Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a country in West Africa. Included in the Commonwealth of Nations. It borders in the west with Côte d'Ivoire, in the northwest and north with Burkina Faso, in the east with Togo. From the south it is washed by the waters of the Gulf of Guinea of the Atlantic Ocean.



Coastal Plains (Accra, Apam, Cape Coast, Elmina, Kakum National Park, Nzulezo, Sekondi-Takoradi, Ada)
The country's coastal region, including the capital, several forts, and the country's best-preserved rainforests.
Ashanti-Kwahu (Koforidua, Kumasi, Obuasi, Sunyani)
Forested hills and the ancient Ashanti Kingdom.
Volta Basin (Tamale)
The huge Lake Volta, as well as the river system that feeds it and the border with Togo.
Northern Plains (Bolgatanga, Mole National Park)
Savannah plains and the traditional trade routes for Burkina Faso.



Accra - Capital and largest city in the country.
Bolgatanga - Largest city in the north and entry point to Burkina Faso.
Cape Coast - The Cape Coast slave castle is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Elmina - A coastal town with a beautiful colonial fort.
Koforidua - Close to Lake Volta and rainforest.
Kumasi - Second largest city in the country and traditional center of the Ashanti kingdom.
Obuasi - Mining city.
Sekondi-Takoradi - Coastal city.
Tamale - Entry point to Mole National Park.


Other destinations

Sognaayilli - a holiday with the locals in a traditional village in northern Ghana.
Kakum National Park - A tropical forest, with a net bridge to see rare monkeys, as well as antelopes and forest elephants.
Mole National Park - A savannah park, known for wildlife including buffalo, monkeys, antelope, lions and elephants. Walking and driving safaris are popular, you can even camp and sleep a night in the savannah.
Wli Falls - In the Agumatsa Fauna Sanctuary, near the border with Togo.
Nzulezo - A village with buildings built over the water.
Paga — a city in the north, home to "sacred crocodiles", which are domesticated and live in several lagoons.
Shai Hills Reserve — a good mini-trip from Accra, with baboons, parrots and antelopes; You can visit the reserve on horseback.


Getting here

It's a good idea to arrange a visa in advance. The Ghana Tourism website has a reliable list of embassies abroad. A three-month individual visa costs 50 dollars (around €37 or R$83); a one-year, multiple-entry visa costs 80 dollars (around €60 or R$135). You must present a yellow fever vaccination certificate, which will be presented at customs upon entering the country. The malaria vaccine is, of course, essential.

Citizens of Egypt, Kenya, Hong Kong, Singapore, Mauritius or Zimbabwe do not need a visa to enter Ghana. Citizens of Malawi, Botswana, Eswatini, Lesotho, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia can obtain a visa at the airport or at the border.

Travelers who wish to stay longer than their visa allows (generally a maximum of 30 or 60 days is granted to tourists) must bring their passport to the Immigration Service to request a visa extension - it will take some time to get it back. Although they often say it only takes two weeks, it can take much longer. Be careful about what is stamped in your passport. Sometimes the Immigration Service puts a 60-day stamp on a 3-month visa - and it's the stamps that count.

By airplane
All international flights pass through Accra Kotoka International Airport (IATA: ACC; ICAO: DGAA). Kotoka International Airport is very central and there are always shuttles and taxis to connect you to other parts of the city.

United Airlines began flying to Accra from Washington, D.C. - Dulles in June 2010. Delta Air Lines flies from Accra to New York (JFK) and Atlanta, with four flights per week. British Airways flies from London - Heathrow, and Astraeus flies from London - Gatwick. Royal Dutch Airlines (KLM) flies daily from Schiphol, Amsterdam. Lufthansa maintains daily direct flights from Frankfurt, respectively, with a short stop in Lagos, Nigeria. Emirates operates direct, non-stop flights from Dubai, in the Middle East (with connections to Asia and the Far East). Ethiopian Airlines operates four flights a week from Addis Ababa. Egypt Air also operates direct flights to Accra. If you are coming from Brazil or a neighboring country, flights from Rio de Janeiro to Luanda, Angola, with Angola Airlines are the shortest option. From Luanda, you can take a direct flight to Accra. Turkish Airlines flies from Istanbul to Accra, with four flights per week, all stopping in Lagos.

The cheapest flights to Ghana from outside Africa are usually those from London, but this does not mean that British Airways is the cheapest option (for example, you may need to change flights). Afriqiyah Airways is one of the cheapest companies, with flights to Accra from London - Gatwick with a stop in Tripoli. Those coming from North America may be able to save some money by getting a cheap ticket to London from their country.

By car
You can enter the country from Burkina Faso through the northwest corner of Ghana, crossing the border between Tumu and Léo or between Hamale or Lawra and Bobo-Dioulasso. The easiest way to get to Tumu is from Bolgatanga, to Hamale from Bolgatanga or Wa, to Lawra from Wa.

The border with Togo in Aflao is a fun scene. It has a very disorganized appearance and human trafficking seems to flow freely. However, it is unlikely that someone with white skin will be able to cross without going through all the formalities. The process of filling out forms and checking visas can take a while. Those on the Togolese side will probably ask for a bribe, but this is not necessary if you have your documents in order. Officials on the Ghanaian side are much harder to bribe. A visa to enter Ghana can be purchased at the border, but it costs twice as much as normal (because of the speed of delivery): ₵110.

You can also cross the border into Ivory Coast between Bole and Bouna, although this involves a chartered canoe trip across the Black Volta River. It is faster to cross this border than the Togo border, but officials strictly follow the rules.

By bus/bus and shared taxis
The national bus company, the State Transport Corporation, operates an inter-city bus service from Ghana to some major cities in West Africa. A recent public-private partnership created the Metro Mass Company, which has services from Accra and other regions of Ghana.

From Burkina Faso
There is a direct bus operated by VanefSTC from Ouagadougou to Accra (29 US$/21€, 24 hours) every day from Monday to Saturday and one from Kumasi (21 US$/15€, 20 hours) every Wednesday night ; Most people do the trip in parts. From Bolgatanga, there are tro-tros (shared taxis) to the border at Paga (US$1.10/€0.80, 40 minutes), from where you can get transport to Pô and Ouagadougou.

From Ivory Coast
Between Accra and Abidjan there is a bus service from Vanef STC (US$12/8.8€, 12 hours), passing through Elubo, every day from Monday to Friday, leaving at dawn. The Ecowas Express, operated by STIF, an Ivory Coast company, makes three trips a week between Accra and Abidjan. From Takoradi, shared taxis make the journey to Abidjan.

From Togo
The coastal road between Accra and Aflao is full of tro-tros and buses (all around US$3.30/€2.40, 3 hours). VanefSTC buses leave from the small Tudu bus station in Accra (US$5/€3.60, four times a day). The border post at Aflao is open from 6am to 10pm every day, but do not cross the border between 9am and 5pm if you need to arrange a Togolese visa at the border. Ghanaian public transport does not cross the border, which is just 2km from the capital Lomé.

From other countries
ABC Transport, based in Nigeria, operates a daily bus service (air-conditioned) to Lagos for around GH₵45.

By train/train
There are no international train lines.


Local transport

By airplane
There are 10 public airports in Ghana: Kotoka (Accra), Kumasi, Nantong, Navrongo, Sunyani, Palibelo, Takoradi, Tamale, Wa and Yendi.

There are two domestic airlines in Ghana: Antrak Air (21-765337; Antrak House, Danquah Circle, Osu; Kumasi 51-41296; Tamale 71-91075;) and City Link (312001;). Both have twice-daily flights between Accra and Kumasi (US$60-US$80/44€-59€, 45 minutes), and Antrak has flights between Accra and Tamale on Wednesdays, Fridays and Saturdays (US$144/105€, Hour and a half).

Of boat
A passenger boat, the Yapei Queen, travels on Lake Volta, between Akosombo and Yeji, with a stop at the town of Kete-Krachi and a few villages along the way. In theory, it leaves the port of Akosombo at 4pm on Monday and arrives Yeji on Wednesday morning; In practice, schedules are more fluid. The boat leaves Yeji at around 4pm on Wednesday and arrives in Akosombo on Friday morning. Tickets cost US$11/8€ in 1st class and US$5.50/4€ in 2nd class, and there is food and drink on board. If you want one of the two 1st class cabins (recommended), you must book at least two weeks in advance; call 0251-20686 in Akosombo to make a reservation.

By car
The condition of the roads varies. In Accra, most of it is of good quality. Significant improvements are being made to the main road between Accra and Kumasi. Most roads outside of Accra, except the main ones, are unpaved. The road between Techiman and Bole is in particularly poor condition, and should be avoided if possible. To travel on most of the roads in the north of the country you need a jeep; A sedan fits some of them in the dry season, but is not recommended.

Cars with foreign registration plates cannot drive between 6pm and 6am. Only vehicles with Ghanaian registration plates can travel on the roads at all times.

By bus/bus
VanefSTC is the main bus company. They have international and national long distance services. It's probably the safest way to travel long distances, and it's also quite fast compared to other options, although breakdowns are fairly frequent. STC has buses between Accra, Kumasi, Takoradi, Tamale, Cape Coast and other major cities. Express or Air-conditioned buses are faster and much more comfortable than a normal bus and are available on the following routes: Accra-Kumasi, Accra-Tamale, Accra-Bolgatanga . Buy your tickets at least one day in advance, as these buses often sell out if you wait until the day. In addition to the ticket, you have to pay for your luggage, the price varies depending on the weight of the luggage. It rarely exceeds 1/3 of the ticket price.

Several other companies provide bus services between major cities, including OSA, Metrobus and Kingdom Travel. Esyes services are more reliable than tro-tros. Metrobus is by far the best and cheapest option between Accra, Kumasi and Cape Coast, but it is not recommended to use a Metrobus bus to or from Tamale due to the difficulty of obtaining a ticket (there are a lot of people wanting to go to this region).

MPlaza Tours also has services between Accra, Kumasi, etc. One good thing about this company is that it has its own bus terminals.

By train/train
There are railways between Accra, Takoradi and Kumasi. The train is very slow and is not cheaper than buses, but with the current restoration of Ghana's rail system, there will be new stations and faster, more frequent trains.

There are daily trains, in both directions, between Accra and Kumasi (US$4.40/€3.20 in first class or US$2.70/€2 in 2nd class, around 12 hours) and a night service between Accra and Takoradi , at about the same price and taking at least 12 hours, but unless you're a masochist, it's best not to use this one. However, the line between Kumasi and Takoradi (US$4.40/€3.20 in first class or US$2.70/€2 in 2nd class) is an option worth considering. Two trains per day follow this line, leaving at 6:00 am and 8:30 pm. The journey, in theory, takes eight hours, but normally it takes around 12 hours, especially if you use the night train.

From tro-tro
Tro-tro is a term that covers almost any type of vehicle that has been adapted to accommodate as many people, goods, and, occasionally, livestock as possible. Tro-tros are normally old twelve-passenger vans. Similar to shared taxis, tro-tros follow fixed routes and have fixed prices, and rarely leave without being full (so be prepared to wait). They are cheap (cheaper than STC buses and shared taxis) and prices vary depending on the distance travelled; However, their safety is questionable and breakdowns are frequent. However, these breakdowns are usually not a big problem, as they break down on roads where other tro-tros pass, and you can simply get another one. There are routes within cities and inter-city routes. These are often the only option for reaching remote villages and towns, but they are not recommended for long trips. Tro-tros are a great way to mingle with Ghanaians, and are always a cultural adventure. Sometimes they may try to make you pay extra for your luggage, and occasionally they will charge you extra (very rarely).

By taxi
Taxis are plentiful, and as a tourist it's not difficult to find one. It is cheaper to share a taxi than to go alone, but prices are negotiable. Negotiate the price with the driver before getting in. A very short taxi ride should not exceed GH₵1, if it is longer it should be between GH₵2.50-5 and GH₵7 is enough to go anywhere within a city. Prices continue to vary with fuel prices on the international market. Many taxi drivers will try to trick you and charge you more if you are a foreigner. In Accra and the largest cities, most drivers assume that they will not share a taxi and, unless you have very little money, the easiest way is to go alone. In more remote areas, shared taxis are very common.



Because Ghana was colonized by the British, English became the official language, and many Ghanaians (especially in urban centers) can speak English. The local English dialect, Pidgin English has several terms, phrases and words that may seem strange even to an English person. Official government documents are in English, but there are more than 40 different languages in Ghana, including English, Twi, Ga, Ewe, Dagbani, and so on. Obruni, the Akan word for foreigner, which literally means "white man", is shouted several times to greet a tourist, with no offense intended. Obruni is similar to the word Toubab, used further west, in Mali, Guinea, Gambia and Senegal.

In the northern regions and among Ghanaian Muslims in general, Hausa is the language used in everyday life.



UNESCO World Heritage Sites
In Ghana there are two world heritage sites:
Traditional Buildings of the Ashanti Civilization, Kumasi - A group of 13 buildings traditionally constructed from clay, straw and wood. Described as the "Home of Men and Gods", they are the last strongholds of Ashanti culture and history, which reached its peak in the 18th century. These buildings are spread across the north and northeast of Kumasi. Most of these buildings were destroyed in the 19th-20th centuries, in the fights between the Ashanti civilization and the British colonizers, such as a royal mausoleum (Barem), which was burned by Baden-Powell.
Forts and Castles of the Greater Accra, Volta, Central and Western Regions - A group of 11 castles/forts, mainly Dutch, English and Portuguese, along the Gold Coast:
Elmina Castle, Elmina - Built by Portugal in 1482, under the name Castelo de São Jorge da Mina, and is the oldest European building in Africa below the Sahara. It became one of the most important stops for the African slave trade. It was taken by the Dutch in 1637, and by the English in 1871.
Fort of Santo António, Axim - Built by the Portuguese in 1515 and expanded by the Dutch between 1642 and 1872. Shaped like a triangle, it has two main bastions, located at the north and south ends. Despite being a little poorly maintained, it is in a spectacular location, facing the blue waters of the Atlantic Ocean. The fort, currently owned by GMMB, is open to the public.
English Fort (Fort Vrendenburg), Komenda - Fort Vredenburg was built by the Dutch in 1688, taken by the English in 1782 and abandoned three years later. It is currently in ruins.
Metal Cross Fort, Dixcove - Situated on an elevation on the east side of Dixcove Bay, it is one of the best preserved forts accessible to tourists on the Ghanaian coast. It was built by the English in the 1690s, and construction lasted 6 years, due to attacks by natives. It was expanded in the 18th century, gaining the appearance it has today.
São Sebastião Fort, Shama - It was built by the Portuguese in around 1500, with the aim of preventing the English from interfering in trade in the Shama area. When the Dutch took the fort it was in ruins, being restored and expanded between 1640 and 1642. In 1664 and 1665 it passed into English hands, being reoccupied by the Dutch in 1666. Before 1870 it was abandoned.
Fort Batenstein, Butre - Built on top of a hill, it has now been taken over by the jungle, resembling an ancient Mayan temple more than a 17th century castle. It was built in 1656 by the Dutch, and since then it has passed hands between the English and Dutch. It was eventually abandoned in 1818-1829.
St. Jago's Fort (Fort Conraadsburg), Elmina - Looking more like a Mediterranean villa than a fort, it was used by the Dutch to take Elmina castle, remaining under Dutch rule for 235 years. The British attacked it in 1871 and 1872. It was finally sold to the British along with Elmina Castle.
Amsterdam Fort, Abandze - It was built by the Dutch West India Company in 1638. In 1661 the Royal African Company became the owner of the fort, which became the general headquarters of the English possessions of the Gold Coast. In 1665 it was captured by the Dutch admiral De Ruyter, and the English headquarters were transferred to Cape Coast Castle.
Fort Lijdzaamheid (Fort Patience), Apam - The fort began construction in 1697, but was only completed in 1700, receiving the name "Fort Lijdzaamheid". In 1782 it was captured by the English, led by Captain Shirley. In 1785 it returned to Dutch hands. Nowadays it is used as a hotel.
Cape Coast Castle, Cape Coast - Located in one of the main cities in Ghana, it was built by Sweden, originally in wood, and later in stone. In 1663, the entire Swedish Gold Coast was integrated by the Danes. In 1664, it was taken over by the English, and received major renovations. In 1844 it became the English headquarters on the Gold Coast.
Fort of Good Hope (Fort Goedehoop), Senya Beraku - Built by the Dutch due to a request from the Agona State. The Dutch accepted the request due to the possibility of a boom in the trade of gold, ivory and slaves, coming from the Akyem Kingdom and due to private traders, who were taking advantage of the absence of Dutch forts in the area.


What to do


There are many popular beaches in this small West African country. Ghana faces the Atlantic Ocean and is blessed with magnificent beaches. Most of these beaches are public and are great for water sports, such as jet skiing, surfing, and kite surfing. Here are some Ghanaian beaches that are worth a visit:

Labadi Labadi Beach. This public beach is located in Labadi, and has a three-kilometer stretch of sand, ideal for practicing various water sports. The beach has strong winds and moderate/large waves, making it perfect for surfing. The vastness of the sand is good for playing volleyball or frisbee. There are restaurants, snack bars, showers and changing rooms nearby.
Kokrobite Kokrobite Beach (30 km west of Accra). A beach 30 km west of Accra. Although it is a public beach, fewer tourists go there, as it is a little far from the capital. However, those who visit this place are greeted by the scenic view of the hills and crystal clear water. There are few restaurants and bathhouses, but there are also fewer visitors, so they adapt to the needs of visitors.
Ada Beach. 100 km from Accra is Ada Beach. This beach is located in the coastal village near the Lomé Road, and is perfect for water skiing, fishing, and other water sports. This beach also has a marina nearby, perfect for yachting. The village also has restaurants and inns where tourists can spend the night for a reasonable price.
Chocoloco Ada Foah Beach. Home to sea turtles, Chocoloco Beach is located east of Accra, where the Volta River flows into the Atlantic Ocean. This beach is also a sanctuary for estuarine birds. This beach is a perfect destination not only for beachcombers but also for nature lovers, as well. It is a great place for camping. Accommodations such as rental bungalows and inns are located at a nearby village.
Alaska Beach. A very popular beach among backpackers and beach lovers. An isolated beach, unlike many in Ghana. Although it is isolated, it has campsites, bungalows for rent, showers, bathrooms, etc. In addition, it has several restaurants where you can try fresh seafood and other local foods.


Wildlife and safaris

Ghana is an ideal destination for safaris. With its 16 national parks, reserves and protected areas, covering a vast and varied habitat, from marshes and salt flats along the Gold Coast, to tropical rainforests in the south. In the center you will find forests and, as you progress north, the Sahelian savannas.

Ghana's national parks are home to a dizzying array of wildlife, including forest and savanna elephants, hippos, lions, hyenas, chimpanzees, baboons, 7 species of monkeys, 3 species of crocodiles, buffaloes, numerous antelopes and much, much more. . Mole National Park alone has more than 93 species of mammals. Ghana also has more than 755 species of birds.

In addition to Mole National Park, don't forget to visit Kakum National Park and Shai Hills Reserve.



The Ghanaian Cedi was replaced by another in July 2007. The new "Ghanaian Cedi" (GH₵) is equivalent to 10,000 old cedis. During the six-month transition period, the old cedi is called cedi, and the new cedi is called Ghana Cedi.

Many Ghanaians still calculate using the old currency. This can be very confusing (and expensive). 10,000 old cedis are usually referred to as ten (or twenty, or thirty). This, nowadays, would be one, two or three Ghanaian cedis. So always think about whether the price makes sense before buying something or agreeing on the price of a taxi. If you are in doubt, ask whether you are talking about new or old cedis.

Some major hotels accept US dollars, but this may not be the case. As in all West African countries, older dollar bills will be rejected by banks and FOREX offices. If you intend to carry dollar bills, make sure they are all from 2007 or newer.

The Euro is the most useful currency, and sometimes bars/restaurants can exchange them for cedis if the banks are closed.

There are many FOREX offices in Accra, and a few more in other major cities. It is very difficult to cash traveller's checks and practically impossible outside of Accra and Kumasi unless you do it at a major bank. Barclays has branches in Accra, Kumasi, Cape Coast and Tamale where you can cash travelers checks. Be prepared to wait in lines. Major hotels accept VISA cards, and there are ATMs in Accra, Kumasi and Cape Coast that accept VISA. The Cape Coast ATM is often out of money. At the main Barclays branch in Accra, you can get money using a VISA or MasterCard card, as long as you have your passport with you.

Haggling is a common practice in markets. Big cities like Accra have markets open every day, but if you want to get a feel for the true essence of the country, visit a village market on the day of the week it is open. Most of what is for sale are basic necessities, but fabrics, beads, musical instruments, bags and even CDs are usually available.

You can also find kente, fabrics and wooden sculptures, such as masks and sacred benches on almost any street in any tourist area in the country.

Adinkrah symbols & sacred benches
The sacred benches have traditional adinkrah symbols that can mean several things, having to do with God, love, strength, community, and much more. It is advisable to find a book that shows you what each symbol means so you don't buy a bank that doesn't mean what you think it means.

The Gye Nyame is by far the most popular of the adinkrah symbols. It means "Thank God". Other popular symbols are the "Knot of Wisdom" and one that represents an individual holding many sticks together, which cannot be broken, symbolizing the strength of the community.



Traditional food is fun to try and tasty. Fufu, the most popular traditional dish, consists of balls of mashed plantain, cassava or yam, served with soup and a meat or fish dish. Soups are typically made from peanuts, okra, and other vegetables. Banku is a corn and fermented version of the dish, typically eaten with grilled tilapia or okra soup.

Rice dishes are also traditional, but are not considered a serious meal by Ghanaians, especially men. Jollof rice varies depending on the cook, but generally consists of white rice cooked with vegetables, pieces of meat and spices in a tomato-based sauce. Waakye is a mixture of beans and cabbage, traditionally served with garri, a flour made from cassava. Rice dishes are often served with tomatoes, cucumber and chopped lettuce on the side and a dollop of salad cream or mayonnaise. These meals are extremely cheap and can be purchased from any street vendor for around GH₵1.50-2.50.

Plantains, yams, and sweet potatoes are prepared in many ways and make a good snack. Kelewele, a snack made from fried plantains with spices, is especially good. Fresh fruits such as pineapple, mango, papaya, coconuts, oranges and bananas are delicious when they are in season and cost just 10 cents.

A good African meal in a restaurant can cost as little as GH₵3.00-7.00. For example, a lobster and shrimp dinner can cost a mere GH₵6. There are also several Chinese and American restaurants available, mainly in Osu a suburb of Accra.



Tap water is generally not drinkable, so you can choose between bottled water (e.g. Voltic, approx. 1.5l, ₵GH 1.00), boiled or filtered tap water, and sachets of "pure water". These sachets contain filtered water and come in 500 ml portions. Many foreigners prefer bottled water. sachet water is generally not advisable. Although it is easily accessible and a unique experience, studies have shown amounts of fecal bacteria, suggesting that it is actually tap water. If you want to play it safe, opt for bottled water and sparkling drinks.

In foreigner bars in Accra, a beer costs between GH₵2 and GH₵3. Fruit juices cost GH₵1.50, water is between GH₵1 and GH₵1.50. Star and Club are some of the most popular beer brands. For a more interesting experience, visit a "spot", a bar marked by blue and white stripes on the outside of the building. They are cheaper and you can hang out with the locals and listen to trendy music.

Soft drinks like Coca Cola, Fanta, 7UP (which the locals call "minerals") are available nationwide for GH₵0.50.

The bottles in which soft drinks or beer are served belong to the company that bottled them - if they don't return them to the seller, they lose GH₵0.50 cedis - probably more than they paid for the drink. If you are not going to consume the drink at the "spot" or in the bar you are in, tell the seller so.



There are many fantastic places to spend the night in Ghana. The options are varied, from luxury hotels to more rustic places. In the capital there are some international hotel chains. There are hotels throughout the country, but these are mainly concentrated in urban centers. A decent and cheap hotel room can cost as little as GH₵20.00.

For longer stays (a few months), it is possible to rent a house. Houses for rent are easy to find in local newspapers in places frequented by foreigners.



Ghana has three main public universities. The largest of these is the University of Ghana, situated in Legon, a suburb of the capital, Accra. Other universities are Cape Coast (University of Cape Coast) and Kumasi (Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, or "Tech"). There are other, smaller, public universities, including the University of Education in Winneba, the University of Development Studies, with a main campus in Tamale and several smaller campuses to the north, and the University of Mines and Technology in Tarkwa. There are also several private colleges and universities, both religious and non-religious.

Teachers are usually very strict and respect is very important.



Many people volunteer with various Ghanaian and international organizations while traveling:
Africa Calling. Teach English, mathematics, computers, etc. in a school or orphanage while traveling. It offers several programs starting at US$400 for two weeks.
Disaster Volunteers of Ghana. A non-governmental organization dedicated to improving the lives of Ghanaians through donations and volunteering. Not only does he travel around the country, but he also contributes to many Ghanaians having a better life. Although they also have volunteer programs for medical and IT specialists, you do not need to have special knowledge to be accepted as a volunteer.
Ultimate Volunteer Organization. You can volunteer to be a teacher, football coach and/or doctor/nurse. Located near Volta, it shows you what the real Ghana looks like.
Global-Cultural Solution. It offers reasonably priced programs, with guided tours, a car to pick you up at the airport, etc. You can see all the programs here.
Ikando Volunteers. Nature conservation, medical care, education programs, etc.
Light for Children. Centered in the Ashanti region, you can volunteer for various positions: to work in an orphanage, in the pediatric ward of a hospital, in a school for the deaf, etc.
Meet Africa. Great for getting to know a new culture and at the same time providing an extra source of income for locals in the northern region of Ghana.
Thrive Africa UK. Works 6 to 9 hours a day, five days a week. During the rest of the day there are many entertainment activities.
Volunteering Solutions. With volunteer programs in 17 countries starting at US$200. In Ghana, you can teach English, volunteer at an orphanage, at a clinic, among other tasks.
Volunteer Partnerships for West Africa. An organization concerned with improving education, health and sanitary conditions. Various volunteer programs, from programs lasting a few months to one-year programs.



Currently, Ghana is a very safe and stable country, with a low crime rate compared to other West African countries. Take the usual precautions and use common sense, but the country is safe.

Although security is not a major issue in the country, it is advisable to remain vigilant in public areas, especially in and around Accra, and avoid walking alone at night if possible. Avoid carrying large sums of money or valuables and be vigilant when taking money from the ATM in the center of Accra. There have been cases of cell phone theft on the street. Avoid using your cell phone in public unless you have to. The theft of luggage and travel documents has already occurred at Kotoka Airport. Also be vigilant in Tamale, Kumasi and its surrounding areas, where there has been an increase in crime, including robberies and attacks on foreigners. There is a possibility of violence between rival political factions, inter-ethnic fighting and civil disorder; It's a good idea to update yourself and stay up to date with daily events. If you want to visit the northern region, there is a possibility of inter-ethnic fighting, so be careful. If you want to travel along the coast, be careful due to the storm tides that hit the coast.

Although lesbianism is already legal, male homosexuality is illegal.



Chloroquine-resistant malaria occurs throughout the country and you must take care not to catch it: avoid mosquitoes, always have repellent on hand, as well as prophylaxis. The yellow fever vaccine is mandatory to enter the country. Hepatitis A & B, Cholera and Typhoid vaccines are also recommended.

The risk of meningitis is high in the northern part of Ghana, which is part of the so-called "meningitis belt" (an area of high risk of meningitis). This applies especially during the dry wind season, from December to June. For Meningitis types A, C, Y and W135, the polysaccharide vaccine is available.

Although the occurrence of AIDS is less frequent than in other sub-Saharan African countries, never have unprotected sex! Receiving a blood transfusion in Ghana substantially increases the risk of having AIDS. You should also avoid coming into contact with still fresh water, as there is a risk of getting schistosomiasis.

Some restaurants come close to European health standards, but be prepared to pay for them. Smaller restaurants, often called chop bars, have more questionable hygiene and are unlikely to meet these standards.

Because of the tropical climate near the coast, travelers need to stay hydrated. You can buy bottled water anywhere. Voltic Water is a reliable brand, but make sure the bottle has never been opened.



You should try to have a respectful attitude (don't eat or offer anything with your left hand), but in general Ghanaians are understanding towards tourists who make mistakes. Greetings are very important. Ghanaians do not forgive people who do not greet others. Sometimes the greeting is a salute, accompanied by "good morning" or "good afternoon." The expected response is the same. You can also ask the person how they are.


Keep in touch

Telecommunications services and the Ghanaian postal service are unreliable within Ghana, but international mail, at least to and from Accra, is reasonable (approximately a week for a parcel to or from the UK, for example). Vodafone Ghana (formerly Ghana Telecom) is the largest company in the country, but it is not entirely reliable and does not cover the entire country. There are 4 mobile communications companies, with a fifth about to start services. Many of these companies have 3G/HSPA coverage. There has been a boom in internet access via USB sticks (expect to pay around 60 cedis for a USB stick). Coverage is good in urban areas, and is increasingly better in rural areas and along major highways.

With the recent boom in I.C.T. In urban areas of Ghana, you are never far from an internet cafe, where an hour of internet costs ₵0.50-₵1.00. Many hotels also have broadband internet access through hotspots.



After the independence of the British colony of the Gold Coast in 1957, the country became known as "Ghana". This toponym comes from "gana" - the title of the rulers of the Ghana Empire, which means "warlord".


Physical and geographical characteristics


The territory of the country is a plain, in some places dotted with remnant hills. To the north of the plain is a wooded plateau. At the eastern border of the country rise the mountains of Togo with the highest point of the state - Mount Afajato (885 m). To the north of Ejura above the Nampong ledge, the forest gradually thins out and is replaced by thickets of shrubs. Further north, along the Gambaga Escarpment, there are open savannahs with more fertile soils.



Ghana is located in the subequatorial belt, in which there is a constant alternation of rainy and dry seasons. Most of the year the weather is dry. The climate is subequatorial, in the southwest - transitional to equatorial. From a natural and climatic point of view, Ghana is divided into south and north. In the south, the climate is humid, dominated by rugged evergreen tropical forests, in the north, an arid region with savannahs and shrubs. In November-February, harmattan blows - a dry, dusty wind from the north, but its influence is practically not felt in coastal areas. During the rainy season, the southwest of the country is the area with the highest amount of precipitation (over 2000 mm per year). Temperatures are high all year round, and only in the north do they drop at night. Average monthly temperatures range from plus 28°C to plus 30°C in coastal and forest areas and from plus 16°C to plus 33°C in the north. During the year, an average of 750-1000 mm of precipitation falls in Accra, 1500-1800 mm in Kumasi, 1800-2100 mm in the south-west of the coastal region near Aksim, and 1100-1200 mm in the north in Tamale.


Flora and fauna

The fauna is represented in the north and in the center, where there are many savannahs, and in the south, where there are tropical forests. In Ghana, the fauna is mainly filled with lions, elephants, hippos, zebras, chimpanzees, flamingos, crocodiles and others.

Most of the vegetation of the country was destroyed, but in the south there are still forests in which cotton trees, redwoods, and cedar grow. Two-thirds of the country's territory is occupied by savanna, almost completely covered with grass and rare trees. The fauna also suffered as a result of land development, but such mammals as the leopard, hyena, lemur, buffalo, elephant, antelope, and monkeys have survived. The country also has a large number of reptiles: cobra, python, horned viper, African viper, etc.




The ancient city of Gana was in the north of what is now the Republic of Ghana. Ghana was the Arabic spelling of the African name Gana, the meaning of which is unknown. Archaeologists have searched the vast areas of West Africa for its exact location in vain. Many stories tell of their wealth, the power of their kings and the beauty of their buildings. Other stories are about the cause of their fall. One of them follows.

The town of New Wagadoo, now called Wa-Gana, was the capital of 80 chiefdoms. But when the king died, leaving only one daughter, these 80 chiefs became independent. The Princess Tu-Bari was a woman of unsurpassable beauty and promised marriage to the man who would subdue the 80 rebellious chiefs. Many princes, having heard of her beauty, tried their luck, but none succeeded. Finally, the king from Gana named Samba (Strong) appeared. He defeated the 80 rebellious chieftains one by one and sent each of them to Queen Annalia to submit to her. When the last chieftain surrendered, Annalia agreed to marry Samba, who became king of Gana and Wa-Gana. A few years later, a devastating drought broke out in the country and famine was imminent. The drought was caused by a dragon named Isa Bere, who lived in the mountains of Futa Jallon and drank the Niger River dry. King Samba had to go and fight the dragon. His famous bard Tarafe, who had first sung Annalia's fame, accompanied him.

King Samba fought the dragon for eight years and broke 800 spears on its scales. Finally he struck the dragon's heart with his long sword, whereupon the monster died and the Niger, the holy river Jolliba, flowed again. Tarafe sang the praises of the sword. King Samba loved the mountains and forested slopes and decided to stay there. The old Gana fell into disrepair during his absence.


Prehistory and archaeology

It is assumed that the area that is now Ghana was first settled by humans sometime between 150,000 and 20,000 years ago. These first inhabitants were members of the Sango or Sangoan culture - named after the first sites found in Sango Bay on the Ugandan side of Lake Victoria - a culture that can be characterized by the transition from the older to the younger Paleolithic. However, the onset of a period of extreme drought, which began about 25,000 years ago and lasted until about 13,000 years ago, caused the people of the Sangoan culture to abandon the increasingly inhospitable plains. The oldest ceramic finds in what is now Ghana have been dated to around 5,800 years ago. In general, the time of the appearance of ceramics is identified with the beginning of food production through cultivation, although evidence for this from the early period of the ceramic presence is still missing.

Around 3,800 to around 2,000 years ago, the climate in West Africa and western Central Africa experienced an intense dry phase with strong winds. During this time, another prehistoric cultural stage, the Kintampo culture, existed in what is now Ghana on the northern edge of the rainforest belt between 4000 years ago and around 2700 years ago. The Kintampo culture had a very complex economic system, which was characterized by a mixture of agricultural forest land management and food-producing livestock farming in the savannah. The keeping of sheep and goats can be proven with certainty between 3750 and 3550 years ago, and cattle were probably also kept in the late period. The rainforest, which became thinner due to the drought, and the sudden increase in the appearance of oil palm, which provided food, fiber and building materials, probably promoted the development process of agricultural forestland management. Nevertheless, at the height of the dry phase, people seem to have once again left the increasingly unfriendly areas.

The population class in Ghana and Togo that is now considered autochthonous are essentially groups that, beginning in the 9th and 10th centuries, migrated in large groups from the north or northeast to the areas south of the savanna belt of Togo and Ghana. This migration movement was triggered by a change in climate, which was linked to changes in the vegetation of the savanna areas. But the strengthening of Old Gana and the forerunner states of the Mali Empire also contributed to triggering the migration movement, as did a certain pressure for more segmentation within the social order, which ultimately increased the pressure for a voluntary secession from the previous people's association. Major movements took place in the Volta Basin between the 11th and 15th centuries. But these immigrant groups did not migrate across large areas, but rather they penetrated more or less gradually into neighboring areas, from which they were pushed again by the insertion of other peoples from the north into areas further south.


Middle Ages and early modern times

The modern state of Ghana takes its name from the ancient empire of Ghana, which was geographically located a few thousand kilometers northwest and has no ethnic or historical connection to the current state of Ghana. In the area of today's state there were several large empires or federations in pre-colonial times. The first of these states, the empires of the Dagomba, Mamprusi or the Gonja, arose in the savannah region of northern Ghana and were culturally influenced by the Mossi empire further north and thus by Islam. The power of their cavalry armies ended at the rainforest belt. Akan peoples from the north settled in the rainforest zone from around 1300 AD and founded various smaller empires. Around 1600, the rise of the Ashanti Empire to become the dominant power in all of modern-day Ghana began there in central Ghana. The Ashanti Federation was one of the few African empires that was able to take on the British colonial troops by the end of the 19th century and defeated them in several wars. It was only at the beginning of the 20th century that it was finally conquered by the British colonial rulers. In the south of the country, the Fanti states, which were affiliated with the British, competed with the Ashanti Empire and merged to form the Fanti Confederation at the end of the 19th century.

Since the 17th century, the fortified settlements of European powers (Portuguese, English, Dutch, Brandenburgers, Swedes, Danes) have been lined up on the Gold Coast in a density like no other area in Africa. For example, Groß Friedrichsburg in Princes Town was a Brandenburg-Prussian fortress in the 17th century.


Gold Coast Crown Colony

Around 1820 the Colonial Office took over the British trading posts on the Gold Coast. An agreement was made between the British and the Fanti people to defend themselves against the Ashanti from the interior. In 1874, the British declared the coastal strip a crown colony. The Ashanti region in the interior of the country and the so-called “Northern Territories” were finally annexed in 1901 and administered directly by the governor in Accra. Some coastal towns were granted indigenous local councils as early as the mid-19th century. In 1925 there was a constitutional reform under Governor Gordon Guggisberg. Indirect rule was introduced in Ashantiland and the Northern Territories. The traditional leaders there reported directly to the governor in Accra. In the actual colony on the coast, a Legislative Council with 29 members was introduced, in which nine Africans were represented for the first time. Colonization wasn't all bad for Ghana, as living standards improved significantly after cocoa cultivation began at the beginning of the 20th century. Something similar can also be seen after the Second World War. Overall, Ghana had higher living standards during these times than in the post-independence period.

Over 40,000 soldiers from the Gold Coast took part in the Second World War on the side of the British Empire. The majority of these were used in Southeast Asia.


Path to independence

In 1946, through the so-called Burns Constitution, the Northern Territories and Ashantiland were granted seats in the Legislative Council. The position of the traditional chiefs was thereby further strengthened.

In 1947 the United Gold Coast Convention Party (UGCC) was formed, with Kwame Nkrumah appointed as secretary. He and other UGCC leaders were temporarily imprisoned a year later following riots in Accra. This year can be seen as a turning point in Ghanaian history.

In the following two years, the national movement around Kwame Nkrumah - who had now separated from the UGCC and founded the Convention People's Party (CPP) - made a name for itself. She organized boycotts and strikes and demanded the right of self-determination from Great Britain (“Self-Government Now!”). In 1950 Nkrumah was imprisoned by the British. Nevertheless, the CPP was able to achieve a major victory in the upcoming elections. She also won the elections the following year with an overwhelming majority. Nkrumah was released by Governor Charles Noble Arden-Clarke (1949–1957) and immediately taken into government. He had been Prime Minister since 1952.

Active and passive women's suffrage was introduced under British administration in 1954. In practice, complex electoral regulations hindered even after the right of limited self-government (except in the north) was achieved in 1951 and only Mabel Dove Danquah managed to be elected to the colonial legislature in 1954.


Regaining independence

On March 6, 1957, the British crown colony of Gold Coast and British Togoland became independent under the name Ghana. In May 1956, in British Togoland, the part of the former German colony of Togo that had been under British administration since the end of the First World War, a majority voted in a referendum to join the new state.

March 6th was deliberately chosen as the day of the Declaration of Independence because on March 6th, 1844 the Fanti Federation had agreed to a treaty with the British through which the Federation became a British protectorate. Ashantiland and the Northern Territories were not finally annexed by Great Britain until 1901.

However, after regaining independence, ties with Great Britain were not severed. Ghana was the first black African country to become a full member of the Commonwealth of Nations - from 1957 to 1960 as a Commonwealth Realm, since then as a republic.

Women's suffrage was confirmed at independence in 1957.


Period of military coups

The military staged coups in 1966, 1972, 1978 and 1979. The military governments were also unable to master the difficulties. Under the rule of the kleptocratic military junta of Ignatius Kutu Acheampong, the country fell even further into debt. Corruption and arbitrariness dominated the country's politics in the 1970s. In 1981, Air Force Captain Jerry Rawlings, after temporarily returning power to a democratically elected government, staged a coup a second time and initially ruled in a dictatorial manner. A West African Union agreed with Burkina Faso in 1985 failed in 1987. During his rule, Rawlings helped Ghana regain economic stability with the help of the World Bank and IMF, among other things.


Democratic development

In 1992, Jerry Rawlings gave Ghana a democratic constitution guaranteeing free elections, freedom of speech and press, the right to physical integrity and equality before the law. The one-party system was abolished. The human rights enshrined by the UN were also recognized. After the 1993 and 1996 elections, Rawlings continued to rule as elected president. After Rawlings was constitutionally barred from running a third time in the 2000 elections, John Agyekum Kufuor (NPP) won the election against former Vice President John Atta Mills (NDC). Kufuor was confirmed in office in the December 2004 elections. Free democratic elections took place again in 2008. For constitutional reasons, President Kufuor could no longer stand for election. Nana Akufo-Addo won the first round of voting on December 7th, but missed an absolute majority. In the following runoff election, NDC politician Atta-Mills prevailed with 50.23 percent of the vote, while Akufo-Addo only received 49.77 percent, according to the electoral commission at the beginning of January 2009. On July 24, 2012, John Atta Mills died unexpectedly in Accra. The previous Vice President John Dramani Mahama took the oath of office as his successor on the same day. In December 2012, Mahama was confirmed in office with 50.7 percent of the vote, while his challenger Akufo-Addo received 47.8 percent of the vote. A total of seven presidential candidates ran in the elections on December 7, 2016, including the current President John Mahama and the opposition candidate Nana Akufo-Addo. Akufo-Addo received 53.85 percent of the vote, Mahama received 44.40 percent. This was the first time in Ghana's history that a sitting president lost his office in a democratic election. On January 7, 2017, Akufo-Addo was sworn in as president. In December 2020, Akufo-Addo was re-elected as president.



Ghana has a flat relief overall, only reaching heights of 900 meters in a few places. About half of the country lies below an altitude of 150 meters. The coast is 543 kilometers long. The country is geographically divided into coastal plain, rainforest and savanna. In addition to the geographical structure, Ghana can also be divided according to the surface structure into the five natural areas: Low Plains, Ashanti Highlands, Akwapim-Togo Range, Volta Basin and High Plains.

From the coastal lowlands, the Low Plains, which is divided into the coastal plain with wide sandy beaches and mangrove areas and a flatland between the fifth and sixth degrees of latitude, the western country rises to the Ashanti highlands, which have an average altitude of 450 meters above sea level reached. To the east of the highlands is the Volta Basin, which, with a total of 87,000 km², is also the largest natural area. In the north the High Plains close off the country. The areas are already part of the greater landscape of Sudan. The Akwapim-Togo Range is a mountain range and natural area that begins near Accra and extends into Togo. The highest mountains in the country are located here.

Around two thirds of Ghana's area, around 158,000 km², is drained via the Volta, which is dammed in its lower reaches by the Akosombo Dam to form the largest artificial body of water in the world. The Ashanti highlands also give rise to a large number of river systems that flow into the Atlantic.

The species-rich flora and fauna has increasingly been placed under protection in the past. More and more of these refuges are being opened up for tourism. The income from this sector of the economy is also intended to make an important contribution to the preservation of biodiversity as ecotourism. The remaining rainforest is very rich in species and the constant temperature and high humidity all year round promote plant growth.



Ghana is a tropical country, so it has no seasons, but rather an alternation between the rainy and dry seasons. Days and nights of almost equal length determine life. The climate in the humid south with its evergreen rainforest areas can be roughly differentiated from the drier north with its tree savannah, shrub savannah and the grass savannah in the northernmost part. The Harmattan, a trade wind blowing from the northeast, determines the dry season between November and February. The rains in the rainy season are brought by the West African monsoon. Most rainfall, over 2000 mm per year, falls in the far southwest of the country on the coast.

The annual rainfall is around 1000 mm in the north and up to 2200 mm in the western coastal section near the town of Axim; at Accra it barely reaches 800 mm (for comparison: this roughly corresponds to the long-term annual average for Germany). Only in the hot, humid southwest does evergreen rainforest grow, which merges into rain-green tropical forest. The forest stands are threatened by the ongoing deforestation. Wet savannah and dry savannah follow inland.



The Akwapim-Togo Range is a hilly and slightly mountainous extension of the Togo-Atakora Mountains in the countries of Togo and Benin. This mountain range begins near Accra and then runs along the border with neighboring Togo for a while until it finally crosses the border. Waterfalls can also be found in the numerous gorges here. The mountain slopes and hilltops are partly of volcanic origin and are entirely covered with rainforest.

The largest elevation in the country is Mount Afadjato, at 885 meters high, near the village of Liati Wote, right on the border with Togo. The second highest mountain in Ghana is Mount Dzebobo at 876 meters; it is located north of Mount Afadjato, also directly on the border with Togo. Both mountains are part of the Akwapim-Togo range.

Akwawa is the fourth highest mountain in Ghana.



The huge Volta reservoir is located in the center of the country and, with a size of 8,502 km², is about 15 times larger than Lake Constance with 536 km² and would cover more than half of Schleswig-Holstein (15,799 km²). It is essentially fed by the Black Volta (Mouhoun) and the White Volta, Afram, Daka and Oti. After passing the Akosombo Dam, the river, then known as the Volta, flows into the Atlantic Ocean in a wide river delta. Together with the tributaries Red Volta (Nazinon), Nasia and Kulpawn, the Volta River is the largest contiguous water system.

Lake Bosumtwi, which is around a million years old and originates from the impact of a meteorite, has no inflows or outflows. It is of great religious importance for the traditional population.

Lesser known rivers are Pra, Bia, Ankobra and Tano, which flow directly into the Atlantic. The Pra's tributaries are the Anum, Offin and Birim; Together with the Pra, they form Ghana's second most important drainage system. The Pra is only navigable by ships in its mouth area because the upper reaches are characterized by rapids.

Other smaller rivers are Laboni, Obosum, Sisili, Senne, Tain and Todzie.


Natural space

Three different biomes predominate in Ghana. The tropical rainforest and the wet forest are located in the southwest of the country, the north and the central part of the country are characterized by the wet savannah, which is divided into tree and grass savanna. In addition, a narrow strip of the coast also exists as a coastal savannah. The evergreen tropical rainforest contains the most lush vegetation in the country.

The rainforest originally consisted of 85,000 km² and is home to a diverse range of plants and animals. Due to the different ecosystems, there is no typical flora or fauna in the country. The individual habitats vary greatly. Nature is lush in the savannah with its typical inhabitants, the rainforest with its biodiversity and the Volta Delta as a refuge for a variety of migratory birds and native species.

Due to the different forms of vegetation and the greater human population density, the wildlife of West Africa is not comparable to East Africa. There are no large herds of animals like in the East African national parks.



Many plant and animal species are found in Ghana. Ghana's tropical rainforest in particular contributes greatly to the country's biodiversity. In the last century, the area of tropical rainforest was 85,000 km². Over the last 50 years, the area has shrunk by more than half to 40,000 km². The country records a forest loss of 1.7 percent every year. Clearing and the export of precious woods are the main reasons for this very rapid decline in forest area. It is difficult to make an exact list of the plants that live in the rainforest because scientists suspect that there are still unknown species there.

The evergreen rainforest is covered by tall giant trees that can be up to 50 meters high, three meters thick and 300 years old. These are also species that play a major role in Ghana's timber export economy: valuable hardwoods are supplied by mahogany species such as Azobé, Sapeli and Khaya, also known as African mahogany, as well as several species of African walnut trees. Other tree species include Odum, Wawa (sometimes also called Samba, the trade name of the wood is Abachi), Bombax and Afrormosia. Various fig trees such as Ficus spp. In the rainforests of Ghana they can reach the size of a medium-sized German beech tree. Various epiphytes such as orchid species but also lianas show a great diversity of species. Common crops include the African cola tree, the calabash tree (bottle gourd Crescentia cujete) and the Brazilian rubber tree.

There are around 1,200 different species of palm trees scattered throughout the country. The Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia) is used as an avenue tree in cities because it provides shade and can reach heights of up to 25 meters. The Malagasy traveler's tree, a popular decorative plant in Ghana in front of public buildings or in gardens, is often confused with a palm tree.

The originally Pacific coconut palms have considerable utility for humans and were therefore introduced to Ghana. Many coconut products such as coconut milk, coconut fat, but also bast and leaves for roof structures and mats are harvested from the coconut palm. The native oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is very widespread as a plantation tree. Palm oil is pressed from the red fruits of the oil palm; in West Africa, this has a high status in the country's typical cuisine.

The most diverse crops are produced through plantation farming. These plantations are mostly found in the now cleared area of the former rainforest. Pineapples, bananas, plantains, avocados, papayas, guavas, oranges and other citrus fruits are grown here. Many spice plants, such as spice vanilla, are also cultivated in Ghana.

In addition to the tree species and crops, many decorative plants from all over the world can be found in Ghana. Hibiscus, flame tree and fuchsias are just a few.

Grasses are typical savannah plants, but the character plant of Ghana's savannahs is a tree: the solitary African baobab tree stands out with its thick trunk and can be recognized from afar. The native shea tree, also known as the shea butter tree, also grows in the savannah. The shea butter obtained from the seeds is an important export product of Ghana and is used to make cosmetics and food.

In addition to mangrove forests, the coast is also characterized by various types of palm trees.



Ghana's wildlife is very diverse. In addition to tropical bird species such as parrots, hornbills, eagles, woodpeckers, guinea fowl and pigeons that are native to the rainforest, the local birdlife is expanded by a large number of migratory birds. Various species of water birds occur in the Volta Delta, but also in the water landscapes of the lagoons and along the many rivers.

Numerous mammal species are native to Ghana. Several species of antelope such as roan antelope, kob and bongo, leopards, civets, elephants, buffaloes, hippos, warthogs live mainly in the savanna.

There are many different species of monkeys. Chimpanzees live in the rainforests in the southwest, for example in the Ankasa protected area. The Roloway monkey, which is also rare, also occurs in Ankasa and Bia and also lives on the Monkey Hill in Takoradi. Vervet monkeys are much more common and can be found in many protected areas. Mona monkeys are the easiest forest species to observe and live, among other things, in the reserves of Tafi-Atome and Buabeng-Fiema. Geoffroy's colobus monkeys are also regularly seen in Buabeng-Fiema. Baboons are particularly found in the Mole National Park and the Shai Hills.

Reptiles are found in all areas of life. Small geckos and lizards sometimes live in people's homes, iguanas, monitor lizards, snakes and crocodiles live in the country's waters.

Ghana has an extremely large variety of insect species. Termite mounds dominate the landscape. Some of the mosquitoes and horseflies that occur transmit diseases, such as the mosquito Anopheles malaria. The tsetse fly, which transmits African trypanosomiasis, sleeping sickness, which is also dangerous for humans, is more native to the savannah areas.

The Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Ghana contains some of the world's richest fisheries. Important fish species include barracuda, herring, mackerel, sharks, tuna, squid, perch, but also marine animals such as lobsters, lobsters and crabs as well as mussels and snails.

Some animal species that live in tropical rainforests are classified as endangered or threatened with extinction. An unknown number of animal species are already believed to have disappeared, such as Miss Waldron's red colobus monkey, formerly native to the tropical rainforests of Ivory Coast, Ghana and Sierra Leone, which was last seen in the 1970s.

The West African Primate Conservation Action (WAPCA) was founded as an international association of eleven European zoological gardens to prevent the extinction of further species. The Conservation of Species and Animal Populations (CEPA) and the Zoological Society for Species Protection (ZGAP) are also significantly involved in this campaign. Zoos and associations are working to protect the highly endangered Roloway monkeys and white-naped mangabeys. Both species are among the 25 most endangered primate species worldwide.

The zoo in Accra has some of these animals for breeding. On June 29, 2006, a pair of White-crowned Mangabeys had their first offspring there.