Kansas is a state in the Great Plains region of the United
States of America. Geographically, the state forms the center of
the USA. Thanks to the children's book The Wizard of Oz, Kansas
is not only known to strangers as a place you just leave.
However, there are many beautiful places to visit, especially if
you are interested in the history of the American West. With a
bit of exploration you can find something interesting in almost
Kansas is bordered by Nebraska to the north, Missouri to the east, Oklahoma to the south, and Colorado to the west.
The geographic center of the 48 contiguous United States is located in its northern part, in Smith County. The geodetic center of North America is also located on its territory, in Osborne. This is used as a reference point for all federal government maps.
He is one of the national leaders in the agricultural industry. It is the largest national producer of wheat, which is why it is known as the Wheat State and Breadbasket of America. It also has one of the largest herds of cattle in the country. Agriculture and livestock were its main source of income for much of its history. Dodge City is considered by many to be the "Cowboy Capital of the World." It also has a strong mining industry, and is a national leader in the production of oil and natural gas. Currently, the main sources of income for the state are commerce and industry.
During the 1850s, with the Kansas-Nebraska Act, large numbers of abolitionists and defenders of slave labor settled in this state. It was the scene of many clashes between abolitionist and slaveholding militias, as well as in the neighboring state of Missouri (where slave labor was allowed). These conflicts were so violent that it received the nickname Bleeding Kansas. Another nickname with its origins in this conflict is Jayhawker State. Jayhawker is the common act of abolitionists invading slave farms in Missouri, plundering estates and freeing slaves.
The most well-known nickname is The Sunflower State. Sunflowers cover a good part of its plains. The name Kansas originates from the Kansa Amerindian tribe, who lived in the region until the 18th century. Kansa means "people of the southern winds."
There is no clear division between eastern and western Kansas, but
there are clear regional differences.
Eastern Kansas - Most major cities are in eastern Kansas, which is hillier, more vegetated, and has more water features.
Western Kansas - Western Kansas is generally more rural, with a very sparse population and lots of open land. With a few notable exceptions, it is drier and flatter.
Central Kansas - A mix of farmland, rolling hills and man-made lakes. Central Kansas represents the transition zone between the hilly west and the arid east.
Flint Hills - The Flint Hills extend south from central Kansas. Geologically interesting area, some of the last untouched grasslands of the prairie.
Southeast Kansas - Southeast Kansas is part of the Ozarks region. Pretty hills, coal mining and rural poverty define the area. The influence of the Ozarks region wanes as one travels further out of the Southeast.
1 Hutchinson - Home of the world's second largest space museum, the
Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center.
2 Kansas City Area - Smaller half of the Kansas City metropolitan area, which extends across the state line into Missouri. Kansas City as a whole is far larger and more cosmopolitan than Wichita. Currently, the second largest city in the state is not Kansas City (Kansas), but Overland Park, a prosperous but rather uninteresting suburb of Kansas City.
3 Lawrence (Kansas) - Medium-sized city between Topeka and Kansas City, very artistic and bohemian by Kansas standards. Seat of the University of Kansas.
4 Topeka - Capital of Kansas, Kansas State Historical Society Museum.
5 Wichita - Largest city in Kansas. Air Capital of the World, since a large number of aircraft manufacturers are based here.
6 Dodge City
Interstate 70 is a great way to travel from the east or west. I-35 enters the state from the south, then heads northeast and meets I-70 in Kansas City.
Both Wichita and Topeka have airports. However, most travelers end up in Kansas City (Missouri). The only scheduled passenger train is Amtrak's Southwest Chief.
The only way to really get around in Kansas is by car. It's part and parcel of spending a lot of time on the streets in Kansas. In any case, you should take enough time to explore the state without a car.
Regional cuisine represents the Kansas City barbecue associated with the Kansas City metropolitan area, including Wyandotte and Johnson Counties, and parts of Missouri.
Kansas is a "tornado alley". Tornadoes and severe thunderstorms are
not uncommon in the spring and summer months. You should definitely have
a radio in your car. If you hear the sirens, head straight to a suitable
tornado shelter - but don't stay outside to take photos! It's also true
that you shouldn't catch up with the tornado in any way. You can get
into the tornado lane very quickly.
When cloud cover increases and daylight turns a greenish-yellow tint, it's a sign of an imminent hailstorm. In this case, you should immediately go to a safe shelter.
Despite these warnings, however, it's important to keep in mind that these storms are spread over a wide area and most locals have never seen a tornado.
It borders the state of Nebraska to the north, Missouri to the east,
Oklahoma to the south, and Colorado to the west.
It is entirely covered by the Missouri River watershed, which serves as the northeastern border with Missouri. This can be divided into two smaller basins. The first is that of the Kansas River, which covers the north and east of the state, whose rivers flow mostly in an easterly direction. The second is that of the Arkansas River, which runs south and covers the southern part of the state.
It has few natural lakes, due to its relatively flat terrain. Most of the 150 lakes are artificial reservoirs, created by dams, of which the largest, Lake Milford, has a surface area of 64 km². Forests cover less than 5%.
The geographic center of the 48 contiguous United States—that is, the United States without Alaska and Hawaii—is located in the northern region, in Smith County. The geodetic center of North America is also located in Kansas, in Osborne County. This center is used as a reference point for all maps made by the United States government.
It has three different geographical regions:
The Dissected Till Plains cover the northeast, east of the Kansas River and north of the Big Blue River. This is the smallest of the three regions in surface area. The soil in this region is mainly made up of sediments deposited by ancient glaciers. This soil is extremely fertile.
The Southeastern Plains cover the southeast. This region is very flat, covered mainly by low-lying flattened mountains. The Southeastern Plains have the lowest elevations in Kansas, including the lowest point in the state, 207 meters. The region's soil is the least fertile of Kansas' three geographic regions.
The Great Plains, the largest of the three regions, cover the entire west-central region. It is characterized by its slightly rugged terrain and variable altitude, which increases as you travel westward. The highest point, Mount Sunflower, with its 1,231 meters of altitude, is located in this region.
The western two-thirds of the state, which lies in the Great Central Plain of the United States, has a generally flat or rolling surface, while the eastern third has many hills and some forests. The land gradually rises from east to west; Its altitude varies from 208 meters along the Verdigris River in Coffeyville in Montgomery County, to 1,231 meters on Mount Sunflower, 0.8 kilometers from the Colorado border, in Wallace County. It is a common misconception that Kansas is the flattest state in the nation, this being Florida.
According to the Köppen climate classification, Kansas' climate can
be characterized into three types: it has humid continental steppe,
semiarid barren, and humid subtropical. The eastern two-thirds of the
state (especially the northeastern part) has a humid continental
climate, with cold winters and hot, often humid summers. Most
precipitation falls during summer and spring.
Generally, the state's average temperature decreases as you travel north. In summer, temperatures also decrease as you travel west. However, these temperature differences are not very large.
The average temperature in winter is -1° C. The average temperature in the north is -4 °C, and in the south, 1 °C. The average winter minimum is -6 °C, and the average maximum is 5 °C. The lowest temperature recorded was -40 °C, in Lebanon, on February 13, 1905.
The average temperature in summer is 26 °C. The average temperature in the northeast is 26 °C, while that in the northwest is 24 °C, and in the south, 30 °C. The average summer minimum is 20°C, and the average maximum is 31°C. The highest temperature recorded was 49°C, twice in 1936, once in Fredonia on July 18, and once in Alton on July 24.
Average annual rainfall rates increase as you travel east. The extreme east receives more than 90 centimeters of rain per year, while the west receives less than 50. The average annual snowfall rate is 43 centimeters.
Although sunshine is common in most of the state, Kansas is also vulnerable to strong storms, especially during the spring. Many of these storms become supercells. These can generate tornadoes, often of force F3 or greater. According to statistics from the United States National Climate Data Center, Kansas has reported more tornadoes (in the period from January 1, 1950 to October 31, 2006) than any state except Texas—slightly higher than Oklahoma. Also—along with Alabama—more Category F5 tornadoes were reported than any other state (this category is the most powerful of all recorded tornadoes). It averages more than 50 tornadoes annually.
After the last ice age, today's grasslands developed
and the forests retreated into the river valleys. Between 10,000 and
9000 BC The first Paleo-Indian inhabitants of Kansas can be proven. It
was cooler at that time, although there were no glaciers here, mammoths
and mastodons only disappeared around 8000 BC.
This Paleo-Indian period was followed by the Archaic period (7000 BC to the birth of Christ). Around 5000 BC The warming was at its strongest in the 3rd century BC, and the large mammals disappeared. The residents adjusted to smaller animals and a higher proportion of plant-based food. At the same time, the settlements became more permanent and the way of life more settled. The growing population made use of new milling techniques, and around 3500 B.C. Clay objects were created. The Atlatl, the spear thrower, also spread.
In the subsequent Woodland period (until about 1000 AD) further growing societies with higher social differentiation developed. Now pottery, such as pots and jugs, came into being. The bow and arrow supplanted the atlatl. Corn cultivation was taken over from the South before 1000 AD. The construction of mounds, especially in eastern and northern Kansas, for the burial of members of the upper classes was particularly influential. The Hopewell culture along the Missouri was particularly influential.
Between 1000 and 1500, most of the inhabitants made a living from hunting bison on the one hand, and on the other hand they cultivated corn, pumpkin and beans, but also continued to collect wild fruits and roots. The Atlatl was less and less used. Sound processing has been significantly improved. In the north, rectangular earthen houses became more common, while in the south, houses made of grass and mud were more common. The villages were inhabited almost permanently, while the population continued to grow. Trade with the Pueblo peoples of the Southwest increased greatly.
European artifacts appeared during the protohistoric period between 1500 and 1800. The archaeological sites can now be linked to modern-day tribes such as the Pawnee, Kansa, Wichita, and Apache. Most groups continued to live from bison hunting and agriculture, although some groups tended to be more nomadic, such as the Apaches in the west. The El Cuartelejo site is thought to date back to fugitive Pueblo Indians who hailed from New Mexico. It is the northeasternmost site of this culture. Spanish artefacts, such as chain mail, were also found in Kansas, such as in the so-called Wichita grass lodge villages.
The Spanish conquistador Francisco
Vásquez de Coronado was the first European to reach the area in 1541.
The Europeans introduced horses, which led to the immigration of nomadic
Indians (e.g. Kansa, Wichita, Osage, Kiowa, Apaches, Comanche) who
displaced long-established tribes.
French explorers and some American expeditions visited later Kansas, e.g. B. French missionary Jacques Marquette and cartographer Louis Joliet around 1673. French built a trading post in Kansas in 1744, near Forth Leavenworth. In 1803 the area became US property through the Louisiana Purchase and the Lewis and Clark Expedition traveled through the area, as did the Pike Expedition in 1806. Since that time, the US government has tried to resettle Indians in land west of the Mississippi, including Kansas, which some did voluntarily, but was also enforced with pressure and violence, especially after the Indian Removal Act of 1830. Tribes such as the Kickapoo, Sauk, Fox, Shawnee, Ottawa, Iowa, and Peoria were pushed into Kansas during this period. Kansas was not cleared for European settlement until 1854, and some reservations still exist today.
Territorial time and founding of the state
The period leading up to the founding of the state became known as Bleeding Kansas. On May 30, 1854, the Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed into law. Thus Nebraska and Kansas were attached to the United States as "territories". Although the territories belonged to the USA, they were not yet federal states with corresponding rights. Settlers quickly developed the Kansas Territory, some on their own and some with the help of settlement companies (e.g., the New England Emigrant Aid Company, which founded several towns). The non-Native American population grew rapidly, to 140,000 in 1865 and one million in 1880. Life in the Kansas Territory was uncertain as pro-slavery and anti-slavery (abolitionists) fought for control of the future state and guerrillas rioted (cf. Jayhawkers). On March 30, 1855, the Border Ruffians invaded Kansas from Missouri and forced the election of a pro-slavery government. In the period that followed, violent clashes erupted again and again, e.g. For example, abolitionist John Brown's raid on pro-slavery advocates in 1856, in which he and his sons murdered several people. In the intense political debate between forces for and against slavery, a total of four draft constitutions for the future federal state were voted on. On January 29, 1861, Kansas became the 34th state to join the Union with a constitutional prohibition of slavery (as a "Freestate").
The population of Kansas was u. a. divided over the slave issue in
the civil war. However, the pro-unionists dominated the institutions, so
the state took part in the war on the union side. During the Civil War
(1861-1865) there were no major battles in Kansas, but there were
repeated clashes between groups from Kansas and Missouri. The greatest
incident was the Lawrence Massacre of 1863, led by pro-slavery and
guerrilla leader William Clark Quantrill. Military action also took
place against Native Americans, who continued to raid settlements and
military posts in retaliation for their displacement and oppression
until a few years after the Civil War. By the early 1870s, Kansas had
stabilized and the westward expansion of the railroad began. Initially,
numerous smaller railroad companies were formed (e.g. the Leavenworth,
Pawnee, and Western) which built short railroad lines in the east. But
soon larger companies were also pushing the railroad lines east across
the state. The Union Pacific Railroad expanded numerous lines and also
bought the Kansas Pacific Railway in 1880. The Atchison, Topeka and
Santa Fe Railway built a line to Colorado between 1868 and 1873, the
Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad completed its main eastbound
line in 1880, the Missouri Pacific Railroad in 1890. Southbound
connections to the Gulf of Mexico were also established started (e.g. by
the Missouri River, Fort Scott and Gulf). An important business for the
railroad's neighbors was the loading of cattle herded from Texas along
the Chisholm Trail to the nearest train station in Kansas for shipment
to markets north and east. The train station, which was the nearest end
of the rail line, grew into a boom town until the expansion of the rail
line reached a more conveniently located city. Prior to 1871, Abilene
was the main railroad station, then Newton further west for a year,
later Ellsworth, but also Wichita and finally Dodge City in the
southwestern state (1875 and 1885). At this time, Dodge City became the
prototypical cowboy town, which e.g. was attended by gunslingers Wyatt
Earp, Doc Holliday, Bill Tilghman, Luke Short and Bat Masterson. The
boom ended when cattle were banned from entering Kansas in 1885.
In November 1880, Kansas became the first state to ban the sale of alcoholic beverages (Prohibition), and the ban went into effect in May 1881. Officially, the alcohol ban lasted until 1948, with the exception of low-alcohol beer, which had been allowed to be sold since 1937. Kansas was also one of the last states to enact the end of federal prohibition (enacted by the 21st Amendment of 1933) into state law. During the 1880s and 1890s, the Populist Party flourished in Kansas, elected primarily by Midwestern farmers who wanted more support from the state. In 1892, Populist Party candidate Lorenzo D. Lewelling (with Democrat support) was elected governor and the party dominated the Kansas Senate. As early as 1899, however, a Republican regained the governorship.
During World War I, Kansas played no significant military role, but
did train soldiers at Camp Funston. 2,500 Kansans died in World War I,
but more than 5,000 died from the Spanish flu. It is believed that
Kansas was the state of origin of the Spanish flu, which spread
worldwide. Soldiers who were transferred from the Fort Riley military
base to various theaters of war are said to have carried a flu pathogen
into the world. Like all states, Kansas was hit by the economic crisis
of the 1930s, which also coincided with a drought in the Midwest. The
drought not only caused crop failures, but also dust storms, which is
why the Midwest was also called the Dust Bowl. Many farmers had to give
up their farms at this time and left Kansas.
During World War II, numerous German prisoners of war were interned in prisoner of war camps in Kansas. The largest of the 14 camps in Kansas between 1943 and 1946 were Camp Concordia and Camp Phillips. Due to the great distance from coasts and national borders, but also due to the good treatment of the prisoners, there were hardly any attempts to escape. Some of the prisoners worked on farms and some made friends with Americans. German-speaking Americans lived in some areas with POW camps. Economically, World War II had a major impact on Kansas because of the importance of the aircraft industry that was growing in the Wichita area. In addition, ammunition was produced in Kansas and soybeans were increasingly cultivated to secure the food supply of the USA.
In the 1950s, Kansas received national attention twice, rather indirectly. Dwight D. Eisenhower, who grew up in Kansas, was President of the United States from 1953 to 1961 and in 1955 the school board of the Kansas capital, Topeka, appeared as a defendant in the Supreme Court. This school segregation lawsuit was a class action but was filed under the name of the Kansas plaintiff first named in the indictment as Brown et al. vs. Board of Education of Topeka known. After the lawsuit went through multiple courts, the Supreme Court ruled that segregation in public schools was unconstitutional.
At the turn of the 21st century, Kansas made headlines in the debate
surrounding the role of evolution in school education. After a
conservative majority was elected to the state school board, they
decided in 1999 to remove all references to evolution from the
curriculum. However, this rule was abolished again in 2000 by a new
majority on the School Board. Something similar happened a few years
later: in 2004 there was again a conservative majority on the school
board, which scheduled a public hearing on the subject for the next year
and introduced new guidelines for biology teaching in 2006, according to
which both the theory of evolution and other explanatory models should
be taught . However, the majority on the school board changed again and
the decision was reversed. While Kansas has received international
attention for this debate, similar debates are taking place in other
Under Governor Sam Brownback, Kansas introduced austerity policies in 2010. Corporate tax rates have been lowered to zero for small businesses, and income taxes have been lowered than ever before. The state administration was reduced and limited its services. In March 2017, the Kansas Supreme Court ruled that spending on education was unconstitutional for failing to complete mandatory schoolwork. In June 2017, a Republican majority in both houses of Parliament forced Brownback to raise taxes by 1.2 billion over two years, against his initial veto.
The current Kansas Constitution was adopted in 1859. Amendments to
the Constitution may be proposed by the Legislature. For an amendment
proposed by one of the chambers of the Legislative Branch to be
approved, it needs to receive at least three-quarters of the votes of
the Senate and the State House of Representatives, and two-thirds of the
votes of the electoral population, in a referendum. Amendments can also
be made through constitutional conventions, special political meetings,
which need to be approved by at least 51% of each Chamber of the
Legislative Branch and, subsequently, by at least 60% of the state's
electoral population, in a referendum. .
The main official of the Executive Branch is the governor. He is elected jointly with the lieutenant governor, on the same ballot, by the voters of the state for a term of up to four years. A person can serve as governor as many times as he can, but not consecutively.
The Legislative Branch is made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate has 40 members and the House of Representatives has 125. Kansas is divided into 40 senatorial and 125 representative districts. The voters of each district elect a senator/representative, who will represent that district in the National Senate or in the House of Representatives. The term of office of senators is four years and that of representatives is two. A person can serve as senator only twice, and as representative four times.
The highest court of the Judiciary is the Supreme Court, made up of seven judges, among whom the most experienced is chosen to serve as chief justice. The second largest court in the state is the Court of Appeals, made up of ten judges. The judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the governor of the state, from a list of candidates made by a commission of the Supreme Court.
It is divided into 105 counties, with a total of 628 cities. Counties are administered by boards of commissioners composed of three or five members elected by the county population for terms of up to four years, while cities can choose their own management format. Most cities in the state are governed by a mayor and a municipal council. Other cities, mainly the largest ones, are governed by commissioners.
About half of local government budget revenue is generated by state taxes. The rest comes from budgets received from the federal government and from loans. In 2002, the state government spent 10,592 million dollars, having generated 9,694 million dollars. The public debt is 2,298 million dollars. The debt per capita is $844, the value of state taxes per capita is $1,773, and the value of government expenditures per capita is $3,905. It has the third smallest debt per capita of any American state, ahead only of Tennessee and Arizona.
The Republican Party dominated politically from the state's creation until the 1950s, and has a strong presence in the state to this day. Until the 1950s, the vast majority of governors and members of the state Legislature were Republicans. Since the 1930s, however, the Democratic Party has grown stronger in the state, and in recent decades, the electorate has alternated between Republican and Democratic governors in equal measure, as well as for members of the Legislature. In terms of elections at the national level, the majority of representatives in the United States Congress have been, and continue to be, Republican candidates. In American presidential elections, the majority of state votes in the American electoral college generally favor Republican candidates.
The 2000 national census, from the United States Census Bureau, set
the population at 2,688,418 inhabitants, a growth of 8.1% in relation to
the state's population in 1990, of 2,485,600 inhabitants.6 An estimate
made in 2005 estimated the state's population at 2,744,687 inhabitants,
a growth of 10.4% in relation to the state's population in 1990, 2.1% in
relation to the population in 2000, and 0.4% in relation to the state's
population in 2004.
The natural growth of the population between 2000 and 2005 was 76,138 inhabitants (204,663 births minus 128,525 deaths) the population growth caused by immigration was 38,222 inhabitants, while interstate migration resulted in a decrease of 57 763 inhabitants. Between 2000 and 2005, the population grew by 55,863 inhabitants, and between 2004 and 2005, by 10,990 inhabitants.
About 149.8 thousand inhabitants (5.5% of the state's population) were born outside the United States. It is estimated that it has about 47 thousand illegal immigrants (1.7% of the state's population).
Racial composition of the population:
5.5% African Americans
0.9% Native Americans
1.8% Two or more races
The seven largest groups by ancestry are: Germans (making up 25.9% of the state's population), Irish (11.5%), Americans (10.8%; most of English or Scottish descent), African Americans (5.5%), Mexicans (5.5%), French (3.1%) and Swedes (2.4%).
It has 627 incorporated cities. By Kansas statute, cities are divided into three classes that are determined by the population obtained "by any census enumeration." A third-class city has a population of less than 5,000 inhabitants, although cities that reach a population of more than 2,000 inhabitants can be certified as a second-class city. The second class is limited to cities with a population of less than 25,000, and a population of more than 15,000 can be certified as a first-class city. First and second class cities are independent of any municipality and are not included within the territory of the municipality.
The Gross Domestic Product, in 2003, was 93 billion dollars, a growth
of 4.3% in relation to the state's GDP in 2002. The per capita income of
the state, for its part, was 29,438 dollars. The unemployment rate was
The primary sector contributes 1% of GDP. Agriculture and livestock together account for a total of 3% of the state's GDP, employing about 101 thousand people. It has about 60,000 farms, covering more than 90% of the state. The main products produced by the agricultural industry are wheat (of which the state is the largest national producer) and bovine meat and milk (it has one of the largest herds of cattle in the country).
The secondary sector accounts for 23% of GDP. The total value of products manufactured in the state is 20 billion dollars. It has about 3,300 factories. The main industrialized products manufactured in the state are transportation equipment, food processing, and machinery. The manufacturing industry contributes 18% of the state's GDP, employing approximately 220 thousand people. The construction industry accounts for 4% of the state's GDP, and employs approximately 91 thousand people. Mining contributes 1% of the GDP, employing around 21 thousand people. The main natural resources explored in the state are oil and natural gas.
The tertiary sector contributes 74% of GDP. Wholesale and retail trade accounts for 1% of the state's GDP, and employs approximately 740 thousand people. Community and personal services are responsible for 18% of the state's GDP, employing about 467 thousand people. Government services account for 13% of GDP, employing approximately 271 thousand people. Financial and real estate services contribute about 13% of the state's GDP, employing approximately 107 thousand people. Transportation, telecommunications and public services employ around 85 thousand people, which represents 11% of the GDP. About 65% of the electricity generated is produced in coal-fired thermoelectric plants, 25% in nuclear plants, and most of the rest in oil- or natural gas-fired thermoelectric plants.
The first schools were founded during the 1830s by missionaries, and
created primarily for the education of Native American children. In
1855, he passed a law establishing a public school system for the
education of white children, a law that was amended in 1859 to include
any child, regardless of race.
Currently, all educational institutions need to follow the regulations and instructions issued by the State Council of Education. This controls the public school system, divided into school districts. It is made up of eight members chosen by the governor for terms of up to four years. They appoint a ninth member, who will act as commissioner of education, and president of the council. Each major city (city), various secondary cities (towns), and each county is served by a school district. In cities, responsibility for the administration of the public school system lies with municipal districts, while in less densely populated regions, this responsibility lies with school districts, which operate on a county-wide basis. Allows the operation of "charter schools" (independent public schools, which are not managed by school districts, but depend on public budgets to operate). School attendance is mandatory for all children and adolescents over seven years of age, until the completion of secondary education or until the age of fifteen.
In 1999, public schools served about 472,200 students, employing about 33,000 teachers. Private schools served about 43,100 students, employing about 3,200 teachers. The state's public school system invested about $2.84 billion, and public school spending was approximately $6,700 per student. About 88.6% of the state's residents over 25 years of age have a high school diploma.
The first public library was founded in 1859, in Vinland. Currently, there are 321 public library systems, which move about 9.6 books per inhabitant annually.
The first institution of higher learning, Baker University in Baldwin City, was founded in 1858. Currently, there are 60 institutions of higher education, of which 35 are public and 25 are private. The University of Kansas, founded in 1859 in Lawrence, is the largest educational institution in the state, and the oldest public institution of higher education in Kansas.
In 2002 it had 8,138 kilometers of railway tracks. In 2003, it owned 217,281 kilometers of public roads, of which 1,407 kilometers were interstate highways, part of the United States federal highway system. The mileage of the public road system is the fourth highest in the United States, surpassed only by California, Texas and Illinois. Wichita International Airport is the busiest in the state.
The first newspaper, the Shawnee Sun, was published in 1835. Created
by Jotham Meeker (Baptist missionary, defender of the Shawnee, Ottawa
and Delaware peoples), it appeared in Shawnee and was aimed at the
Shawnee natives. The first English-language newspaper was the Kansas
Weekly Herald, in 1854, in Leavenworth. Currently, there are 260
newspapers, of which 43 are daily newspapers.
The first radio station was founded in 1922, in Wichita. The first television station was founded in 1932, in Manhattan. This radio station, one of the first in the country, was created on an experimental basis, and the first commercial television station in the state was founded in 1953, in Hutchinson. Currently, it has 132 radio stations, of which 49 are AM and 83 are FM. It has 20 television stations.
The music group Kansas (original members residing in Topeka) with
critical and public success whose emblematic song is "Dust in The Wind"
Truman Capote's novel In Cold Blood recreates a murder that occurred in 1959. The story was made into a film in 1967, as was Capote's investigation in 2005.
In the Superman comic book and film series, the protagonist is raised in the town of Smallville. As of the 1978 film, the town is usually located in Kansas. The television series Supernatural is also set in the state.
It is also the setting for The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900), a children's literature book written by Lyman Frank Baum.
Setting of the movie Picnic (1955), in the town of the USA. The protagonist's friend is a wheat businessman.
In Western genre films he appears in several only in the city of Dodge City:
Dodge City (1939), directed by Michael Curtiz.
Dodge City Watchers (1944), directed by Wallance Grisell.
Duel of the Titans (1956), directed by John Sturges.
The Gunfight at Dodge City (1959), directed by Joseph N. Newman.
There have been numerous major league sports teams in Kansas City,
but based on the Missouri side. This is the case of the Kansas City
Royals of Major League Baseball and the Kansas City Chiefs of the
National Football League. The only exception has been Sporting Kansas
City of Major League Soccer, which has played at home in the state of
Kansas since 2008.
The National Collegiate Athletic Association was based in Kansas from 1973 to 1999. The two major collegiate teams are the Kansas Jayhawks and the Kansas State Wildcats, rivals in the Big 12 Conference. The Jayhawks won one Orange Bowl in football and three national championships in men's basketball. Meanwhile, the Wildcats have won a Cotton Bowl in American football and played in four semifinals in men's basketball.
Heartland Park Topeka is a road course that has hosted National Hot Rod Association races; The headquarters of the Sports Car Club of America is located there. Meanwhile, the NASCAR Cup Series and the IndyCar Series have raced on the Kansas Speedway oval.
Golf tournaments such as the 2002 US Women's Open and the 2006 US Veterans Open have been held at Prairie Dunes.
Amphibian: Barred tiger salamander (Ambystoma mavortium)
Mammal: Bison (Bison bison)
Bird: Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta)
Flower: Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)
Insect: European bee (Apis mellifera)
Reptile: Box turtle (Terrapene ornata)
Tree: Virginia poplar (Populus sect. Aegiros)
Bleeding Kansas (unofficial)
Cyclone State (unofficial)
Jayhawk State (unofficial)
Wheat State (unofficial)
Motto: Ad astra per aspera (Latin: Towards the stars among difficulties)
Music: Home on the Range
Tagline: Simply Wonderful; previously also Kansas, as big as you think