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Kamianets- Podilskyi

 

Kamianets- Podilskyi is a historic medieval city situated in Khmelnytskyi Oblast of Ukraine.

 

 

 
Location: Khmelnytskyi Oblast

 

 

 

 

Travel Destinations in Kamianets- Podilskyi

Alexander Nevsky Cathedral (Собор Александра Невского)

Alexander Nevsky Cathedral is a Russian Orthodox church located in the Kamianets- Podilskyi. It was constructed in neo- Byzantine architectural style in 1893 to mark 100th anniversary of annexation of Podilia (Podolia) region to Russian Empire. Finances for construction of the magnificent temple were gathered from volunteers and private donations mostly. Gospel and priest's cross was given by Alexandra Feodorovna, wife of Nicholas II. Huge carpet on the first floor was donated by a local women's gymnasium. Two layered iconostasis was designed by master Akhapkin. In 1897 Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Kamianets- Podilskyi was officially consecrated.

The main altar of a church was dedicated to Saint Alexander Nevsky, medieval Russian prince and also patron saint of Emperor Alexander III who died shortly before construction of the cathedral was completed. The South altar was dedicated to Saint Catherine of Alexandria and North altar was dedicated to Saint Nicholas.

In 1936 fanatical atheists blew up the main church of Kamianets- Podilskyi and reused its bricks. In 2000 new church of Alexander Nevsky Cathedral was reconstructed in its original appearance.

 

 

Kamianets- Podilskyi Castle

Kamianets- Podilskyi Castle or the Old Castle of Kamianets- Podilskyi is one of the largest medieval strongholds in Ukraine. It is hard to say when Kamianets- Podilskyi Castle was originally constructed, but the first time it was mentioned is in 1374 in a document of Yuri Koriatovich. The site was chosen wisely. Deep canyon carved by Smotrych River carved natural protection of the medieval castle. Old Kamianets- Podilskyi Castle has several defensive towers: Small Western, New (Big) Western, Karmalyukova, Papal, Kolpak (Cap), Lyashskaya, Dnevnaya (Day), Rozhanka, Commandant, New Eastern and Tenchinskaya towers. The oldest tower of Kamianets- Podilskyi Castle is Dnevnaya or Day Tower.

Changing military technologies forced residents of Kamianets- Podilskyi to increase military fortifications of their citadel. They added earthen ramparts around walls of the stronghold. Nevertheless the Ottoman Turks managed to capture citadel in 1672. An exhibition in a museum is dedicated this heroic defence under leadership of M. Pototsky.

Kamianets Podilskyi citadel was turned into a prison in the late 18th century after it lost its military significance. It served in this role to the early 20th century. Among its inmates the most famous is Ustim Karmalyuk. This Ukrainian peasant joined Russian army during Patriotic war of 1812 against Napoleon Bonaparte and French Army. However didn't last too long there and eventually deserted Imperial army. He became famous as an Ukrainian version of Robin Hood. He was briefly held as a prisoner in Papal Tower. After his release Ustim Karmalyuk started robbing merchants again and eventually was killed by law enforcement agents at the age of 48.

 

 

Russian Gate (Kamianets- Podilskyi)

 

 

Polish Gate (Kamianets- Podilskyi)

 


 

History

In 1362, Kamenetz was captured by the Lithuanian prince Algerd, with the aim of gaining influence on Russian lands. Realizing the advantages of the geographical position of the city, the Lithuanians begin to fortify the city with stone fortifications. Since that time, three communities have been entrenched in the city, Russian by right of inheritance, Lithuanian-Polish by law of force and Armenian by right of city construction. Each enjoyed its own culture and the right to self-government. And in 1374, the Lithuanian princes Koriatovichi, the founders of the fortress and the nephews of Olgerd, proclaim Magdeburg law, the city becomes the center of Podolia and is exempted from taxes. Mentioned in the chronicle "List of Russian cities far and near" (end of the XIV century). Since 1393, the city several times passed from the hands of the Lithuanians to the Poles and vice versa. In 1463, Kamenetz-Podolsky was proclaimed the Royal City of Poland. In the years 1434-1793 was the center of Podolsk Voivodeship as part of the Lesser Poland province.

Old Kamenetz-Podolsky is a fortified city, standing on a stone plateau with high ledges in the loop of the river, a bridge guarded by a huge defensive outer citadel with cliffs, which at the same time forms a single defensive complex with the city, which has terrified the invaders for more than 500 years. The city had the most important geopolitical significance on the border of Christian and Muslim cultures, played a significant role as a shield in saving Europe from the Mongol-Tatar raids. Throughout its history, not a single army has been able to take a fortress in battle; power was changed only with the help of banal deception and military sabotage.

In the Middle Ages, Kamenetz was a major craft and trade center; in its development, it was on a par with such cities as Lviv and Kiev. In 1672, Podillia was occupied, and the city was subjected to a long siege and, as a result of the signing of the Buchach Peace, was surrendered to the 300,000th Turkish army of the Ottoman Empire and the Cossacks of the hetman Doroshenko, who fought against the Commonwealth, joined them. The churches and churches in the city were converted to mosques, the boys were selected as Janissaries, and civilians were partly destroyed, partly captured. Such a union aroused the indignation of the people and the discontent of the Cossacks of the left-bank Ukraine.

At that time, the Turks in Kamenetz improved the bridge connecting the city with the citadel, the arch supports of stone type were expanded and completely laid, the bridge took the form of an isthmus between the plateaus. It is still operating and is called the Turkish Bridge.

In 1682, Poland violated the peace treaty by stepping in for Austria. This coalition against the Ottoman Empire was gradually joined by Venice and Russia. The following years, the Ottoman army suffered defeats on various fronts. Having conquered the lands of Moldavia, the Poles were able to cut off Kamenetz-Podolsky from the Ottoman territories, and in 1699, after the signing of the Karlovitsky Peace, the city was hastily returned to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

In 1793, after the second division of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, together with the entire right-bank Ukraine, it was transferred to the Russian Empire (in 1795-1797 - the center of Podolsk governorship, in 1797-1917 - in the Podolsk province).

In 1918-1921, it was the main center for the formation of troops and the deployment of the military leadership of the Ukrainian People’s Republic, the last stronghold of Simon Petlyura’s troops, until the Bolsheviks occupied the city.

Under Soviet rule, it was a large industrial city. In 1937-1941 the regional center (Kamenetz-Podolsk region). In March 1941, the administrative center of the region was moved to Proskurov, but the region was called Kamenetz-Podolskaya until 1954. From June 1941 to March 1944 was temporarily occupied by German troops. In 1954, Proskurov was renamed Khmelnitsky, and the Kamenetz-Podolsk region - in Khmelnitsky. Since 1991 - as part of independent Ukraine.

There is a national university, founded in 1918. The main attraction is the Old Castle of Kamyanets-Podilsky.

 

 

 

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