Liechtenstein is a dwarf state (160 km²) in Western Europe. The
name of the principality comes from the ruling dynasty of
Liechtenstein (von und zu Liechtenstein). Liechtenstein is currently
one of three countries in the world that have a name given in honor
of the ruling dynasty, along with the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
(the Hashemite dynasty is in power) and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
(the Saudi dynasty).
The capital of the state is Vaduz. It borders Austria in the east and Switzerland in the west. Its territory is completely surrounded by the territories of these states. The form of government is a dualistic monarchy. The body of constitutional supervision is the State Court of Justice (Staatsgerichtshof), the highest court is the Supreme Court of Justice (Oberster Gerichtshof), the courts of appeal are 1 supreme court (Obergericht), the courts of first instance are 1 land court (Landgericht), the courts of administrative justice are administrative courts of justice (Verwaltungsgerichtshof). Not being a member of either the European Union or NATO, Liechtenstein is part of the European Economic Area; member of the Schengen Agreement.
There are no passenger airports in the country. The nearest airport is in Zurich, Switzerland.
A single-track railway runs through the country. Schaan also has a station with the big name Schaan Bahnhof (a bus stop there), but only local trains stop there.
The A13 St. Margrethen - Chur - Bellinzona expressway runs along the Rhine along its Swiss bank. From it there are several trips to Liechtenstein, including Vaduz and Shan. A Swiss vignette is required to use this road. In Austria, you need to drive along the A14 Bregenz-Innsbruck expressway (for which you also need a vignette, but already an Austrian one) and in Feldkirch turn onto the local road leading to the Swiss Bux through the Shan.
Several lines of the Liechtenstein bus have a terminus either in Feldkirch (Austria) or in Sargans (Switzerland), and from there you can then go by Liechtenstein bus. Feldkirch has good rail links to the rest of Austria.
The Rhine is still too small for navigation, however, you can try it on a motor boat.
Liechtenstein bus. The routes of its lines are rather winding, but the buses, as everywhere in Europe, are comfortable. The lines go to neighboring countries - to Austria and Switzerland. Bus tickets can be bought at the entrance from the driver, and you can pay in both Swiss francs and euros.
German (official), Alemannic dialect
The currency used is the Swiss franc (CHF).
In terms of architecture, it is one of the dullest countries in Europe. There is something interesting in Vaduz, however, Vaduz Castle is not just a castle, but the residence of the prince, and therefore tourists are simply not allowed there.
The international dialing code of Liechtenstein is +423. Country internet domain .li
The territory of Liechtenstein from 15 BC part of the Roman province
of Rezia. The Franks invaded the country in 536. Later, under
Charlemagne, the bishop was removed from the post of governor, and
secular rulers began to be appointed to this position. The area was
under the rule of the Carolingians until 911, when the East Frankish
kingdom broke up into large and small duchies.
Within the Duchy of Swabia, on the territory of present-day Liechtenstein, were the fiefs of Schellenberg and Vaduz, which later became part of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1507 Emperor Maximilian granted Vaduz special rights and privileges, including sovereignty and tax collection. These rights were transferred to the Austrian Liechtenstein family.
The Liechtenstein family really wanted to get a seat in the Reichstag of the Holy Roman Empire. To do this, he had to own lands, the suzerain of which would be directly the emperor himself. For the sake of this, Hans-Adam I acquired from the impoverished owners of Hohenems two tiny fiefs on the border with Switzerland - Schellenberg (in 1699) and Vaduz (in 1712). These lands had the necessary legal status.
Thanks to the assistance of Eugene of Savoy (who was the matchmaker of Liechtenstein), in 1719 the emperor recognized the head of the family, Anton Florian, as a prince of sovereign dignity. Thus the Principality of Liechtenstein was born.
From 1815 to 1866, Liechtenstein was part of the German Union, and in 1860 the Liechtensteins became hereditary members of the upper house of the Austrian Parliament, and in 1866, as a result of the collapse of the German Union, under Johann II of Liechtenstein (1840-1929), the principality gained full independence. In the Austro-Prussian war of 1866, Liechtenstein acted as an ally of Austria, from 1876 to 1918 he had close ties with Austria-Hungary.
In the First World War, the Principality observed neutrality. After the war, Liechtenstein terminated the agreement with Austria and refocused on Switzerland: in 1921 an agreement on trade and postal service was signed, in 1924 a customs union was concluded. Since then, Liechtenstein's currency has been the Swiss franc. Since 1919, Switzerland has represented the diplomatic and consular interests of Liechtenstein abroad.
During the Second World War, the principality observed neutrality, after its end it remained the only country that did not extradite the soldiers and officers of the Russian Liberation Army (ROA) who had taken refuge in the country to the USSR, due to the lack of legal force of the Yalta Conference on the territory of the principality. At the current time, it is not known how many Vlasovites emigrated to the countries of South America from Liechtenstein.
In 1975, Liechtenstein joins the OSCE, in 1978 the Council of Europe, in 1990 the UN, in 1991 the European Free Trade Association, and on December 19, 2011 the Schengen area.
In 2020, the Liechtenstein authorities officially demanded that the Czech Republic return 2,000 km² with the city of Valtice and the village of Lednice, as well as castles previously owned by the ruling dynasty.