South Bend, Indiana

South Bend is a city of 103,453 (2020 census) in St. Joseph County, Indiana. The city is home to the county seat of St. Joseph County.



The University of Notre Dame du Lac is a Catholic private university in the US state of Indiana. It was founded in 1842 by French priest Edward Sorin. It is one of the American universities that are very active in research (classified as an R1 university, i.e. very high research activity). Notre Dame is recognized as one of the top universities in the United States, especially for undergraduate studies. In the rankings, Notre Dame competes with other elite universities such as Stanford, Yale, Northwestern and Duke.

The campus is in St. Joseph County near South Bend. The university is run by the Congregation of the Holy Cross. The landmark is the Golden Dome, a domed building with a gilded roof with a statue of Mary, the Notre Dame Stadium, and the Basilica. It maintains a system of libraries, cultural institutions, arts and science museums, including the Hesburgh Library and the Snite Museum of Art. Four-fifths of the university's undergraduate students live on campus in one of 33 residence halls, each with its own traditions, legacies , events and sports teams. The approximately 134,000 alumni of the university are considered one of the strongest alumni networks in the USA.

The university offers over 50 year-long study abroad programs and over 15 summer programs. Notre Dame's graduate program includes more than 50 master's, doctoral, and professional degrees offered by its six schools, including Notre Dame Law School and an MD-PhD program offered in combination with Indiana University School of Medicine becomes. The University of Notre Dame is also known for its School of Architecture, an architecture faculty that is dedicated to teaching traditional or pre-modern architecture and urban planning (e.g. in the sense of New Urbanism). It awards the renowned Driehaus Architecture Prize every year.

Under the leadership of Theodore Hesburgh, a friend of Martin Luther King, Notre Dame became a center for human rights in the United States. Until 1972 only men were admitted. Notre Dame's growth has continued into the 21st century. With USD 13.8 billion in endowment assets, it was among the ten richest universities in the USA in 2019; In 2021, it was the 8th richest university with USD 18.07 billion.

Also known is the library with the Dante collection and the Zahm Hall in honor of Reverend John Augustine Zahm.



In 1842, the Bishop of Vincennes, Célestine Guynemer de la Hailandière, offered Edward Sorin of the Congregation of the Holy Cross (Latin: Congregatio a Sancta Cruce) land on the condition that he establish a college in two years. Sorin arrived at the site on November 26, 1842 with eight Holy Cross friars from France and Ireland and began school with Stephen Badin's old log band. After the first students enrolled, they soon erected other buildings, including the Old College, the first church, and the first main building.

The task facing Rev. Sorin and his brothers was not easy: with little money (about $370) they had to manage both the local Potawatomi (since they had inherited the mission with the land) and the local white Catholics (who were an underrepresented minority in a largely Protestant area) and found a college at the same time in two years. Notre Dame began as an elementary and high school; In 1844 it received its official collegiate charter from the Indiana General Assembly. According to the charter, the school is officially named Université Notre Dame du Lac (University of Our Lady of the Lake). Because the university was originally all men, Saint Mary's College, women-only, was founded by the Sisters of the Holy Cross near Notre Dame in 1854. More students attended the college and the first degrees were awarded in 1849. Additionally, new buildings have been added to the university, allowing more students and faculty to live, study and eat at the university.

Early history
With each new President, new academic programs were offered and new buildings constructed to accommodate them. The original main building that Sorin constructed shortly after his arrival was replaced in 1865 by a larger one that housed the university's administration, classrooms, and dormitories. Under William Corby's first administration, enrollment at Notre Dame grew to more than 500 students. In 1869 he opened the law school, which offered a two-year degree, and in 1871 he began building the Church of the Sacred Heart, now the Basilica of the Sacred Heart, Notre Dame. Two years later, Auguste Lemonnier opened a library in the main building; by 1879 it had reached 10,000 volumes.

This main building and the library collection were destroyed by fire in April 1879. The school was immediately closed and the students were sent home. University founder Sorin and then-President William Corby immediately made plans to rebuild the structure, which housed virtually the entire university. Construction began on May 17, and through the incredible diligence of the administrators and workers, the building was completed before the fall semester of 1879. The library collection was also remodeled and was then housed in the new main building for years.

By 1890 individual dormitories for students were being built. William J. Hoynes was Dean of the Law School from 1883 to 1919, and when the new building opened shortly after his death, it was renamed in his honor. John Zahm became the Holy Cross Provincial for the United States and was entrusted with overall supervision of the university. He attempted to modernize and expand Notre Dame by constructing buildings and expanding the campus art gallery and library, amassing a famous Dante collection, and pushing Notre Dame to become a scholarly research university. The community did not extend his tenure for fear he had expanded Notre Dame too quickly and left the Order in serious debt.

The movement toward a research university was later supported by John W. Cavanaugh, who modernized educational standards and attracted many scholars to campus. In 1917, Notre Dame awarded its first degree to a woman and its first bachelor's degree in 1922. However, female students did not become common until 1972.

In 1919 James A. Burns became President of Notre Dame; in Cavanaugh's footsteps, in three years he produced an academic revolution that raised the school to national standards by adopting the electoral system and moving away from the traditional scholastic and classical emphasis of the university. In contrast, the Jesuit colleges, bastions of academic conservatism, were reluctant to adopt an electoral system. Because of this, her graduates were expelled from Harvard Law School. Notre Dame continued to grow over the years, adding more colleges, programs, and athletic teams.



The city has a total area of 101.3 km², of which 1.1% is water.

It is located on the southern river bend (river bend) of the St. Joseph River.



The population statistics show a total of 107,789 inhabitants for 2000, 42,908 households and 25,959 families. The population density is 1,076 inhabitants per km².

The population is 57.60% White, 24.61% African American, 8.45% Latino, and 9.34% from other or multiple races. A large part of the population comes from ancestors from Germany and Poland who immigrated at the end of the 19th century.

27.3% of the population is under 18 years old, 10.4% is 18-24 years old, 29.3% is 25-44 years old, 18.2% is 45-64 years old, and 14.8% are 65 years and older. The average age of the population is 33 years.



South Bend was originally established in 1831 as the seat of county government. At that time, about 130 people lived in this area, mainly fur traders, traders and innkeepers.

On October 4, 1851, the first steam locomotive reached South Bend and neighboring Mishawaka. In 1882, the South Bend Street Railway Company undertook the world's first attempt at an electric streetcar, which connected the two neighboring cities of Mishawaka and South Bend from the fall of 1882.

These transport links and industrial developments led to the Studebaker brothers settling business in South Bend and later founding the Studebaker vehicle operations here. Their impact on South Bend history was so significant that the closure of operations in 1963 caused serious economic difficulties for the town.

A relatively large number of emigrants who settled in the city between World War I and World War II originated from Croatian Minihof in Austria, where the street "Sotbend" was named after South Bend.

One structure in South Bend has National Historic Landmark status, Tippecanoe Place. A total of 73 structures and sites in the city are on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) as of February 5, January 2020.



South Bend is home to the University of Notre Dame and several other small colleges, including Indiana University South Bend, a branch of Indiana University.



South Bend Airport is located about 5 kilometers from the city center. The terminus of the South Shore Line of the Northern Indiana Commuter Transportation District is located directly at the airport, which provides a connection to Chicago, but has no further stop in South Bend. The city also has a train station served by Amtrak's Lake Shore Limited (Chicago to New York and Boston) and Capitol Limited (Chicago to Washington, D.C.) trains.

The Interstate 80 and Interstate 90 freeways and the U.S. Hwy 31



South Bend hosted the 1987 Special Olympics World Summer Games. It was Special Olympics' biggest games up to that point, and the biggest amateur sporting event of the year.



John Franklin Miller (1831–1886), jurist and politician; General in the Union Army during the Civil War
John Franklin Miller (1862–1936), politician
Frederick Collins (1869–1952), inventor and author
Lambert Hillyer (1893–1969), film director and screenwriter
Charles Butterworth (1896–1946), film actor and Broadway performer
Kenneth Rexroth (1905–1982), poet, essayist and literary critic
William Cottrell (1906–1995), screenwriter and assistant director
Dale Messick (1906–2005), comic book artist
George Rickey (1907–2002), sculptor
Clarence Long (1908–1994), politician
Mike Salay (1909–1973), auto racer
Maclyn McCarty (1911–2005), biologist
Jack Nethercutt (1913–2004), entrepreneur and auto racer
George Seaton (1911–1979), screenwriter, film director and producer
John Bromfield (1922–2005), actor
Dolores Fuller (1923–2011), film actress and songwriter
John Howard Yoder (1927–1997), Mennonite theologian who taught at the Catholic University
Tom Donahue (1928-1975), pioneer of rock 'n' roll on radio as a disc jockey, producer and concert promoter
Jack Coker (1929–2016), jazz pianist and college teacher
Jerry Coker (born 1932), jazz saxophonist, clarinetist, college teacher and author
Sneaky Pete Kleinow (1934–2007), country musician
Chad Everett (1937-2012), actor
Jeremy M. Boorda (1939–1996), Admiral
R. James Milgram (born 1939), mathematician
Jeremy Leven (born 1941), screenwriter, director, producer and writer
Gary A. Heidt (1942–2021), biologist, mammalogist and ecologist
Gerard Pauwels (1945–2022), actor and lawyer
William L. Rathje (1945–2012), archaeologist
Michael August Blume (born 1946), Roman Catholic minister and diplomat of the Holy See
Eric Wieschaus (born 1947), molecular and developmental biologist
Debra Elmegreen (born 1952), astronomer
Isiah Whitlock Jr (born 1954), actor
Dan Harrigan (born 1955), swimmer
Timothy J. Roemer (born 1956), diplomat and politician
Janice Elaine Voss (1956–2012), astronaut
Tom Emmer (born 1961), politician
Larry Karaszewski (born 1961), screenwriter, film producer and film director
Dean Norris (born 1963), actor
Jackie Walorski (1963–2022), politician
Vivica A Fox (born 1964), actress
Michael Alig (1966–2020), party promoter in the Manhattan club scene
William Wack (born 1967), Roman Catholic minister, Bishop of Pensacola-Tallahassee
Susan Choi (born 1969), writer
Ryan Newman (born 1977), NASCAR racer
Pete Buttigieg (born 1982), politician and Mayor of South Bend
Leroy Dixon (born 1983), track and field athlete
Skylar Diggins-Smith (born 1990), basketball player
Anthony Barr (born 1992), American football player
Hannah Roberts (born 2001), BMX cyclist
Jaden Ivey (born 2002), basketball player

personalities related to the city
Ivan Meštrović (1883–1962), Croatian sculptor and architect; Professor of Sculpture at the University of Notre Dame at South Bend
Stan Coveleski (1889–1984), baseball player
Charles van Acker (1912–1998), racing driver
Moose Krause (1913–1992), collegiate track and field athlete, baseball, basketball and football player

music bands
Surf rock band The Rivieras formed in South Bend in the early 1960s.