Fort Stanwix is a historic military stronghold
located in Rome, New York in USA. This star shaped Fort Stanwix covers
an area of 16 acres (6.5 ha). Fort Stanwix was constructed in 1758-
62 by the British Armies to defend Royal possessions in the New
fort defended an old portage used during the Seven Years' War. The
fort was not completed until 1762 and was abandoned in 1768. That
year, it hosted the signing of an important treaty between the
British and the Amerindian Iroquois (Treaty of Fort Stanwix) before
being abandoned. This treaty redefined with the Indians the frontier
to which European settlers could venture.
Fort Stanwix was occupied again in July 1776 by Colonel Elias
Dayton. It was rebuilt and renamed Fort Schulyer although many
people continued to use its original name. In August 1777, the fort
was besieged by the British forces of Brigadier General Barry St.
Leger. The commander of the fort, Colonel Peter Gansevoort, refused
to surrender and the siege began. Meanwhile, during the Battle of
Oriskany, the US Army commanded by General Nicholas Herkimer battled
nearby against British-backed Indians. While the English besiegers
were taking part in the battle to help theirs, the fort's American
army made a sortie to attack the English camp. This one was
destroyed as well as the material which it sheltered. The English
were demoralized and weakened. The English fled to Canada following
the imminent arrival of a new US Army column led by General Benedict
Arnold. This victory later contributed to the British defeat at the
Battle of Saratoga.
Fort Stanwix was the victim of a fire in
May 1781 and was not rebuilt. A second treaty was made, however, in
the fort in 1784 between the Americans and the Native Americans. During the
War of 1812, a blockhouse was built there but it was dismantled in
1828. The fort was designated a National Monument on August 21,
1935. Between 1974 and 1978 the National Park Service
reconstructed the fort; a new visitor center was added in 2005.
The monument is currently open year around, operated by the
National Park Service.