shopping Centre
The Festival of Street Artists and Days of the Sea are held in
Szczecin. In April, the Magnolia Rally takes place, the most prestigious
automotive event in the province. Zachodniopomorskie, which is the third
round of the Polish Cup of Automobile Clubs and Clubs.
List of cyclical events taking place in Szczecin (by month):
Kaziuki's Kresowy Week - beginning of March
Brain Week in Szczecin (Szczecin Branch of the Copernicus Polish Society of Naturalists), March, from 2013.
inSPIRACJE International Visual Art Festival - March, since 2005
Week & Mody - March, since 2002, with the final of the Gryf Fashion Show Models competition for fashion designers
Review of Small Form Theaters "Kontrapunkt" - nationwide, April, since 1966.
Magnolia Rally – April, since 1980
Picnic on the Oder - early May, since 2005
Days of Ukrainian Culture - May, since 1996
School Tourist Exchange "Przygoda" - May, since 1999
Musica Genera Festival - May, since 2002
Sea Days in Szczecin - June
Emerica Wild In The Streets - International Skateboarding Day - June
International Festival of Street Artists "Spoiwa Kultury" - July, since 1999
Odra Days – beginning of July
Boogie Brain - International Music Festival Szczecin - July, since 2008
Jacob's Fair - July, since 2009
Dąbskie Film Evenings - the last weekend of July, film review on the beach at Lake Dabie, since 2007
Pyromagic International Fireworks Festival, in August
Days of Zbożowa Street, in August, from 2015
International Ballet Competition "Złote Pointy" - in the years 1994-2007 National Ballet Competition "Best Graduate of Ballet Schools in Poland"
West Pomeranian Science Festival - initiated by the Szczecin Scientific Society in 2000, takes place in September
Grammy Young Talents Festival – September, since 2007
Pekao Open tennis tournament - September, since 1996
Szczecin European Film Festival – October
Szczecin Tattoo Festival - November, since 1998
Pro-Contra Independent Theater Festival
Szczecin Early Music Festival
Szczecin Music Fest – since 2004
Song Contest about Szczecin organized every year since 2008
Festival of Polish Contemporary Painting in Szczecin - usually every two years
The following local holidays are established in Szczecin:
April 26 Anniversary of the events April 26, 1945, in the years 2000-2015, the Celebration of the Capture of Szczecin, in the years 1945-1999, the Liberation Day of Szczecin,
July 5, Establishment Day of the Polish Administration in Szczecin - since 1945,
5 July Pioneers Day of the City of Szczecin - since 2013
December 17 Anniversary of the Events of December 1970
Szczecin is an important transport hub in northern Poland.
Szczecin-Goleniów Airport (Port lotniczy Szczecin-Goleniów, IATA: SZZ) . Szczecin-Goleniów Airport is located 40km northeast of Szczecin, near the small town of Goleniów. He will i.a. operated by LOT, Ryanair, Norwegian and Wizz Air with destinations in the UK, Norway and domestic Poland. Despite rapid growth, the airport is still small with only a few flight movements per day. A train station with direct connections to Stettin and Kołobrzeg is integrated into the airport; other cities can be reached by changing trains in Goleniow, Dabie or Stettin Glowny
Poznań-Ławica Airport (IATA: POZ) and Berlin Brandenburg Airport (IATA: BER) are about 3 hours away by train; the travel time to Gdansk is significantly longer. There are also transfer buses from Szczecin to Berlin Airport.
Szczecin Główny (main train station), 70-035 Szczecin, ul. Columbus 2 . The train station is in the center and can be reached from Germany by local trains from Angermünde (some trains go through to Berlin; otherwise change in Angermünde) or Pasewalk (the trains come from Lübeck via Neubrandenburg). Since only local trains run, Szczecin is a travel destination that is easy to reach if you use the state tickets (Brandenburg, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania ticket and Quer durchs Land). There is some confusion about the Polish section of the route: while the Brandenburg-Berlin ticket and Mecklenburg-West Pomerania ticket are valid there (also in Szczecin city traffic), Schleswig-Holstein tickets are only valid in Mecklenburg-West Pomerania up to the border, as is the transverse land ticket. A single ticket from the border costs €2.70 and can be purchased from the conductor
For single travelers there is a special Berlin-Stettin tariff of the Berlin-Brandenburg transport association for €12.70, reduced €9.40 (single journey) or €25.00/€18.60 for a day ticket. The BahnCard entitles you to a discount. The ticket is also valid for Szczecin city traffic and can also be purchased in Szczecin for the return journey.
There are direct connections within Poland to Poznań (2 1/4 hours), Warsaw (5 hours), Białystok (12 hours) via Gdansk.
The Szczecin-Dąbie railway station, address: ul. Stacyjna 3, is also an important railway junction, but most trains also go to Szczecin Główny.
Next stop on the DB network is Grambow, 10km from the city centre. More connections exist in Pasewalk, 40km west of Szczecin.
From Berlin, the city can be reached by long-distance buses from various bus companies (e.g. tickets available from Flixbus). The central bus station (ZOB) is located in the city center at pl. Grodnicki 1. He is managed by the PKS Szczecin.
In the street
Arrival from Germany is possible via Berlin on the A11 E28 motorway and A6 in Poland.
The passenger port is on the Oder at ul. Jana z Kolna 7. There are ship connections (excursion traffic) on the Oder and to Świnoujście. Ferry company to Swinoujscie
Ferry port with connections to Scandinavia is Świnoujście.
On foot and by bike
The Hanseatenweg connects Hamburg with Stettin via Lübeck. Szczecin is also on the path of the Cistercians.
Local public transport
In Szczecin there is a network of 12 tram lines and an additional bus network (homepage). There is also an express tram line. Trams and buses can be used with the same ticket.
The trams run mainly on the left side of the Oder. Located on the Szczecin Lagoon, Police is part of the Szczecin local transport network.
The tourist tram is number 0 and the tourist buses are number 50 and 100. A ticket here costs 3 PLN (approx. EUR 0.67). Attention, the regular tickets are not valid here!
The regular bus routes are numbered from 51 to 111. Express buses are identified by the letters A, B, C, D, E, F and G and night buses are numbered from 521 to 534.
Buses with numbers starting with 7 are free but only go to the shopping malls. Buses with numbers starting with 8 are replacement buses.
A short trip (valid for 15 minutes) normally costs PLN 2 (approx. EUR 0.45) and reduced PLN 1 (approx. EUR 0.22). A day ticket (24 hours) normally costs PLN 10 (approx. EUR 2.10) and reduced PLN 6 (approx. EUR 1.35). A family weekend ticket is available for PLN 14 (approx. EUR 3.13) and a five-day ticket for PLN 30 (approx. EUR 6.40). Students up to the age of 26 with an "International Student Identity Card" (ISIC) are entitled to a discount. Persons aged 67 and over are also entitled to discounts. Persons aged 70 and over ride for free.
Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-West Pomerania tickets are also valid in city traffic.
If you want to explore the harbor basin, the Oder section in Szczecin and the Dammsche See, you can book a boat trip on the homepage.
Some suburbs, especially Dąbie am Dammschen See, can be reached faster by train than by tram or bus, which must stop at all stops. A train ticket costs PLN 6 (approx. EUR 1.35).
The old town can be explored on foot. A red line on the ground connects about 40 interesting buildings in the Old Town and its surroundings. The red circular route begins and ends at the main train station, where there is also a map of the route. A leaflet with the map is also available at the tourist information at the train station and at the castle. There are multilingual information boards at the sights.
Szczecin has a dense network of bicycles, with which you can also reach the suburbs. You can use city rental bikes for a fee (homepage of the provider). A bicycle rally is held on the last Friday of every month, starting at Plac Lotników at 6:00 p.m.
Driving in Szczecin is relatively easy due to the wide streets and many open and green spaces. You can also park for free in the multi-storey car parks of the shopping centres. Otherwise there are parking machines in the center. The parking fees here depend on the zone and the length of the parking period.
It is advisable to only use licensed taxi companies that charge per kilometer driven. A trip within the center should not cost more than PLN 12-15 (approx. EUR 3). Some taxi companies in Szczecin:
Car Taxi: +48 91 4535555
CityTaxi: +48 91 4335335
Express Taxi: +48 91 4261038
EuroTaxi: +48 91 4343434
Gold Taxi: +48 91 8122222
Granada Taxi: +48 91 4554554
Szczecin Taxi: +48 91 4835835
Within the borders of Szczecin, landscape types of 4 geographical
mesoregions meet, i.e.: the Lower Oder Valley, the Szczecin Hills, the
Beech Hills and the Goleniów Plain. The average ordinate of the area of
Szczecin is 25 m above sea level. The lowest surface of the land falls
between the arms of the Odra River, where there are depression areas
reaching 0.1 m below sea level. By the borders of Szczecin, there is
Wielecka Góra (131 m above sea level) lying on the Warszewskie Hills,
and south of the city, in the Szczecin Landscape Park, there is Bukowiec
(148.3 m above sea level) on the Bukowe Hills.
According to data from 2011, the area of the city covers 300.55 km².
Within the administrative borders of Szczecin, there are small fragments of the Szczecin Landscape Park "Puszcza Bukowa" (among others with Lake Szmaragdowe and the nature reserve "Zdroje") and the northern part of the Natura 2000 special protection area for birds "The Lower Oder Valley" (PLB 320003), while in the south, the city borders the Lower Oder Valley Landscape Park and is surrounded by 3 primeval forests: Wkrzańska, Bukowa and Goleniowska.
The following flow through the city: the Odra River, its side arm Regalica flowing into Lake Dąbie lying entirely within the city limits, connecting both Parnica rivers and many smaller canals that are part of Międzyodrze. There are islands in Międzyodrze (Żurawi Ostrów, Mewia Wyspa, Dębina, Czarnołęka, Radolin, Gryfia, Ostrów Grabowski, Wielka Kępa, Ostrów Mieleński, W. Milenia, W. Robinia, Czapla Ostrów, Wyspa Grodzka, Łasztownia, Mieleńska Łąka, Zaleskie Łęgi, Siedlińska Kępa, Klucki Ostrów, Sadlińskie Łąki, Czapla Ostrów, Swallow Island, Kępa Parnicka, Zielona Island, Puck Island, W. Krainka, Ustowskie Wetlands).
The most frequently affecting polar sea air masses from above the
North Atlantic are characterized by high humidity, which in summer
increases cloud cover and the amount of precipitation; in winter it is
associated with warming and high cloudiness. These masses are most often
deposited in summer and autumn.
Polar continental air from Eastern Europe and Asia arrives less frequently. The presence of this air is most often observed in winter and spring. It has a low water vapor content. During its retention in spring there are numerous frosts, winters are frosty and sunny. Arctic air flows much less often - it brings very changeable weather, with significant changes in temperature and spring frosts. The presence of tropical air, which brings periods of rapid warming, sometimes appearing in winter and sporadically in summer, is recorded the least often.
The average wind speed is approx. 3.3 m/s. The prevailing winds are west (W) and south-west (SW).
The presence of large water reservoirs, such as the Szczecin Lagoon, the Miedwie lake and the Oder valley, causes an increase in air humidity in these areas. The average relative air humidity is 80%, the highest - 88%, which occurs in November, December and January, and the lowest about 72% in April and May.
The average air temperature in Szczecin ranges from 8 to 8.4 °C. The hottest month is July with the temperature from 15.8 °C to 20.3 °C, the coldest is January from -4.1 °C to 2.6 °C. Air temperature below 0 °C occurs on average during 86 days a year, most often in January and February.
The average annual precipitation is 537 mm, the average precipitation in the cold half-year is 225 mm, and in the warm half-year 350 mm. On average, there are 167 days with precipitation per year.
A characteristic feature of Szczecin's climate is a large number of cloudy days, which results from its location on the route of cyclonic systems moving from the Atlantic. In the years 1956–1998, the number of cloudy days was twice as high as that of clear days. The months of November, December and January are characterized by the highest average cloud cover, when layer clouds prevail, and the lowest cloud cover – May and August.
In the 7th–6th centuries B.C.E. there was a settlement from the
period of the Lusatian culture in this area. Castle Hill has been
inhabited continuously since about 700 CE, but it is possible that
the continuity of the history of settlement of this place documented
in sources dates back to nearly 1850 years. In ancient times, there
was a town called Susudata near Szczecin. The oldest settlement in
Szczecin has a tribal record dating back to the end of the 8th
century. In the 9th century, a hillfort surrounded by a moat was
built by the Slavic princes, at the foot of which a trading and
fishing settlement developed.
In 967, Mieszko I annexed Pomerania together with Szczecin to Poland. The then Szczecin consisted of three parts: the stronghold, the outer borough and the port. Until around 1007, Szczecin was under the authority of Bolesław Chrobry. The military involvement of the Polish ruler in the Czech Republic and the conflict with Germany activated the Pomeranian magnates to secede. The anti-Christian revolt combined with the rebellion of the local magnates resulted in the independence of Szczecin and other Pomeranian towns.
At the end of 1121, Duke Bolesław Wrymouth rejoined Szczecin to Poland, and Duke Warcisław I recognized Polish suzerainty and paid homage to Krzywousty, founding the Griffin dynasty, which ruled Szczecin for over 500 years.
In 1185, the city, together with Western Pomerania, became a fief of Denmark, and then in 1235 it became a fief of the emperor and became part of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1243, Prince Barnim I granted Szczecin city rights. In the following years, the city acquired further areas: in 1283 Dąbie Lake, and in 1321 Police. In the 13th century, Szczecin became a Hanseatic city. In the place of a Slavic stronghold in the 14th century, Prince Barnim III the Great built his seat, the so-called "Stone House" and the chapel of St. Otto. The completion of the stone and brick city walls around the city also dates from this period. In 1474 in Szczecin, after the line of the Szczecin and Wallachian dukes expired, the Słupsk prince Bogusław X took power, who 4 years later united Western Pomerania, and in 1491 moved its capital to Szczecin. However, already in 1532 the duchy was divided again and the city became the capital of the Duchy of Szczecin. In 1514, it was forbidden to admit people of Wendish origin to the tailors' guild.
In 1534, the town's inhabitants converted to Protestantism (Lutheranism).
In 1570, the "Peace of Szczecin" was signed ending the First Northern War.
In 1630 the city was occupied by the Swedes.
On March 10, 1637, during the Thirty Years' War, Bogusław XIV, the last Pomeranian prince from the Griffin dynasty, died in Szczecin. The extinction of the dynasty meant the fall of the independent Duchy of Pomerania. According to the dynastic agreement concluded in 1529, Pomerania was to be inherited by the Hohenzollerns. However, the real masters were the Swedes, whose army occupied Western Pomerania during the war. In 1654, in a treaty concluded after the end of the Thirty Years' War, Western Pomerania was divided between Brandenburg and Sweden - part of Pomerania with Szczecin (including the islands of Uznam and Wolin) fell to Sweden, which enabled Sweden to make the so-called Swedish Deluge - invasion of Poland. Military activities during the Swedish Deluge contributed to the economic decline of the town.
In 1713, the city was occupied by Prussia, which was confirmed by the Peace of Stockholm, when on January 21, 1720, the Queen of Sweden, Ulrika Eleonora Wittelsbach, just before her abdication, sold Szczecin with the eastern part of the Swedish part of Pomerania for 2 million thalers to Frederick William I, King of Prussia. In 1724–1740, new city fortifications were erected around the city, the plan of which was to demolish the medieval fortifications.
During the Seven Years' War, the Russians besieged Szczecin. In the years 1806–1813, Szczecin was under French occupation. From February 21 to July 29, 1809, the staff of the 4th Cavalry Regiment of the Army of the Duchy of Warsaw was stationed, fighting the Prussian insurgent troops of Major Schill in Swedish Pomerania. From January to December 5, 1813, the fortress was heroically defended by the French General Barbanègre.
From 1818, it was a municipal district and at the same time the seat of the Szczecin regency.
In 1843, the city received a railway connection with Berlin, giving rise to the railway in Pomerania, soon after that, the industry began to develop more intensively. In 1873, the then mayor of the city, Hermann Haken, decided to demolish the fortifications and expand the city.
On October 15, 1939, the so-called The Great City of Szczecin, existing until the end of the war. There were about 100 forced labor camps in this area. As a result of Allied bombing raids, the damage to the buildings amounted to approx. 60-70%, the port and its vicinity - 70-80%, and the industrial buildings were destroyed in 90%.
In February 1945, the German authorities began the evacuation of the city's inhabitants, the equipment of factories and archives, and the erection of barricades, anti-tank ditches and minefields. From 14 to 20 March, heavy fighting for the eastern districts of Szczecin took place. They were attended, among others, by units of the 47th and 61st armies and the 2nd Guards Tank Army of the 1st Belorussian Front, as well as the 2nd artillery division and the 1st Independent Mortar Brigade of the 1st Army of the Polish Army. On March 20, the city was declared a fortress, and after the right-bank settlements were occupied by the Soviet army, the port was mined and the bridges on the Oder were destroyed. The units of the 65th army of the 2nd Belorussian Front took part in further battles, forcing the Regalica and Odra rivers and taking over the left-bank Szczecin from April 15 to 26 ).
The official transfer of the city to the Polish authorities took place late, on July 5. The German population that remained in the city was resettled to Germany and in 1947 only 4,000 people lived in Szczecin. the Germans.
In 1948, it was unveiled on pl. Grunwaldzki, funded by the "dąbrowszczacy" community, a commemorative plaque in honor of General Świerczewski on the first anniversary of his death in the fight against UPA units. In 1950, it was erected on pl. Polish Soldier Monument of Gratitude commemorating the Soviet soldiers who fell in the battles for the city in 1945.
In 1959, there were rumors that the USSR, as part of detente in relations with the West, might agree to a correction of the Polish border in the area of Szczecin. The first secretary of the PZPR, Władysław Gomułka, irritated by the silence of the Soviet press, which did not deny these rumors, addressed a sharp letter to the Soviet leader Khrushchev. At the same time, the Polish side decided to include Szczecin in the program of visits by foreign delegations. This also happened during Khrushchev's visit to Poland. During the ceremony of granting him honorary citizenship of the city of Khrushchev, dispelling the concerns of the Polish side, he said.
In 1973, the Pedagogical University of Szczecin was established. In 1979 at ul. Piotr Skarga, the monument to Deed of Poles was unveiled; three eagles symbolize three generations of Poles struggling with the Germanic element.
In December 1970 and August 1980, workers' strikes and demonstrations took place in Szczecin, and the so-called August agreements. In 1979, the city was awarded the Order of the Banner of Labor, 1st class. In 1984, the Pedagogical University of Szczecin and the Faculty of Engineering and Economics of Transport of the Szczecin University of Technology were merged and the University of Szczecin was established. On June 11, 1987, the city was visited by Pope John Paul II.
In the years 1946-1975, the city was the capital of the so-called of the large Szczecin Voivodeship, in the years 1975–1998 in the so-called of the small Szczecin Voivodeship, and since 1999 it has been the capital of the Zachodniopomorskie Voivodeship. Since 1999, Szczecin has been the headquarters of the Multinational Corps Northeast of NATO forces.
In the 21st century, Szczecin became the city most often chosen for the finish line of the international regatta of large sailing ships The Tall Ships' Races. The first final took place in Szczecin on August 4-7, 2007 (regatta route: Aarhus - Kotka - Stockholm - Szczecin). The organizers claim that the rally area was visited by 2 million people. The Norwegian sailing ship Christian Radich won the regatta in the general classification. At that time, the city became one of the organizers and sponsors of the event, and therefore on August 3-6, 2013, the next final of the regatta was held there, on the route Aarhus - Helsinki - Riga - Szczecin. It was even more important than the previous one, because in 2007 the event was divided into two parts (Baltic and Mediterranean), and in 2013 the whole event took place on the Baltic Sea. More than 100 sailing ships came to Szczecin, more than before, and the winner in the general classification of the regatta was s/yDar Szczecina, a yacht owned by the city, and at the same time the smallest sailing ship that has ever won this regatta (weak winds during the race favored smaller vessels). For the third time, the final of the regatta, equally great, took place in Szczecin on August 4-7, 2017 (route Halmstad - Kotka - Turku - Klaipeda - Szczecin), and the British sailing ship Royalist won the regatta. Shortly after this final, a decision was made to award Szczecin the fourth final, which is to be held on July 31 - August 3, 2021 (regatta route: Klaipeda - St. Petersburg - Tallinn - Mariehamn - Szczecin).
The name Szczecin is of Slavic origin. Medieval written historical
sources are relatively scarce and it is difficult to draw specific
conclusions from them. In the past, it was believed that the name of the
city comes from Szczecin. Others derived it from the word sewage
(because the Oder waters in this area very slowly "spill" towards the
Baltic Sea). More recent research put forward a more probable thesis
that Szczecin took its name from the word "summit", which meant a
shield, and the suffix "-in" (Szczycin).
Old chronicles mention that the town was situated on three hills. These peaks would give rise to the first name of Szczytno. Marian Gumowski, on the basis of research carried out on old city seals, believed that the original name of the city was Szczycin. There is also a thesis that the name comes from the Old German word stette, which means "fortress".
Other hypotheses about the origin of the name have also been put forward: "settlement on a river arm, dam or ford" (brush), from the brush as swamp grass, from the type of thistle, from the name/nickname, from the Sidin tribe.
Over the centuries, Szczecin changed its name many times. The oldest mention of the name Stetin comes from 1133, in 1188 Stetyn, in 1251 Stitin, as well as Stitinum, Stitin, Stetina and Stittin.
In the past, the name "Old Szczecin" (Alten Stettin) was also used to distinguish it from Nowe Szczecin, i.e. Szczecinek.
The Polish pre-war exonym was Szczecin (1890, 1938). The name Szczecin was officially established in 1946.
Szczecin is a center of maritime economy; it employs 13,279
people. The seaport serves shipowners from all over the world and is
the home port of two shipping companies: Polska Żegluga Morska and
Euroafrica. In addition, other companies related to the maritime economy
have their headquarters here. Within the port area, on the island of
Ostrów Grabowski, there is Spółka Wodna Międzyodrze, which deals with
sewage treatment. The shipbuilding industry, traditional for the city,
declined - the Szczecin Shipyard Nowa (continuation of the Porta Holding
S.A. Szczecin Shipyard, which was established on the basis of the Adolf
Warski Shipyard) was liquidated; Parnica Shipyard collapsed. There are
repair shipyards in operation: Szczecin Shiprepair Shipyard "Gryfia",
Stocznia Pomerania Sp. z o.o., Grupa Stoczni Odra Sp. z o. o. and
Within the city, a subzone of Szczecin was established - the Euro-Park Mielec Special Economic Zone, which includes 8 complexes with a total area of 93.84 ha. Within the subzone, there are plants producing e.g. load-bearing elements, sun visors and electrical installation accessories. In 2013, a subzone of Szczecin was established - the Kostrzyn-Słubice Special Economic Zone, which includes 1 complex. Entrepreneurs undertaking business activity in economic subzones may take advantage of the exemption from part of the CIT income tax or part of the two-year labor costs.
Huta Szczecin was the only ironworks on the Polish coast. Szczecinskie Zakłady Nawozów Fosforowych Superfosfat, currently under the name Fosfan S.A., located near the steelworks, produce mineral fertilizers for agriculture and gardening.
The State Fisheries Farm Szczecin operated in the village.
In September 2016, the number of registered unemployed in Szczecin was approx. 8.4 thousand. inhabitants, which is an unemployment rate of 5.0% for the professionally active.
The average employee remuneration in October 2012 amounted to PLN 3,807.73, with the number of employees employed in Szczecin - 90,754 people. The average salary in the public sector was PLN 4,169.51, and in the private sector, PLN 3,434.77.
In 2009, the average gross monthly salary in the enterprise sector in Szczecin was PLN 3,439.94.
Szczecin's GDP is PLN 20.255 billion, which is 1/3 of the GDP of the entire voivodeship. There is PLN 49,497 per inhabitant, which is about 40% more than the result for the voivodship.
The largest shopping centers in Szczecin are CHR Galaxy, which has
170 shops of various industries, a cinema and a hypermarket, and CH
Kaskada. There are many other shopping centers in Szczecin. Since
February 2020, Ikea is also being built here.
In 2006, there were 16 markets in the city, of which 14 were mostly small retail. The largest bazaars in Szczecin are: Pogodno (ul. Reymonta), Plac Kilińskiego, Manhattan (ul. Staszica), as well as the marketplace at ul. of Journalism in Szczecin-Dąbie. In Szczecin, two car fairs are held every Sunday, the first one near Polmopozyt at ul. Białowieska, the other at ul. Sugar.
Szczecin is famous for several products. The first one is paprykarz Szczeciński, which is a typical addition to sandwiches. It consists of fish meat, rice, onion, tomato paste, vegetable oil, the addition of various spices and salt. Another famous Szczecin delicacy are the Szczecin pastries, made of yeast dough and stuffed with cheese, meat or cabbage with mushrooms. Another regional product was the Starka vodka from Szczecin, currently produced from rye only in the local vodka factory, its taste is due to long aging in oak barrels with small additions of linden or apple leaves.
In 2008, Szczecin developed and adopted the Long-Term Szczecin Brand Strategy, which summarizes the image of the city and defines its greatest assets. Szczecin is promoted as a Floating Garden, a term meaning a city filled with greenery and water in its downtown.
Szczecin is a transport hub on the route of the trans-European north-south transport corridor connecting southern Scandinavia, the Czech Republic and Austria with the ports of the Mediterranean Sea. Within the city, 43 percent. trips are made by car (the highest indicator in Poland), and 37 percent. by bus or tram.
Six different directions of railway lines converge in Szczecin, which together form the Szczecin railway junction. Since 2004, there are 8 railway stations and stops operating in passenger traffic in Szczecin. The city also has 2 freight stations and several branch posts. Szczecin is connected to the national railway infrastructure through 7 railway lines. Railway line No. 401 connects Szczecin with Goleniów and Świnoujście, and line No. 351 - with Stargard and Poznań, which has lines to Warsaw and Wrocław. Line 273 connects with Gryfino, Kostrzyn nad Odrą, Zielona Góra and Wrocław. Railway line No. 409 leads from Szczecin to Berlin and railway line No. 408 to Lübeck and Hamburg.
On the railway line no. 406, which has been closed for passenger traffic since 2002, it is planned to launch a branch of the Szczecin Metropolitan Railway to the city of Police by 2025, with additional stops on it.
Cruise ships sailing on the Oder River and the waters of the Szczecin port depart from the Passenger Quay at Wały Chrobrego. In the 2020 season, there were three shipowners with six vessels: Joanna, Dziewanna, Kapitan Cook, Sedina, Odra Queen and Peene Queen. Hydrofoils operating on the route to Świnoujście operated in Szczecin for a long time, with varying degrees of success - the last time in 2008-2015. The Berlin-Szczecin-Baltic waterway is regularly visited by hotel river cruisers, mainly of the German and Swiss flags.
In Szczecin, there are business entities that rent small vessels.
Air transport is served by the international Szczecin-Goleniów Airport located approx. 47 km from the city center. NSZZ "Solidarność", which has regular air connections with: Warsaw (Okęcie - LOT Polish Airlines, Modlin - Ryanair), London (Stansted - Ryanair), Lviv (Wizz Air, suspended due to the Russian invasion of Ukraine on February 24, 2022. ), Copenhagen (SAS and Norwegian), Liverpool (Ryanair), Dublin (Ryanair) and the Norwegian cities of Oslo (Gardermoen - Norwegian, Torp - Wizz Air), Bergen (Wizz Air) and Stavanger (Wizz Air). The offer also includes charter and seasonal flights (LOT Polish Airlines offer a seasonal connection to Croatia - in the 2019 season it was Zadar, in the 2020, 2021 and 2022 seasons Rijeka and to Rzeszów). The annual capacity of the air terminal is 1 million passengers. The terminal is adapted to EU requirements.
The role of the sports airport of the Szczecin Aero Club is played by the Szczecin-Dąbie grass airport, which until the 1960s served as the city's airport. The airport has two grass runways.
There are also three hospital helipads in Szczecin: at ul. Union of Lublin, in Zdroje and Zdunowo.
Collective public transport
Public transport in the city is organized by a budgetary entity under the name of the Road and Urban Transport Authority. Its task is to set a detailed timetable on all lines, distribute and control tickets and order transport services. On his order, the tram lines are operated by Tramwaje Szczecińskie, and the bus lines are operated by the Szczecin Bus Company "Klonowica", Szczecin Bus Company "Dąbie", Szczecin-Polickie Przedsiębiorstwo Komunikacyjne and PKS Szczecin.
The tram network is the main means of public transport in the city centre. Radial tram lines radiating from the center provide a large transport capacity to and from the districts of left-bank Szczecin. The Szczecin Fast Tram connected the right-bank part of the city with the centre.
Documenting and nurturing the history of local public transport is the responsibility of the Szczecin Society of Public Transport Enthusiasts and the Museum of Technology and Transport - Art Depot in Szczecin.
The sea border crossing Szczecin operates in the city, and the Szczecin-Goleniów airport is located nearby.
On some roads, the reserves for bicycle paths, resulting from the solutions planned in the pre-war period (e.g. Ku Słońca, Mickiewicza, Bohaterów Warszawy, Wyspiańskiego Streets), are used for parking purposes. The current system of bicycle paths covers only parts of the city, including approx. 27 km in the Zachód district and approx. 9 km in Śródmieście. Currently, there are more and more bicycle paths on the Right Bank and part of the North. However, it is still a rather chaotic system, not creating a coherent system of bicycle routes.
In the summer of 2014, a system of city bikes "Bike_S" was created, whose stations were initially located only in the center. In 2016, the system was extended to include more stations, e.g. on the Right Bank.
There are two local TV stations in Szczecin (TVP3 Szczecin and
PomeraniaTV) and local radio stations Polskie Radio Szczecin, Radio Plus
Szczecin, Radio Szczecin Extra, Radio Eska Szczecin and Radio Złote
Przeboje, Radio RMF Maxxx and Radio Wawa. The largest local newspapers
are: Kurier Szczeciński and Głos Szczeciński, the regional edition of
Gazeta Wyborcza, and the free weekly MM Moje Miasto. Since 2007, a free
monthly magazine has also been published in Szczecin - Prestiż Magazyn
Szczeciński - a lifestyle magazine describing people, events and places
related to the city.
Once, there were also TV stations in Szczecin: TV Sea, TV Bryza, TV Gryf, TV7 and radio stations: Radio Vox FM, Radio Plama, Radio PSR, Radio ABC and Radio As. In the early 1990s Dziennik Szczeciński was published. The newspaper Hallo Szczecin and the free Gazeta Szczecińska were published three times a week, later in German. A free newspaper, i.e. Sprawabrzeże, is also published in Prawbrzeże. For members of the "Dąb" Housing Cooperative, the newspaper "Panorama 7" is published, the price of which is included in the rent. The bi-monthly cultural magazine "Pogranicza" was published in Szczecin.
Since September 2011, the magazine "Szczecin in Progress" has also been published - a free monthly magazine whose creators focus on showing the positive sides of the city, its inhabitants and people working for the development of Szczecin.
The most famous dishes of Szczecin cuisine are the Szczecin pastry
and the Szczeciński paprykarz.
The city is also associated with herring products; in the Stettiner Kochbuch cookbook you can find, for example, a recipe for "Szczeciński herring in Pomeranian style" (pieces of herring served with whipped sour cream and paprika, salt and pepper). It also translated into the economic plane - Szczecin was the main German exporter of this fish.
In the 1990s, on the wave of popularity of fast food, a dish known as Frytburger began to be served in Szczecin bars. It is a minced cutlet with fries served in a pita or roll, usually with the addition of sauces. The sandwich, which is a combination of English chip butty and Greek gyros, is popular mainly in Szczecin, in other Polish cities the dish is rarely offered by eateries.
In 2007, 20,739 children attended 59 elementary schools in Szczecin,
and 12,504 students attended 51 lower secondary schools. 13,467 people
studied in secondary schools. In 2007, the city had 31 general secondary
schools, 22 technical secondary schools for youth, 10 specialized
secondary schools for youth, 14 basic vocational schools for youth, 5
post-secondary schools, and 11 art schools. One of the two State Ballet
Centers in the country is located in the city.
The idea of establishing a university in Szczecin appeared already in the 16th century, but the proper development of higher education began only in 1946. Currently, the following universities are located in Szczecin:
Maritime University of Technology in Szczecin
Archbishop's Higher Theological Seminary in Szczecin
Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin
University of Szczecin
Academy of Art in Szczecin
University of Public Administration in Szczecin
WSB University in Poznań, Faculty of Economics in Szczecin
University of Economics and Tourism
Academy of Applied Sciences of the Society of Universal Knowledge in Szczecin
TWP Pedagogical University
University of European Integration in Szczecin
College of Foreign Languages
University of Technology and Economics in Szczecin
College of Theology and Humanities
Szczecin University - Collegium Balticum
Higher Vocational School "Oeconomicus" PTE
Higher School of Management
West Pomeranian Business School in Szczecin
West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin established on the basis of the Szczecin University of Technology and the Agricultural University of Szczecin
Szczecin is a city with poviat rights. The residents elect 31 councilors to the City Council of Szczecin. The executive body of the authorities is the mayor of the city, who has been Piotr Krzystek since December 4, 2006. The City Hall of Szczecin is located on Armii Krajowej Square.
In 2013, the budget expenditures of the local government of Szczecin amounted to PLN 1,777 million, and budget revenues to PLN 1,775 million. The debt (public debt) of the local government, according to data for the fourth quarter of 2013, amounted to PLN 940.8 million, which accounted for 53% of revenue
Composition of the City Council in 1998–2002
Democratic Left Alliance – 24 seats
Solidarity Electoral Action – 21 seats
Unia Wolności – 8 seats
Marian Jurczyk's Independent Social Movement - 6 seats
Settlers - 1 mandate
Composition of the City Council in 2002–2006
Democratic Left Alliance-Labor Union – 14 seats
KWW of Teresa Lubińska - 5 seats
Marian Jurczyk's Independent Committee - 5 seats
POPIS for Szczecin - 5 seats
League of Polish Families – 1 mandate
Total Poland - 1 seat
Composition of the City Council in 2006–2010
Civic Platform – 15 seats
Law and Justice – 10 seats
Left and Democrats - 6 seats
Composition of the City Council in 2010–2014
Civic Platform – 15 seats
Law and Justice – 7 seats
Democratic Left Alliance – 6 seats
Piotr Krzystek Szczecin for Generations - 2 mandates
KWW of Małgorzata Jacyna-Witt - 1 mandate
Composition of the City Council in 2014–2018
Civic Platform – 10 seats
Law and Justice – 10 seats
Piotr Krzystek's independent KWW - 8 seats
SLD Lewica Together – 2 seats
KWW of Małgorzata Jacyna-Witt - 1 mandate
Szczecin is a member of the Union of Polish Metropolises.
Composition of the City Council in 2018–2023
Civic Coalition – 13 seats
Law and Justice – 10 seats
KWW of Piotr Krzystek Nonpartisan - 8 seats
The basic auxiliary unit of a city is the estate, although other
units such as districts can be created. The city is divided into 37
administrative settlements. In addition, Szczecin is divided into 4
districts: North, Right Bank, Śródmieście, West. The districts do not
perform self-government functions, but group housing estates and are
used by the City of Szczecin for the organization of work, space
management and city management.
The self-government function is performed by housing estates with legislative and executive bodies. The legislative body of each is the estate council, which appoints the executive body - the estate management board.
Such an administrative division of Szczecin has been in place since 1990, with minor changes to the boundaries of housing estates and districts and changes to the statute of housing estates.
The inhabitants of Szczecin often mistakenly identify a housing estate with an administrative estate, which means that a housing estate cooperative is an auxiliary unit of the city. Cooperative housing administrations often operate within a given housing estate council.
The inhabitants of Szczecin elect councilors to the provincial assembly in constituency I. Deputies to the Sejm are elected from constituency no. 41, senators from constituency no. 97 (together with the police district), and deputies to the European Parliament from constituency no. 13.
Szczecin is the seat of the court of appeal, the district court and the provincial administrative court. There are 2 district courts in Szczecin, dividing the city into 2 areas of jurisdiction. Szczecin is the seat of the regional prosecutor's office and the district prosecutor's office. The area of the city is divided between 4 district prosecutor's offices.
There are 16 honorary consulates in Szczecin
Before 1939, there were 27 consulates in the then German city of Szczecin, including the Polish consulate (1925–1939). After World War II, there were also consulates in Szczecin: Czechoslovakia (1948-1992), Finland (1949-1961), France (1946-1951), Cuba (1969-1991), GDR/FRG (1974-1990, 1991-2000) Norway (1991), USSR/Russia (1948-1960, 1971-1991), Sweden (1948-1993), Great Britain (1947-1951).
Partner cities of Szczecin:
Germany Rostock since 1957
Denmark Esbjerg since September 1, 1990
Germany Bremerhaven since October 16, 1990
United Kingdom Kingston upon Hull from 20 September 1991
United States Saint Louis since 1992
Germany Lübeck since January 15, 1993
Sweden Malmö since March 8, 1994
Dalian since September 29, 1995
Germany Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg (Berlin) since June 14, 1996
Lithuania Klaipėda since March 20, 2002
Germany Greifswald since August 20, 2010
Italy Bari since November 30, 2010
Jinan since September 13, 2010
Ukraine Dnieper since November 27, 2010
Szczecin is also a member of the New Hanza and the Union of Polish Metropolises.
Until 1945, the inhabitants of Szczecin spoke the Middle Pomeranian dialect of the Low German language. In the first years after World War II, Szczecin was settled mainly by people from the former Eastern Borderlands, eastern and central Poland. In the initial period, this population used the Polish language, which was characterized by a large number of dialectal expressions and accretions characteristic of the home areas of the settlers. Over the last half-century (as a result of the so-called "language melting pot"), a huge unification of the language took place in this area. According to research carried out in the 1990s, the present inhabitants of Szczecin (along with the inhabitants of Wrocław) speak the Polish language closest to the literary language among all inhabitants of Poland. A typical urban dialect similar to, for example, the Poznań dialect has not developed in Szczecin. However, the colloquial language of the city's inhabitants is characterized by a small number of words that differ from the standards of colloquial Polish from the rest of the country, in the 1990s the words: many (man), szmula (girl), zinci (elegant shoes, patent leather shoes) were used.
In 2011, the largest among recognized national minorities in Szczecin
were Germans (988 people; 0.2% of the total), followed by Ukrainians
(428; 0.1%). There were also over 100 representatives of minorities:
Belarusian, Roma, Russian and Jewish.
According to a report prepared for the Union of Polish Metropolises, in April 2022 there were 84,489 Ukrainians in Szczecin. The increase in the number of immigrants from Ukraine is related to the Russian invasion of this country.
There is an emergency notification center in Szczecin that handles emergency calls to emergency numbers 112, 997, 998 and 999.
The main institution of security and public order in Szczecin is the
Municipal Police Headquarters. It consists of the following departments:
traffic, criminal, economic crimes, forensic techniques, prevention
(including district officers, joint action with local governments and
prevention) and other departments related to logistics. The area of the
city of Szczecin is divided into five areas (Śródmieście, Niebuszewo,
Pogodno, nad Odrą, Dąbie), assigned to five police stations. Each area
of operation of the police station is divided into sectors, and these in
turn into regions to which a district officer is assigned. Each district
officer is on duty at the admission point several times a month. In
Szczecin there are 20 departments of the Provincial Police Headquarters,
a prevention department, a forensic laboratory, and a headquarters of
the West Pomeranian Police.
In 2009, the detection rate of perpetrators of crimes identified in Szczecin was 55.1% and was the lowest in the Zachodniopomorskie Voivodship. In 2009, in Szczecin, among others, 3,653 burglary, 299 car theft, 718 drug crime and 15 homicide.
The city is located in the border zone and the Border Guard unit in Szczecin from the Maritime Division of the Border Guard covers it. The central archive of this formation is also located here.
The city is divided into areas of operation of five rescue and firefighting units that are part of the Municipal Headquarters of the State Fire Service in Szczecin. In 2006, the police station recorded 4,055 events in the city, of which 2,347 involved fires. Szczecin is also the seat of the Provincial Headquarters of the State Fire Service.
Szczecin has a city guard, which is organized in 4 departments: North, Right Bank, Śródmieście, West. Its primary task is to protect peace and order in public places. Since 2006, her new duty as part of the "Clean Szczecin" campaign is to collect information, also electronically, about particularly neglected places in the city.
The Szczecin garrison was the place where Swedish, Prussian, French,
Duchy of Warsaw, German, Soviet and Polish units were stationed in
Currently, the headquarters of the Multinational Corps Northeast, the headquarters of the 12th Mechanized Division, the 12th Mechanized Brigade and the 14th WOT Brigade are located in the city. The 5th Engineer Regiment and the 12th Command Battalion are stationed here. There are also a number of garrison institutions of the military administration here.
Independent Public Provincial Integrated Hospital in Szczecin[b]
Independent Public Clinical Hospital No. 1 for them prof. Tadeusz Sokołowski in Szczecin along with the airstrip
Independent Public Clinical Hospital No. 2 in Szczecin
West Pomeranian Cancer Center in Szczecin - Golęcin
Specialist Hospital "Zdroje"
109 Military Hospital with Outpatient Clinic in Szczecin
Hospital of the Ministry of Interior and Administration in Szczecin
Emergency medical Services
Medical rescue in Szczecin is provided by the Provincial Ambulance Station. It comprises 11 emergency medical teams (4 specialized S teams and 7 basic P teams) from two facilities (ul. Wojska Polskiego and Gryfińska). Apart from Szczecin, the teams also cover the neighboring communes of Kołbaskowo, Dobra Szczecińska and part of the commune of Goleniów. There are 3 hospital emergency departments in the city for people in a state of emergency, and there is also 1 hospital emergency department for children.
The city is the seat of the Szczecin-Kamień Archdiocese of the Roman
Catholic Church. Szczecin has 46 parishes, which are divided among 7
deaneries (Szczecin-Dąbie, Szczecin-Niebuszewo, Szczecin-Pogodno,
Szczecin-Pomorzany, Szczecin-Słoneczne, Szczecin-Śródmieście and
The main Roman Catholic church in Szczecin is the Cathedral Basilica of St. Jacob. In 1988, on the estate Słoneczne, the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fatima was established, whose figure was crowned in Jasne Błonia by John Paul II during the third apostolic trip to Poland. On March 24, 1981, the Archbishop's Higher Theological Seminary was established here, and the entire archdiocese is involved in the development and functioning of the Faculty of Theology of the University of Szczecin. In 1995 at ul. st. Jan Bosko, the Salesian Organ School was established. Cardinal August Hlond.
In Szczecin and the Szczecin-Kamień diocese, the percentage of practicing believers has been the lowest in Poland for a long time.
In Szczecin there is also a parish church of St. st. Peter and St. Paul of the Polish Catholic faith. The Polish National Catholic Church in Poland maintains the parish of St. John the Baptist, and the Catholic National Church in Poland - the parish of the Holy Spirit.
In the city there is an Orthodox church dedicated to St. Nicholas (co-cathedral and at the same time parish) and the Greek Catholic Church of the Protection of the Mother of God.
There are numerous Protestant churches in Szczecin - the Evangelical-Augsburg parish of the Holy Trinity in Łasztownia, the Evangelical-Methodist parish at ul. Stoisława, a church of the Baptist Christian Church, two churches of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, two churches of the Pentecostal Church in Poland - at ul. Wawrzyniak and the "Betezda" congregation, the "Church on the Rock" congregation (the Church of God in Christ), 2 congregations of the Evangelical Faith Christian Church and 2 congregations of the Evangelical Christian Church - the "Bethel" congregation and the second congregation. There is also the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Gmina Szczecin) and the Evangelical Reformed Church operating in the diaspora.
In Szczecin, 19 congregations of Jehovah's Witnesses conduct preaching activities (including a congregation of sign language, English, Russian and Ukrainian, and one Vietnamese-speaking group). They gather in 4 Kingdom Halls in the city and in Police. Jehovah's Witnesses began their activities in the city around 1910, organizing a series of lectures. In 1914, the group of followers was about 30 people. In 1915 and 1916, a congress was organized. At that time, there were 75 followers here, in 1919 - 105 in the city and 21 in the newly established church in Altdamm - a total of 126 people. In 1925, a total of 267. A year later, 331 were recorded, and in 1927 - 368 (including 66 in Altdamm).
There is also a congregation of the Secular Missionary Movement "Epifania" in the city.
There are 4 Buddhist groups operating in Szczecin: the Szczecin Zen Group representing the tradition of Korean sŏn Buddhism (Jap. Zen), the center of Diamond Way Buddhism, the Jungdrung Bon Group being the local center of the Garuda Association in Poland and the Buddhist Mission "Three Shelters" with its Sanboin temple.
In 1835, the first synagogue was built in Szczecin. In 1873, it was demolished and a new synagogue was built, which was burnt down by Nazi militias during Kristallnacht in 1938. Since 1945, the Jewish community has held services in the synagogue at Juliana Ursyna Niemcewicza Street.
Central Cemetery (the largest cemetery in Poland and the third largest in Europe)
Cemetery in Dąbie
Cemetery in Zdroje
Cemetery in Płonia
Cemetery in Wielgowo
Municipal cemetery at ul. Chopin in Szczecin
Municipal cemetery at ul. Potulicka in Szczecin
Military Cemetery at Św. Wojciech in Szczecin
Cemetery of French prisoners of war in Szczecin
Jewish cemeteries in Szczecin
Golęcin Cemetery in Szczecin
Cemetery at ul. sad
There is also a cemetery for animals in the city (at Bielańska Street).
In Szczecin, the largest sports facilities are the Municipal Stadium.
Florian Krygiera and the Municipal Athletics Stadium. Wiesław Maniak, as
well as one of the oldest facilities, the cycling track built before
World War II. Zbysława Zając, located in the Zachód district. These
facilities belong to the city and are administered by MOSRIR Szczecin.
The most famous Szczecin teams are those called Pogoń Szczecin, playing football, men's handball (the most successful women's handball section was dissolved in 2019), futsal and sailing, as well as King Wilki Morskie Szczecin (basketball, formerly part of Pogoń) . In addition, Arkonia Szczecin is a multi-section team, primarily focused on training youth in football and successful in water polo.
There is also the Szczecin Aeroclub in the city, which brings together about 250 members grouped in 6 sections, and also conducts training: airplane, glider, parachute, paragliding, and occasionally microlight courses.
There are clubs in Szczecin: BKS Olimp Szczecin, AZS Szczecin (rowing), Wiskord Szczecin (canoeing), Karate Bodaikan Szczecin, Karate Klub Kamikaze Szczecin, swimming MKP Szczecin, triathlon Ironman Szczecin and futsal Pogoń '04 Szczecin, cycling BO-GO Szczecin , Gryf Szczecin, youth basketball Kusy Szczecin, women's football Olimpia Szczecin, American football Armada Szczecin and the cycling section of Piast Szczecin. Out of a number of football clubs, apart from Pogoń and Arkonia (once also playing in the 1st league), Stal Stocznia Szczecin (2nd league, since 2009 being the 1st league) and Świt Skolwin (3rd league) played at a higher level.
Representatives of Poland and other countries train at the Pole Jumping Center (OSoT Szczecin).
Every year in September, the ATP Pekao Szczecin Open men's tennis tournament is held in Szczecin.
In 2011, the 2011 European Short Course Swimming Championships were held in the city. In 2017, the city was one of the organizers of the 2017 Men's European Volleyball Championships. The matches were played in the Netto Arena. The 2019 European Gymnastics Championships were also held in the same arena.