Serra da Bodoquena National Park is a nature reserve situated in
Mato Grosso do Sul State of Brazil. It covers an area of 76,400 ha.
Much of the sediment in Serra da Bodoquena National Park were formed
by dead algae that deposited at the sea floor for millions of years.
Today these deposits keep reforming the appearance of the terrain in
the region. Serra da Bodoquena National Park is famous for its
beautiful clear waters full of aquatic life. Many tourists come here
to do snorkelling in crystal clear rivers and lakes. Additionally
there are numerous caves, pits and underground channels that dot the
The park is classified as IUCN Protection Area II
(National Park). It aims to preserve natural ecosystems of great
ecological relevance and scenic beauty, enabling scientific
research, environmental education, outdoor recreation and
ecotourism. Protected species include the blind husk (Ancistrus
formoso), the jaguar (Panthera onca) and the puma (Puma concolor).
Geography The park belongs to the cerrado biome. It covers an
area of 77,022 hectares, was created on September 21, 2000 and is
managed by the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation.
The park is located in the Pantanal Biosphere Reserve, which also
includes the Pantanal, Chapada dos Guimarães and Emas national
parks, as well as the Santa Bárbara Mountains, Taquari Springs and
Rio Negro Wetlands. It covers parts of the municipalities of Porto
Murtinho, Jardim, Bonito and Bodoquena, in Mato Grosso do Sul.
Geology Modern and ancient calcareous tufts, the latter
situated in abandoned drainage channels, have excellent leaf molds,
which, together with studies of carbon and oxygen isotopes, enable
paleoclimatic and paleohydrological interpretations. In addition to
this scientific interest, limestone tufts form landscape sets of
unusual beauty, much sought after by tourists, reasons that imply
the need for preservation of these deposits and special attention to
the water quality of their rivers, which depends on the continuity
of the process. formation of these deposits
The rivers of the region are known for their very crystalline and
bicarbonate waters of brackish taste. Such transparency is due to
the following factors: the exit of the spring with very little
turbidity, not acquiring clay in its movement, in the very pure
limestone rocks prevent the presence of clay. This limestone present
in the rivers that comes from such rocks present in the springs acts
as a filter, depositing the impurities in the bottom, where rocks
are in permanent dissolution and through fractures in the ground
form caves, chasms and underground conduits.
addition to the cerrado, typical vegetation of Central Brazil, it is
found on the tops of hills, limestone soils and rocky outcrops where
the Deciduous Seasonal Forest occurs, where the plants lose all
leaves during the dry season. In other environments is present the
Semideciduous Seasonal Forest, which loses only part of the leaves
in the same period. Riparian forests present on riverbanks and
streams lose few leaves, allowing moisture to be high throughout the
forest. In addition, riparian forests play a great role in
protecting the crystalline waters of rivers, protecting the soil
from rain. strong and preventing the river from being silted by
mounds of land carried by them.
Fauna The fauna in the
Bodoquena Plateau is interesting for its habits. In the dry season
their agitation is a sign that to provide the birth of their puppies
in the spring and grow when the food supply is greater. There is a
very harmonious symbiosis between the Serra da Bodoquena species.
Birds and capybaras are an example, after all fleas become food for
birds and the capybara gets cleansed. The same is true of
yellow-robin alligators, common in the region, and butterflies. So
far more than 340 species of birds, 195 of mammals and 50 of fish
Climate The tropical climate, with average
temperature ranging from 25 to 30 ° C in summer from 15 to 20 ° C in
winter, can reach 0 to 40 º C. Summer is rainy, and dry winter are
the two seasons present in the Bodoquena Plateau. . The average
rainfall ranges from 1200 to 1500 mm per year and the dry period
lasts 3 to 4 months with brief droughts from May to August. On the
Bodoquena Plateau, located on the southeastern edge of the Pantanal
complex, Mato Grosso do Sul State, numerous limestone tufa deposits
are under development along the current drainage in the form of
waterfalls and natural dams. The turbidity of the river waters is
practically nil, and this is due to the fact that its headwaters,
which cut through the plateau and end on the left bank of the
Miranda River, are located in very pure limestone exposure areas.