Magnificent historic city of Boston is one of the beautiful and unique cities in the United States. Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and one of the oldest cities in the United States. Being the most populous city in New England, Boston is considered the economic and cultural center of the region and is sometimes referred to as the "New England Capital" unofficially. In 2008 the city had a population of 645 169 inhabitants, which makes it the twenty-first most populated city in the country. Boston is also the nerve center of a large and populous metropolitan area called Greater Boston, with a population of 4.5 million, the tenth largest metropolitan area in the nation, Greater Boston, as a region to which many workers are displaced, including seven counties in Massachusetts, all of Rhode Island and parts of New Hampshire; with what totals 7.5 million inhabitants, so this Combined Statistical Area is the fifth in the United States by population.

In 1630, Puritan settlers from England founded the city on the Shawmut peninsula, and during the late eighteenth century, Boston was the site of several important events during the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre and the Tea Party. Several battles at the beginning of the Revolution, such as the Battle of Bunker Hill and the Siege of Boston, occurred in the city and surrounding areas. Through land reclamation and municipal annexation, Boston has expanded beyond the peninsula. After the independence of the United States, Boston became an important seaport and manufacturing center, and its rich history now attracts 16.3 million visitors a year. The city hosted a number of firsts, including the first public school of the United States, the Latin School of Boston (1635) and the first university center, Harvard University (1636), in neighboring Cambridge. Boston was also home to the first subway network in the United States.

With a multitude of faculties and universities within the city and its surroundings, Boston is a center of higher education and, in turn, a center for medicine.The economy is also based on research, electronics, engineering, finance, technology and biotechnology, mainly, Boston ranks first in the country in jobs per square mile, ahead of New York City and Washington DC The city has experienced gentrification and has one of the higher living costs of the United States, and remains one of the cities with the best standard of living in the world.



Greater Boston is notoriously provincial, and as such, the surrounding area contains hundreds of small communities that are closer than anywhere else in the United States. Even a large city like Boston found it difficult to annex surrounding land as it grew. After absorbing independent cities, they retained their unique culture, of which today's inhabitants are extremely proud. What does this mean for the traveler? You will find that almost every district has more than one name, and the total number exceeds 110 different squares, circles and points. Don't worry about remembering all the names; just remember that Boston is a very compact city. When you're ready to move on, the next block is sure to attack.

Downtown (Downtown, Chinatown, North End, West End)
Downtown in many ways, downtown Boston is where it all starts. Perennial tourist favorites Faneuil Hall and Quincy Market are located here, and most of the Freedom Trail sights are nearby.
Back Bay-Beacon Hill
Classic Federalist architecture, The State House, America's oldest city park, and one of the most photographed streets await. Later, eat at some of the city's best restaurants to recharge your tired legs.
Perhaps best known as the home of Fenway Park and the Boston Red Sox; Fenway also boasts many top cultural institutions, including the Museum of Fine Arts.
Around the South End and SoWa Market, an upscale shopping, dining and arts scene has united. The famous Victorian bronze buildings and gas-lit cobblestone streets can delight you at any time of the year.
South Boston
Don't be fooled by the movies, South Boston is a rapidly gentrifying neighborhood that still clings to its working-class Irish Catholic roots. The changing times are best seen in the Seaport district, where the Institute of Contemporary Art is located.
Located between the Charles and Mystic Rivers, Charlestown is home to important landmarks such as the U.S.S. Constitution and the Bunker Hill Monument. Boston's oldest neighborhood, Charlestown, also has its oldest tavern.
East Boston
This former shipbuilding center has always been an immigrant neighborhood. Today, its population consists mainly of Italian Americans and immigrants from Central and South America and Southeast Asia. If you arrive by plane, this is the first district you will visit.
The ever-changing Allston is best known for its student population and the shops and restaurants that cater to them. The landscape becomes more residential as you move west to Brighton.
Jamaica Plain - Mission Hill
Jamaica Plain is home to the Arnold Arboretum and Sam Adams Brewery, while Mission Hill houses a healthy collection of students and physicians from many nearby colleges and hospitals.
The once farming community of Roxbury is the heart of black culture in Boston. It is also home to the historic Shirley Eustis House, built by the British Royal Colonial Governor. Franklin Park is also here, considered the "crown jewel" of Frederick Law Olmsted's Emerald Necklace park system.
Outer Districts
Once considered a "garden suburb" of Boston, today's Roslindale residents are still drawn to the area's natural beauty. Mattapan's population is largely made up of African Americans and immigrants from the Caribbean. West Roxbury in Southwest Boston is known for its civic activism and youth programs. As the southernmost district of Boston, Hyde Park offers immaterial urban life, as well as open space, more often associated with the suburbs.

Many of the sights that tourists expect to see are outside the city limits. Politically distinct from Boston, the following three cities are connected to Boston by shared borders, transit options, and cultural values. Mayors often meet to plan and discuss long-term events, and citizens travel between them on a daily basis. Random visitors may not even realize they are leaving Boston.

Cambridge: The "People's Republic of Cambridge" is best known for the prestigious Harvard University and MIT. The many great museums, architecture and events belonging to these schools are worth visiting. Cambridge also has The Longfellow House among other colonial sites.
Somerville: While it's mostly a residential area, you can find yourself here by exploring Davis Square's many restaurants and quirky shops. In the warmer months, independent musicians and artists host festivals ahead of Union Square and beyond.
Brookline: By far the greenest neighborhood, Brookline is home to Frederick Law Olmsted's Fairsted, the first landscape design firm. Larz Anderson Park and the Automobile Museum are also nearby. Additionally, many shopping and dining options can be found in Coolidge Corner and Washington Square.



Pre-European History

Early settlement
The first European to settle in this area was British settler William Blaxton in 1625. In 1629 he sold lands to settlers. The Puritans, who arrived in June 1630, held title to the whole colony and in turn gave Blaxton land to cultivate. The English emigrants grouped in a settlement on a peninsula, first called the Trimountaine (actually "three mountains") by the Native Americans Shawmut and by the English. At that time, the peninsula surrounded by Massachusetts Bay was only connected to the mainland by a very narrow land connection. The second governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, John Winthrop, gave the settlement the name Boston and thus founded it on September 7th. / September 17, 1630 greg. the city. The name goes back to a town of the same name in Lincolnshire, England, from which some of the Puritans came.

John Winthrop had given a sermon that became famous as "A Model of Christian Charity", in which he described the new city as City upon a Hill and expressed that the Puritans knew they were connected to God in a special contract. The Puritan values, especially work, education and godliness stabilized the society to a large extent and are still part of the social model in Boston and New England today. In 1635, just a few years after the settlement was founded, the first Latin school, the Boston Latin School, and in 1636, Harvard University, America's first university, were founded.

On June 1, 1660, Quaker Mary Dyer was publicly executed under a 1658 law outlawing her faith. She is considered the last religious martyr in North America and the first martyr of Quakerism.

Smallpox broke out in the city several times, epidemics occurred in 1721, 1730, 1752, 1764, 1776, 1778 and 1792.

On March 20, 1760, a town fire broke out, destroying 174 houses and 175 shops. The fire destroyed about a tenth of the city. No personal injuries were reported.


1773 Boston Tea Party

The city became known for the Boston Tea Party on December 16, 1773. At that time, protests against an increase in tea taxes by the British Parliament triggered the War of Independence. A four kilometer long red paved trail, the Freedom Trail, America's "Path of Freedom," leads to 16 historic sites around the city, including the Boston Common, the Massachusetts State House and the Old State House.


1780–1890 growth and expansion

After the American Revolution, Boston became one of the wealthiest trading ports in the world. The most important trade goods included fish, rum, salt and tobacco. From the 1820s, due to increasing immigration, the image of the population also began to change significantly: up to now, Protestant descendants of English immigrants have been the decisive factor, but now the proportion of Catholics, especially Irish and later also Italian descent, has increased significantly.

The city met the enormous need for space that arose from the growing population in an unusual way: Between 1630 and 1890, the city area tripled not only through incorporations, but also through land reclamation, especially in the shallow waters of the Charles River and the Massachusetts bay The earth masses required for this were gained mainly by the gradual erosion of the three mounds that were originally on the peninsula (hence 'Trimountain'). Only in the streets of Beacon Hill one can still guess the remains of the former inclines. The local Massachusetts State House, the seat of the Massachusetts governor, is located on top of the reduced hill.

In 1872 the city of Boston was hit by the worst fire in its history. The extensive rubble of the burned buildings was then also used as fill material for land reclamation.


Molasses disaster 1919

On January 15, 1919, another major accident occurred near North End Park, killing 21 and injuring another 150. A flawed molasses tank failed to withstand the pressure of its contents and burst, spilling 14,000 tons of molasses onto the streets of Boston and drowning 21 passers-by.


Since the early 20th century

In the 1920s and 1930s, the city of Boston underwent a structural change marked by the retreat of old industries related to the high wage structure compared to other areas in the US. The production factor work had become too expensive for many industrial companies, so that they had to relocate. As a result, the city responded with various initiatives that have come to be known as Urban Renewal. These initiatives included various urban development programs implemented by the Boston Redevelopment Authority (BRA) after initiation in 1957. A lot of credit was wasted in the early projects, as in many cases urban renewal activities were at the expense of below-average income groups. This policy led to the displacement of large parts of the population from the core city. In later projects, this policy was modified and the so-called linkage principle was introduced as a kind of social balance. This principle, which is continued to this day, is characterized by a financial balance between structurally strong and structurally weak core city areas. A levy is imposed on the developers of lucrative construction projects, which is then used for the revitalization of dilapidated residential and commercial areas.

With the onset of economic growth in the 1970s, which was particularly supported by the medical sector, economic momentum developed positively for the first time in more than 30 years. During this time, Boston-based Massachusetts General Hospital, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Brigham and Women's Hospital were among the nation's leading medical institutions in terms of medical innovation, among other things. But the general science sector, which has always been important for economic growth in Boston, was also able to attract more students during this time.

However, the ever-increasing car traffic since the 1920s also led to new problems. These were not easy to solve, especially in Boston, since the city center was one of the oldest and most densely built-up in the whole of the USA. At the end of the 1940s, however, the responsible local politicians saw exactly this fact as part of the problem. In the years that followed, a four-kilometer, six-lane city autobahn was laid right through the heart of the city as an elevated elevated road. However, this only solved the traffic problems for a short time and had also caused the inner city to be fragmented. The Big Dig, the largest road construction and revitalization project in the United States, was initiated in the 1980s to mitigate the urban consequences of the road breakthrough and at the same time solve the traffic problems. Due to its scope, this project was not completed until 2007.

In the early 21st century, Boston finally grew into an international, intellectual and technological center. The city also played a nationally important role in the field of political science. However, there was also a loss of importance of regional institutions in the financial sector and within the journalistic sector. The Boston Globe newspaper was taken over by the New York Times and the Boston-based insurance company FleetBoston Financial was taken over by Bank of America. Other problematic developments were gentrification processes, i.e. social displacement from residential areas. Since the 1970s, these have been accompanied by rising property and apartment prices. In 2004, the Boston area had the highest cost of living in the country, and Massachusetts was the only state with a declining population.

Another trend in urban development since the beginning of the second half of the 20th century is the revitalization of derelict harbor areas. Projects that have been and are being promoted in Boston in this area are the so-called Harborwalk, a continuous walkway along the so-called waterfront in the North End, which also connects to the city center through crossings, the revitalization of Kai Rowes Wharf through a mixed-use complex, the revitalization of the Fort Point Channel area and the construction of the Boston Exhibition and Convention Center as well as the revitalization of the Charlestown Navy Yard (largest contiguous revitalization area in the USA).



Boston is worth a visit at almost any time of the year. Spring is a time for renewal. Especially in May, it blooms and fades, and the colors are the brightest. Summer is, of course, summer, and June to September is the peak of the tourist season. Daylight during the months of late spring and early summer lasts from 5:00 am to 8:00 pm. Every corner of the city benefits from the warm weather and is full of festivals and special events. In autumn, Mother Nature is in full view. It gives such a show in October and November, many visitors choose this time for vacation than all others. If you are a snow lover, winter may be the season for you. Most residents, however, fear the low temperatures and scanty hours of daylight that occur from December to March, and sometimes even into April.

Although far north for an American city, the nearby Atlantic Ocean has a moderating effect. Winters are slowly sticking, while spring is slowly taking root. One thing in the North Atlantic, it never gets really warm. Never. No matter how hot it is at the beach, you can bet the ocean will be cold! The Atlantic also has the unlikely potential to produce a Nor'Easter, a type of less powerful hurricane. Nor'easter generally occurs from September to April, when the cold air of the Arctic meets the warmer air over the Atlantic. Boston can achieve 0-2 of these events a year and is well prepared for them. So just lie low for the day while the windy deluge passes.

When the snow comes, and it will, it changes the rhythm of life in the city. Sidewalks become slippery and narrow. Daylight starts at 7am, only for the sun to go down at 4pm. Mercury drops below zero and can stay there for months. It can even dip below -18°C for several weeks. However, for a few days each winter, warm Caribbean air bursts into Bay State, bringing with it a welcome respite from the cold. This helps prevent snow buildup, so you'll rarely see more than a foot of accumulation. An amazing exception was the winter of 2014-15, when more than 110 inches (2,800 mm) of snow fell on Boston in 18 days. The city dropped it in piles 23 meters high and had to wait until July 14 for the last one to finally melt. Boston is not well equipped to deal with snowfall to such an extent, so expect similar extensive transit disruptions if that number drops again.



Good Will Hunting (Gus Van Sant, 1996). If you only watch one movie about Boston, do it. While the story of Romeo and Juliet has been told many times, this tale of "blue collar" and "ivory tower" lovers could only happen in Boston. Robin Williams' powerful, Oscar-winning performance and quoteable dialogue make this film unique. Good Will Hunting was a breakout success for Matt Damon and Ben Affleck, and you'll hear some great touches and see what the city was like before the current building boom. How do you like these apples?!
Infiltration (Martin Scorsese, 2006). Loosely based on the exploits of Irish mobster Whitey Bulger and corrupt FBI agent John Connolly. This star-studded tale of murder and deception starring Matt Damon, Leonardo DiCaprio and Jack Nicholson won four Oscars, including Best Picture. For a more biographical look at the mobster, don't miss Black Mass directed by Scott Cooper in 2015.
Glory (Edward Zwick, 1989). Glory is based, among other things, on the personal letters of Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, commander of the first all-black regiment during the Civil War. OK, so there's something like the White Savior going on, and it's not happening in Boston; but it's still a great movie and accurately depicts the feelings many Bostonians had about slavery at the time.
Mystic River (Clint Eastwood, 2003). This critically acclaimed film explores the horrific effects of the child abuse that raged in Boston in the 1970s. Discovering where people's loyalties really lie and the question of how far would you go to protect what's yours. Principal photography took place in Boston.
City of Thieves (Ben Affleck, 2010) If the grittier side of Boston intrigues you, this crime thriller from Boston's Ben Affleck will give you an insight into the city's many unsavory and working-class environments, peppered with ominous, thick Boston accents.
Ted (Seth MacFarlane, 2012). On the other hand, this hilarious buddy comedy has all the toilet humor and Boston twists you could shake a stick at. Fenway Park obviously gets involved somehow, along with some original (non-colored) songs.
Spotlight (Tom McCarthy, 2015). Following The Boston Globe's "Spotlight" team, this film continues its investigation into widespread and systematic child sexual abuse in the Boston area by numerous Roman Catholic priests. Based on a series of short stories that won The Globe the Pulitzer Prize in 2003.
Patriots Day (Peter Berg, 2016). Filmed in Boston and Quincy, Patriot's Day deals with the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing and the subsequent manhunt for terrorists. While the film was well received, it was criticized in Boston for being set too early and captivating with the events on which it was based.



Often Boston is not at the center of the novel, but it makes numerous memorable cameo appearances. Perhaps due to the academic magnet effect that attracts bright minds here for a few short years. See examples of David Foster Wallace's Infinite Jest or Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury. Another masterpiece, Margaret Atwood's The Handmaid's Tale, is also set in Boston.
The Scarlet Letter (Nathaniel Hawthorne, 1850). Exploring themes of legalism, sin, and guilt; the book tells the story of Hester Prynne, who conceived a daughter through an affair and struggles to create a new life in 17th-century Boston.
The Glass Basket (Sylvia Plath, 1963). Esther Greenwood is a young woman from the suburbs of Boston who suffers a series of setbacks and struggles with depression as she tries to choose between doing what she expects and what is in her heart. Semi-autobiographical.
Common Ground (J. Anthony Lukas, 1985). Winning a Pulitzer Prize for Nonfiction, this novel follows three families who experience race relations in Boston in the 1960s and 1970s. He briefly describes how each family settled in its neighborhood before narrowing it down to racial and class conflicts.
The Rascal King (Jack Beatty, 2000). Hero or hooligan? Boston Mayor James Michael Curley (1874-1958) certainly could be. For four terms he built schools, playgrounds and beaches; even while in prison on a fraud conviction.
Dark Tide (Stephen Puleo, 2003). In this book, Puelo seeks to uncover the structural causes of the Great Boston Molasses Flood of 1919. See this infobox for more information.
A Brief History of Boston (Robert Allison, 2004). The chair of the Suffolk University's history department brings Boston's history to life in 128 pages. Covers everything from the Puritan Theocracy to the Great Excavations and beyond.
Another Shitty Night in Suck City (Nick Flynn, 2004). A memoir by playwright and poet Nick Flynn, describing his meeting with his estranged father, Jonathan, an alcoholic who lived in a homeless shelter where he was a social worker in the late 1980s.
City of Anxiety (Dennis Lehane, 2008). A historical novel set in Boston at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. One of the main characters in the story is Aiden "Danny" Coughlin, an Irish police officer who patrols the Boston Police Department. Lehane is also the author of other Boston books, often made into films. You may have heard of Shutter Island, Gone, Baby, Gone, Mystic River, and many others.
The Gardner Heist (Ulrich Boser, 2009). On the night of March 18, 1990, two men committed the largest art theft in history. More than a dozen masterpieces worth more than $500 million have gone missing and remain at large to this day. See this infobox for more information.



Smoking is not allowed in any restaurant or bar in the Boston metro area.



Often used in film and television as shorthand for "working class" or "working class" stereotypes, the Boston accent remains mostly alive and well in the region. Known for dropping the "R", the accent is thought to be a continuation of the English accent imported by the first colonists. Today, however, it operates on life support within the city itself as long-time residents move out and younger transplants from around the country and the world move in. Listen to the conversations of the police, fire department or construction workers for the best chance to hear it in the city. If you have time, visit the north or south shore where you're much more likely to hear it in action.

Although they mostly avoided the Boston accent, younger Bostonians augment their speeches with plenty of local jargon, the word "wred" being particularly popular. Also, young people in Massachusetts (as well as in New England) speak much faster than other Americans.

The word "wicked" is still heavily used, functioning as an intensifier instead of "very". You will also hear "packie" for the liquor (package) store and "blinkers" for your car's turn signals. And some of our English friends may recognize a "spinner" as a roundel. There are many others, but these are the most used today. Feel free to try "malicious" as often as you like, it's a great way to learn about the culture. Try not to overdo it - saying things like "Pahk tha cah w Hahvid Yahd" is a dead treat for tourists. Avoid saying "pisser" - you'll see it printed on T-shirts, but no one really says it anymore.

Hosting a very large Hispanic population, Boston can be a great place to practice your Spanish.



Geographical location

Boston (area: 233.1 km²) is located in the northeast of the United States on the North American east coast on Massachusetts Bay. Their strong fragmentation made it possible to create natural harbors. The Mystic River to the west, the Neponset River to the south, and the Charles River to the north roughly delimit the city's territory. The original hills in the city area have been eroded over time and deposited in the Back Bay and South End areas to reclaim more land from the adjacent bay to the east.

Greater Boston metropolitan area
The central Boston area forms the core of the Greater Boston metropolitan area of 4.4 million people, which includes the cities of Cambridge, Brookline, Quincy and many suburban communities, as well as the Boston CMSA (Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area), the seventh largest in the United States (in tenth place according to other rankings).

Boston is bordered by the cities of Revere, Chelsea, Everett, Somerville, Cambridge, Watertown, Newton, Quincy, Winthrop, Brookline, Needham, Dedham, Canton and Milton.

Cambridge is home to the world-famous Harvard University and the similarly important MIT.


Administrative division of Boston

Boston is part of Suffolk County in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and is both capitals. On October 4, 2002, the Boston City Council completed the redistricting of the borough, which is now divided into 23 neighborhoods: Allston, Back Bay, Bay Village, Beacon Hill, Brighton, Charlestown, Chinatown, Dorchester, East Boston, Fenway-Kenmore, Hyde Park, Jamaica Plain, Mattapan, Mid Dorchester, Mission Hill, North End, Roslindale, Roxbury, South Boston, South End, West End, West Roxbury.

Boston is known for having one of the most attractive and livable urban centers in the country. Each district has an individual atmosphere, determined by the local residents and their social and ethnic affiliation. Downtown is the seat of the financial district and is also home to Chinatown and the municipal administration center and city hall, Boston City Hall. Back Bay, west of the Boston Public Garden, is one of the wealthiest neighborhoods in the United States. Beacon Hill is no less prosperous with the seat of government of the state of Massachusetts, the State House. South End was once home to a strong middle class society of merchants and seafarers and their families. Today, an LGBT population predominates alongside artists, yuppies, African Americans and Latinos. The main attractions are the local restaurants and the bohemian atmosphere. North End and East Boston have a dominant Italian influence but are also home to other ethnicities.

Charlestown is an Irish district on the north bank of the Charles River. This demographic is also found in South Boston. Allston and Brighton are primarily inhabited by students from nearby Northeastern University, Boston University and Boston College. Dorchester has the greatest variety and ethnic diversity. Latinos and African Americans, along with middle-class families displaced from neighborhoods that have become more expensive, make up the largest proportion in Roxbury and Mattapan, south of downtown.



The city's political system is characterized by a strong executive system. The mayor, whose regular term of office is four years, has far-reaching decision-making powers. Elections are held in two rounds: an impartial primary election and a second November election between the two primary election candidates with the most votes. Michelle Wu has been the mayor of Boston since November 2021. She replaced Marty Walsh, who had been in office since 2014 and who has been Secretary of Labor in the Biden Cabinet since March 23, 2021.

The city parliament (City Council) is composed every two years. One representative is sent from each of the nine wards or neighborhoods. There are also four candidates nominated by the entire city population. The school committee is appointed by the mayor, as are the individual department heads in the city administration.

In addition, other authorities have a major influence on urban development. The Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, the Massachusetts Port Authority (Masport) and the Boston Redevelopment Authority should be mentioned here in particular, which have a particularly large influence on life in the city of Boston.

As the capital of the US state of Massachusetts, Boston also has national government functions. Through numerous politicians, including several US Presidents (for example, John F. Kennedy was born in Boston's neighboring town of Brookline), Boston or the state of Massachusetts also has a strong political weight in the federal politics of the United States. This significant influence is also expressed through various US governmental agencies in Boston. Among other things, the John F. Kennedy Federal Office Building and the Thomas P. O'Neill Federal Building and more recently the John Joseph Moakley United States Courthouse, the headquarters of the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit, are located here

In 2006, the Massachusetts Secretary of the Interior reprimanded the City of Boston, or its electoral agency, for not providing enough ballot boxes to conduct an election properly.

The city of Boston has become known for its very low crime rate in recent years. This is also attributed to the close cooperation between the municipal police force and the local action groups in the districts, which contributes significantly to preventing young people from slipping into crime.



Boston is the seat of a Catholic Archbishop (Archdiocese of Boston).


Flag and seal

The city seal was adopted in 1823. It is regulated by law that the seal should look like this: Round in shape, representing a part of the city, the motto: "SICUT PATRIBUS, SIT DEUS NOBIS" (God be with us as he was with our fathers) and the inscription " BOSTONIA CONDITA AD. 1630 CIVITATIS REGIMINE DONATA AD. 1822” (Boston founded 1630 AD city rights granted 1822 AD) including. The flag has a light blue background and bears the coat of arms of the city in the middle. A law protects the flag.



The population was 46.2 percent white and 24.7 percent African American, according to estimates by the United States Census Bureau in 2015; 9.1 percent were of Asian origin. 22.1 percent of the population were Hispanics. The median income per household in 2015 was US$55,777. 21.5 percent of the population lived below the poverty line.


Economy and transport

The Boston metropolitan area generated economic output of $422.7 billion in 2016, ranking 9th among the metropolitan areas of the United States and also one of the top performing economic regions in the world. The unemployment rate was only 2.9 percent (as of May 2018).

According to a 2016 statistic, Boston was the US region with the highest income inequality. The top 5% earned $266,224, while the bottom 20% earned $14,942 on average. The difference between individual ethnic groups is even more serious. The average white household is worth $247,500 and the average black household is worth $8.

In a 2018 ranking of cities with the highest quality of life worldwide, Boston ranked 35th out of 231 cities surveyed and second in the United States.


General economic structure

Boston's economic structure is largely shaped by the higher educational institutions located here. These institutions are not only among the city's largest employers, but are also a crystallization point for the settlement of many high-tech companies, such as those in the IT and biotechnology sectors. Many manufacturing companies from the defense sector also play a major role in the greater Boston area.

According to a 2003 report by the Boston Redevelopment Authority, more than 135,000 students are enrolled at the 32 colleges (including other higher education institutions). These contribute 4.8 billion US dollars a year to the economic growth of the city of Boston. At the same time, the city of Boston ranks first among all US cities when it comes to acquiring research funds in the healthcare sector.

In addition, tourism now also plays a central role in the economic growth of the city of Boston. In 2005, an estimated 17.6 million people visited the capital of the state of Massachusetts. This large number of visitors was divided into the types of classic tourism, business travelers and trade fair and congress visitors. From this, an estimated 9.8 billion US dollars were generated for hotel accommodation, meals, entertainment and leisure activities and the use of transport.[33] Other important branches of the economy are the financial sector, in particular the insurance sector, printing and publishing (e.g. The Boston Globe). In addition, there are now four exhibition and congress centers in Boston. These include the Hynes Convention Center in the Back Bay district and the newly built World Trade Center Boston on the waterfront in the South Boston district. Due to the seat of government of the state of Massachusetts, services related to politics and business, such as corporate and political consultants and lawyers, are also well represented in Boston.

Leading companies headquartered in Boston include Gillette, a subsidiary of Procter & Gamble, and Teradyne, one of the world's leading manufacturers of test systems for microprocessors and other electronic components. In addition, the management consultancy The Boston Consulting Group comes from Boston and still has its headquarters here today, like the Wayfair e-commerce mail order company. Real estate REIT American Tower, which owns cellular towers, is also headquartered in the city. The pharmaceutical industry is represented by pharmaceutical manufacturer Alexion Pharmaceuticals, which relocated its headquarters to Boston in 2018. Other companies are located in the outskirts of the city. In particular, the so-called Route 128 is referred to here.


Importance of the financial sector

The so-called FIRE sector (abbreviation for Finance, Insurance and Real Estate) is of particular importance for the economic development of the city of Boston in addition to the education sector. This influence results in particular from the influence of the financial sector on employment, education, economic development and housing construction. The availability of capital within the region plays a special role for these areas.

The financial sector employs an estimated 111,000 people in the city of Boston. This is considered one of the financial centers in the north-east of the USA. Fidelity Investments, with 11,250 employees, was the city's top dog financial firm in 2001, followed by John Hancock Insurance, which has 4,793 employees and has since been acquired by Canadian group Manulife Financial.

The enormous financial power of the city is also reflected in the architecture. The Prudential Center was completely renovated several times during construction and is now one of the most expensive and heaviest buildings in the world.

In a ranking of the world's most important financial centers, Boston ranks 10th and third in the United States behind New York and San Francisco (as of 2018).


Transport and traffic systems

Boston is the site of an international airport. General Edward Laurence Logan International Airport, Logan International Airport for short, is number 19 of all US airports in terms of passenger numbers of 27.7 million, but number 1 in the New England states. The seaport is number 12 on the Atlantic coast of the USA in terms of container handling. Both the airport and the port are owned by the Massachusetts Port Authority (massport), a corporation independent of the City of Boston.

The public transit system is operated by the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA). The system consists of suburban (commuter-rail) and four subway lines (subway - blue, green, red, orange), the trolleybus Boston (which is integrated into the Silver Line network of routes) as well as local omnibus lines and suburban express buses. In common parlance among Bostonians, the public transportation system is referred to simply as The T. Major train stations in Boston are South Station and North Station. Among other things, South Station is also served by the American railway company Amtrak as the end point of the most lucrative route between Washington, D.C., New York and Boston, the so-called Northeast Corridor. Among other things, the Acela Express, a high-speed train based on the French TGV, is used here.

Individual transport is served by several major thoroughfares, and as part of the so-called "Big Dig" (one of the most extensive civil engineering projects in the world), freeways that cut through the city center were tunneled underground before 2007. The so-called Massachusetts Turnpike, Interstate 90, leads west towards the state border with the US state of New York. Interstate 95 connects Boston with Portland in Maine (northbound) and New York and Washington, D.C. as a north-south route. (to the south). There's also Interstate 93, another north-south interstate highway that runs from the south end of town to north into New Hampshire



Various well-known universities are located in Boston and the surrounding area.

In the city center these include the following:
Benjamin Franklin Institute of Technology
Berklee with the
Berklee College of Music and the
Boston Conservatory at Berklee
Boston University
Emerson College
Emmanuel College
Forsyth Institute
Massachusetts College of Art and Design
Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences
New England Conservatory of Music
New England School of Law
Northeastern University
Simmons College
Suffolk University
University of Mass. Boston
Wentworth Institute of Technology
Wheelock College

Outside of the core city are:
Baben College
Bentley University
Boston College
Brandeis University
Bridgewater State College
Cambridge College
Framingham State College
Franklin W Olin College of Engineering
Gordon Conwell Theological Seminary
Harvard University
Lesley University
Longy School of Music
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Art Institute of Boston
Newbury College
Pine Manor College
Regis College
Salem State College
Tufts University
Wellesley College
Wheaton College


Sightseeing features

From a tourist point of view, Boston impresses above all with historical and cultural attractions. In addition, there are beautiful landscapes in the immediate vicinity and architecturally interesting districts within the city. The latter include Back Bay and Beacon Hill. Recreational areas further afield include Cape Cod (approx. 85 km south-east) and the island of Martha's Vineyard (approx. 130 km south). The Boston skyline also has many skyscrapers worth seeing.

Major Tourist Attractions
Freedom Trail
A red line four kilometers long along the sidewalk leads to sites of the US independence movement. Beginning at Boston Common, the oldest public park in the USA, it leads to Charlestown; all 16 important sites of this historical period are passed through. One stop is the Old State House, from whose balcony John Adams announced the Declaration of Independence in 1776.

Black Heritage Trail
The Black Heritage Trail connects historically significant sites of black American history for more than 2.5 km. Since Memorial Day 2012, the tour begins at Faneuil Hall and travels through Beacon Hill at more than 15 locations. The sites document important stages of abolitionism and the Underground Railroad. Because of their outstanding historical significance, some of the sites are grouped together as a National Historic Site and form the Boston African American National Historic Site.

Boston National Historical Park
The National Historical Park brings together sites of historical importance that reflect the importance of the city of Boston during the American Revolution. Sites include:
The Bunker Hill Monument
The Charlestown Navy Yard (including the USS Constitution)
Faneuil Hall
The Old North Church
The Old South Meeting House
The Old State House
The Paul Revere House in the NRHP with reference number 66000785
The Dorchester Heights Monument
The first seven attractions are on the Freedom Trail.

Important museums (selection)
Boston Athenaeum
One of the oldest cultural institutions in Massachusetts with an important library and art collections. In addition to historical documents and photographs, testimonials from the first US presidents and numerous paintings by American artists are on display here.

Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum
The Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum was built around the turn of the century using antique building materials in the historicist Neo-Renaissance style imported from Europe.

Museum of Science
Many interactive exhibitions and experiments invite you to join in. Not only children can playfully explore the natural sciences and engineering here. Attached to the museum is the Hayden Planetarium with laser shows and current presentations. There is also the "Mugar Omni Theatre", an IMAX cinema and a butterfly garden, where visitors can also see the breeding of butterflies. The museum also offers additional exhibition areas where special exhibitions can be visited, such as Gunther von Hagens' "Body Worlds 2" until the end of January 2007.

Museum of Fine Arts
The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston is one of the most important art museums in the USA. It houses an important collection of Egyptian and Nubian antiquities and an important collection of Chinese objects. Paintings by Rembrandt and El Greco are on display, as are works by Vincent van Gogh, Paul Gauguin, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Édouard Manet, Edvard Munch, Alberto Giacometti, Georges Rouault and Max Beckmann.

New England Aquarium
Located directly by the sea, there is a lot to see from penguins to sea lions to jellyfish that lives in the sea. In a huge, cylindrical saltwater tank that can be seen from all sides, an artificial reef is home to several hundred different species of fish and turtles. As an "outpost" so to speak, the NEA organizes a daily trip where humpback whales, dolphins and others can be observed. From 1971 to 1985 the aquarium was home to the seal Hoover, who became famous as a talking animal and became a scientific sensation.

In 2012, the Armenian Heritage Park was opened to commemorate the Armenian Genocide in the Ottoman Empire.

Faneuil Hall
This is one of the oldest buildings in the city of Boston. Built from 1740 to 1742 with financial support from the merchant Peter Faneuil.

Old South Meeting House
Dating back to 1729 (corner of Washington and Milk Streets), the building has seen many historically significant gatherings, culminating in the Boston Tea Party. A memorable exhibition illustrates the events of that time.

Temple of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts
It is the oldest surviving Masonic temple.

National Park Service
The National Park Service designates Boston as a National Historical Park, Boston National Historical Park, and as a National Historic Site, Boston African American National Historic Site. There are a total of 52 National Historic Landmarks in Boston. The city has 271 structures and sites listed on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) as of November 5, 2018.