Cape Verde


Cape Verde, officially the Republic of Cape Verde, is a state in West Africa. Located on the Cape Verde Islands in the Atlantic Ocean, 600 km from the coast of Africa.


In 1456, the Venetian Kadamosto discovered a number of islands of the archipelago, which, due to their location opposite the Cape Verde Peninsula (port. Cabo Verde), were also called the “Islands of Cape Verde” and were called that way throughout the colonial period. In 1975, after gaining independence, the state received the name "Republic of the Cape Verde Island" or simply "Cape Verde Islands" (port. Ilhas do Cabo Verde).

Until the mid-1980s, foreign-language versions of the country's name sounded in a translated form. In 1986, the country's government adopted the new name of the state "Republica do Cabo Verde" - "Republic of the Green Cape" and decided to stop its semantic translation into other languages. On October 24, 2013, the country's delegation to the United Nations brought this demand to the attention of the world community.

The Cape Verde Islands are an archipelago of 10 large and 8 small islands in the central part of the Atlantic Ocean, west of Senegal, conditionally subdivided into Leeward (port. sotavento) and Windward (port. barlavento) groups.

The Windward group includes the islands: Santo Antan, San Vicente, San Nicolau, Santa Luzia, Sal, Boavista. The Leeward group includes the islands: Santiago, Brava, Fogo, Mayu. Small islands: Branco, Razo, Grande, Luis Carneiro, Santa Maria, Zapado, Sima, Do Rei (port. Ilhéu do Rei).

The territory of the islands is elevated and quite dry. Up to 16% of Cape Verde is occupied by dry gravel highlands - the so-called "lunar landscape". The relief is mountainous with a large number of extinct and active volcanoes. Rocky shores are difficult to access. There are very few natural harbors, the largest of which is Mindelo (it is a flooded crater of an extinct volcano). The highest point of the country is the Fogo volcano (2829 m) on the island of the same name, the Coroa volcano (1979 m) on the island of Santo Antan also stands out. Coastline - 965 km. The total area is 4033 km².

Mild climate, practically unchanged average annual temperature (about +25 °C), low rainfall. Each of the islands is unique in nature and landscape.

The first mention of the archipelago was contained in the diaries of the Arab traveler Idrisi (XII century) and in the encyclopedia Al-Omari (XIV century).

The official date for the discovery of the Cape Verde Islands by Europeans is 1460.

colonial period
1456 - a number of islands of the archipelago were discovered by the Venetian Kadamosto.

1460 - Portuguese sailors landed on the island of Sal under the command of Diogo Gomes and Diogo Afonso.

1462 - the first settlers appeared on the island of Santiago.

1466 - the beginning of the mass settlement of the islands by Portuguese colonists, officials and exiles. Later - the Spaniards, the French and the inhabitants of Genoa.

1495 - the islands are officially declared a possession of Portugal.

1581 Cape Verde becomes a Spanish colony.

1640 - Portugal resumed its dominance.

1853 - the Russian frigate "Pallada", heading from St. Petersburg to Vladivostok, made a stop in the port of the city of Praya.

Until 1878, slavery existed on the islands.

Until 1879, the archipelago and Portuguese Guinea were a single colony.

Since 1879, an influx of new settlers began, including contract workers from neighboring countries.

1956 - The African Party for the Independence and Union of the Peoples of Guinea and Cape Verde is founded.

1960 - The African Party for the Independence and Union of the Peoples of Guinea and Cape Verde is renamed the African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde (PAIGC). The General Secretary is Amilcar Cabral.

1963 - the beginning of the PAIGC armed struggle against the Portuguese authorities in the archipelago.

In 1973, Amilcar Cabral was assassinated.

In April 1974, after the overthrow of the right-wing regime in Portugal, the new Portuguese government recognized the PAIGC as the legitimate representative of the population of Cape Verde and entered into negotiations with it, during which the PAIGC demanded the simultaneous recognition by Portugal of the independence of the Republic of Guinea-Bissau and the granting of independence to Cape Verde.

In November 1974, an agreement was signed in Lisbon declaring the country's independence and the transitional government of the Autonomous Republic of Cape Verde was formed (half of whose members were appointed by the Portuguese administration, and half by the PAIGC).

On June 30, 1975, elections were held for the National Assembly of the Republic of Cape Verde, in which the PAIGC won, Aristides Pereira became president.

Period of independent development
On July 5, 1975, independence was proclaimed.

In 1975-1981. PAIGC pursued a policy aimed at uniting Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde into a single state. Natives of Cape Verde were in power in Guinea-Bissau.

January 1981 - The African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde (PAIKV) was created. A one-party regime was established.

1990 - the abolition of the article of the constitution, fixing the monopoly of PAIKV.

1990 - The Movement for Democracy (MPD) party was created.

January 13, 1991 - first democratic elections. MPD won.

February 1991 - António Mascarenhas Monteiro is elected president.

December 1995 - parliamentary elections. The MPD retained a majority of the seats in the National Assembly.

February 1996 - A. Monteiro was re-elected for a second term.

1997 - Creation of an offshore banking center.

1998 - An agreement pegging the Cape Verdean escudo to the Portuguese escudo, facilitating trade with the EU and Africa.

January 14, 2001 - presidential and parliamentary elections. PAIKV received 40 seats in parliament, the IPD - 30, the Democratic Alliance for Change (coalition of parties) - 2. President - Pedro Verona Pires (46.5% of the vote). International observers believed the elections were fair. Some violations were recorded at the local level (such as stuffing ballot boxes). The delegates of both candidates were found guilty of violations and received light prison sentences.

January 1, 2002 - Following the replacement of the Portuguese escudo by the euro, the Cape Verdean escudo became pegged against the euro at a ratio of 110.265:1.

March 2004 - elections to local authorities. The MPD defeated the ruling party by several votes. YHRM President Agustinho Lopes claimed that there were irregularities and inaccuracies in the ballots at some polling stations, although international observers concluded that the elections were transparent and fair.

2005 - The country, with the support of some of Portugal's leading politicians, expressed interest in EU membership.

January 2006 - presidential and legislative elections. PAIKV won a majority with 41 seats in the National Assembly, compared to 29 YHPs; Democratic and Independent Union of Cape Verde, the opposition party, retained 2 seats.

February 2006 - presidential elections. Pedro Verona Pires has extended his five-year mandate. His rival Manuel Veiga claimed the results were fraudulent, but international observers thought they were free and fair.

August 21, 2011 - Presidential elections. Jorge Carlos Fonseca has been elected the country's new president. In 2016, he was re-elected president for a second term.

October 17, 2021 - Opposition candidate and former Prime Minister José María Neves of the Cape Verdean African Independence Party wins the presidential election. November 9, 2021 was sworn in as the new president.

Cape Verde is one of the few countries in Africa (along with Botswana, Mauritius, Malawi, Namibia, Eritrea and South Africa) where there has never been a coup.


Political structure
Political system
Cape Verde is a unitary state. Main cities: Praia, Mindelo, Sao Filipe. Parliamentary republic. The constitution adopted on September 25, 1992 (as amended in 1995 and 1999) is in force. The head of state and commander-in-chief of the armed forces is the president, who is directly elected in general elections for a five-year term. The highest body of legislative power is the National Assembly; 72 deputies are elected for five years. The deputies of the assembly elect the prime minister, who, in turn, submits the composition of the cabinet of ministers for approval by the president. Local government councils are also elected in general elections for five-year terms.

The President is Jose Maria Pereira Neves, elected on October 17, 2021. José Correia y Silva has been Prime Minister since April 22, 2016.

The system is multi-party. 7 parties registered.

The most influential parties:
Cape Verde African Independence Party, PAIKV (port. Partido Africano da Independência de Cabo Verde, PAICV), chairman - José Maria Neves (port. José Maria Neves), gene. sec. - Aristides Lima (port. Aristides Lima).
"Movement for Democracy", MPD (port. Movimento para a Democracia, MPD), leader - Ulisses Correia and Silva[pt]*.
"Party of Democratic Unity", PDE (port. Partido da Convergência Democràtica, PCD). Chairman - Eurico Monteiro (port. Eurico Monteiro).
Democratic Alliance for Change.

Leading business organizations are the Chambers of Commerce of the Windward and Leeward Islands.

trade union association
National Union of Workers of Cape Verde (port. União Nacional dos Trabalhadores de Cabo Verde - Central Sindical, UNTC - CS). Created in 1978, it has 9 thousand members. Gene. secretary - Julio Ascensao Silva (port. Júlio Ascensăo Silva).

Legal system
The legal system of Cape Verde is part of the Romano-Germanic family. Based on the legal tradition of Portugal. Cape Verde does not have its own system of legal education; local lawyers study at universities in Portugal.

The main source of civil law is the Portuguese Civil Code of 1966. Family relations are regulated by the 1981 Family Code. The Constitution provides for marriage in civil or religious form and establishes the equality of spouses.

Since the late 1980s, a liberalization policy has been pursued in the economic sphere. Decree-Law of 1989 created the legal framework for free economic zones. In the 1990s, the privatization of state-owned enterprises developed. The 1992 Constitution secured the freedom of private economic initiative and obliged the state to attract and support foreign investment.

The Constitution guarantees the right of workers to free association in trade unions, to collective bargaining and to strike. The law establishes a 44-hour work week.

The death penalty has not been used in the islands since 1835 and was completely abolished by the first constitution in 1981.

Judicial system
The judicial system of Cape Verde includes the Supreme Court (port. Supremo Tribunal de Justicial) and regional courts.

The number of representatives of the Supreme Court is 5 people, of which one is appointed by the President, one by the National Assembly and three by the Supreme Judicial Council (port. Conselho Superior da Magistratura Judicial).

The Supreme Judicial Council consists of the President of the Supreme Court, two judges elected by the judiciary, the Supreme Judicial Inspector, three citizens elected by the National Assembly and two citizens appointed by the President.

The Prosecutor's Office (port. Ministerio Publico) represents the state, has the right to carry out criminal prosecution and protect democratic legality, the rights of citizens and public interests. Structure of the Prosecutor's Office: The Prosecutor General's Office of the Republic (port. Procuradoria-Geral da Republica) and the Prosecutor's Office of the Republic. The governing body of the Prosecutor General's Office is the Superior Council of the Prosecutor's Office (port. Conselho Superior do Ministerio Publico), which exercises administrative and disciplinary powers.

The Prosecutor General's Office is headed by the Attorney General (Port. Procurador-Geral). The Prosecutor General is appointed by the President at the proposal of the Government for a term of five years.

The Constitutional Court (port. Tribunal Constitucional) exercises constitutional control, establishes the incapacity of the head of state, decides on the legality of elections and the activities of political parties, resolves jurisdictional conflicts, and considers amparo appeals. The Constitutional Court consists of at least three judges elected by the National Assembly for a nine-year term.

The Court of Accounts (port. Tribunal de Contas) is the supreme body of financial control.