Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a country in West Africa. Included in the Commonwealth of Nations. It borders in the west with Côte d'Ivoire, in the northwest and north with Burkina Faso, in the east with Togo. From the south it is washed by the waters of the Gulf of Guinea of the Atlantic Ocean.


After the independence of the British colony of the Gold Coast in 1957, the country became known as "Ghana". This toponym comes from "gana" - the title of the rulers of the Ghana Empire, which means "warlord".

Physical and geographical characteristics
The territory of the country is a plain, in some places dotted with remnant hills. To the north of the plain is a wooded plateau. At the eastern border of the country rise the mountains of Togo with the highest point of the state - Mount Afajato (885 m). To the north of Ejura above the Nampong ledge, the forest gradually thins out and is replaced by thickets of shrubs. Further north, along the Gambaga Escarpment, there are open savannahs with more fertile soils.

Ghana is located in the subequatorial belt, in which there is a constant alternation of rainy and dry seasons. Most of the year the weather is dry. The climate is subequatorial, in the southwest - transitional to equatorial. From a natural and climatic point of view, Ghana is divided into south and north. In the south, the climate is humid, dominated by rugged evergreen tropical forests, in the north, an arid region with savannahs and shrubs. In November-February, harmattan blows - a dry, dusty wind from the north, but its influence is practically not felt in coastal areas. During the rainy season, the southwest of the country is the area with the highest amount of precipitation (over 2000 mm per year). Temperatures are high all year round, and only in the north do they drop at night. Average monthly temperatures range from plus 28°C to plus 30°C in coastal and forest areas and from plus 16°C to plus 33°C in the north. During the year, an average of 750-1000 mm of precipitation falls in Accra, 1500-1800 mm in Kumasi, 1800-2100 mm in the south-west of the coastal region near Aksim, and 1100-1200 mm in the north in Tamale.

Flora and fauna
The fauna is represented in the north and in the center, where there are many savannahs, and in the south, where there are tropical forests. In Ghana, the fauna is mainly filled with lions, elephants, hippos, zebras, chimpanzees, flamingos, crocodiles and others.

Most of the vegetation of the country was destroyed, but in the south there are still forests in which cotton trees, redwoods, and cedar grow. Two-thirds of the country's territory is occupied by savanna, almost completely covered with grass and rare trees. The fauna also suffered as a result of land development, but such mammals as the leopard, hyena, lemur, buffalo, elephant, antelope, and monkeys have survived. The country also has a large number of reptiles: cobra, python, horned viper, African viper, etc.


Archaeological evidence suggests that people have lived in what is now Ghana since the Bronze Age.

On the territory of present-day Ghana, before the arrival of Europeans, there were a number of tribal associations and local state formations. In the XIII-XVII centuries. there were city-states, the largest of which were Bego (Begho), Bono-Mansu, La and Xai, in the 17th century the Ashanti federation was formed.

In 1482, Portuguese colonists from the expedition of Diogo de Azambuja (Christopher Columbus was a member of the expedition) were the first to land on the coast, who built the fortress of Elmina, then the fortresses of Aksim, Shama and others. The Portuguese exported gold (the country was then called the Gold Coast) and slaves.

The riches of the Gold Coast also attracted other European powers: the Netherlands, the Kingdom of Sweden, Prussia, Britain. In the 16th century, gold exported from the Gold Coast accounted for about 10% of its global production.

Starting from the middle of the 17th century, the coast of modern Ghana began to be actively colonized by the Danish West India Company, established in 1625 in Copenhagen for trade with the West Indies. In 1643, the Danes founded the first trading posts here, in 1659 - Fort Frederiksborg, and in 1661 - Christiansborg. After the liquidation of the West India Company in 1754 to the Danish crown, the lands of the Danish Gold Coast colony were exploited by the mother country with varying success, periodically being attacked by the Ashanti, until they were ceded to Great Britain in 1850 for 10,000 pounds sterling.

By the middle of the 19th century, Great Britain ousted other European competitors from the Gold Coast, and in 1844 the English governor concluded an agreement with the rulers of the coastal territories of the Fanti people to recognize them as a British protectorate.

The Ashanti put up stubborn resistance to attempts by the British Empire to penetrate deep into the mainland. In 1896, the Ashanti territory was declared a British protectorate, and in 1901 included in the Gold Coast colony.

In the 1940s, the liberation struggle of the peoples of the Gold Coast intensified, which, under the leadership of Kwame Nkrumah, culminated in the declaration of independence. On March 6, 1957, the country became known as Ghana. Diplomatic relations with the USSR were established on January 14, 1958.