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Brasília National Park (Parque Nacional de Brasília)





Location: Federal District  Map

Area: 30,000 ha



Description of Brasília National Park

Brasília National Park is a protected area situated 10 km from the center of Brasília (capital of Brazil) in the Federal District in Brazil. It covers an area of 30,000 ha. During the gold cycle, the extractions made in the Pirenópolis region, in Goiás, were transported to the coast of Bahia passing through the region where the park is today. There, there was the "count", which gave name to the chapada existing in the place.

The creation of the park, on November 29, 1961, is directly related to the construction of Brasilia. Agreement with the Ministry of Agriculture allowed Novacap to maintain a nursery for afforestation of the new capital, in part of the future park area.

The main attraction of the park is the pools formed from water wells, which appeared on the banks of the Camp Stream by the extraction of sand made before the creation of Brasilia. The park also has two trails in the internal area, Capivara, lasting about 20 minutes, and Cristal Água, lasting about 1 hour.

The predominant climate of the region, according to the Köppen classification, is "Savannah tropical", with the concentration of rainfall in summer. The rainy season begins in October and ends in April, representing 84% of the annual total. The wettest quarter is from November to January, with December being the highest rainfall of the year. The dry season runs from May to September, with precipitation in the driest quarter (June / July / August) representing only 2% of the annual total. In terms of annual totals, the average annual rainfall in the Federal District varies between 1 200 and 1 700 mm.

Relative humidity drops from more than 70% at the beginning of the drought to less than 20% at the end of the period. Coinciding with the warmer period, in August and September, humidity can reach 12%, typical desert dryness (FERRANTE et al, 2001).

Although the climate of the Federal District is classified as tropical, people's thermal perception depends on the combination of different climatic elements such as temperature, relative humidity, vapor pressure, ventilation and solar radiation. Thus, low humidity in the dry season, combined with prolonged exposure to the sun, causes a feeling of discomfort. However, this discomfort is attenuated by exposure to winds (FERRANTE et al, 2001).

The climate of the Federal District is represented by three units, according to Köppen: Aw, Cwa, Cwb. (FEDERAL DISTRICT ATLAS, 1984).

The Aw unit has a monthly temperature of over 18 ° C. This unit is not registered within the Brasilia National Park, as it is located at an altitude of over 1,000 meters.

The climate of the CWa regime is conditioned to the temperature of the coldest month, below 18 ° C and the warmest month, with an average above 22 ° C. This temperature regime occurs in almost the entire portion of Brasilia National Park with altitudes below 1,200 m.

The climate for the CWb unit has a temperature of the coldest month below 18 ° C and the warmest month, with average below 22 ° C. This unit corresponds to the highest portions of the Federal District. The park area is located in Chapada da Contagem, all along the north and west of the current conservation unit.

The hydrography of the study area is formed by streams that are born in contact with the plateau of Contagem with the Paranoá Depression. The streams in the Brasilia National Park are tributaries of the Paranoá River. According to Novaes Pinto (1986), the hydrographic network in relation to the Paranoá Semidome presents an annular pattern. Locally, these watercourses have a normally parallel east-west pattern with slight south-east curvature toward Lake Paranoá. In the steeper portions, where shallow soils such as Cambisols are located, the drainage networks are denser especially in the escarpment unit. This is because the shallow soils have low infiltration capacity and quickly saturate providing surface runoff, which forms the ravines. In some humid points of Brasilia National Park there are small lagoons that can be seen in satellite images. The main sub-basins of the Brasília National Park are the Bananal Stream and the Torto Stream, which has the Santa Maria Stream as its main tributary. This stream feeds the dam of the same name and occupies the largest basin area in the park. In the elevated portions, there are the Tres Barras streams and the Tortinho stream, which bathes a large part of the National Park.











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