The Republic of Mali is located in West Africa, part of the
country is located in the Sahara Desert.
Mali is the jewel in the crown of Africa. Being in the heart of the ancient African empires, Mali still strikes the minds of the traveler with the beauty of its art monuments. The legendary city of Timbuktu and the famous clay mosque in Djenne, the majestic Niger River and the Dogon country that has preserved its culture through the centuries, the sands of the mighty Sahara Desert and the opportunity to see the descendants of ancient tribes - all this and much more attracts many tourists to Mali year after year. The conditions of staying in the country are not easy - the impoverished population, the burning sun, high prices - but the atmosphere that reigns in Mali pays for it all.
Mali is a developing country, one of the largest countries in Africa
in terms of area (1,240,000 km²), but also one of the poorest in the
world. The capital of the country is Bamako.
It borders Algeria to the north, Mauritania and Senegal to the west, Niger to the east, and Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire and Guinea to the south. Has no access to the sea.
The landscape of the country is made up of savannahs and plains covered with sand. 65% of the country (in the northwest) is the Sahara desert, in these places the land is practically barren. There are practically no forests in Mali. The Niger Delta is dominated by lush vegetation.
The first evidence of the region appeared in the 4th BC. e. Up to the
XI century. many ancient empires arose and disappeared in this region.
In the XI century. the empire of Mali arose, and in the 13th century it
reached its peak and was one of the largest suppliers of gold in the
world. The territory of the empire stretched from Gao to Tekrur (in
modern Senegal). However, by the XIV-XV centuries. Mali approached its
decline due to the constant attacks of its neighbors and the dominant
role passed to the Songhai Empire with its capital in Gao. The Songhais
actively expanded the territory of their lands. until at the end of the
16th century they were defeated by the Moroccan army. In the 1890s, the
French came to the territory of modern Mali and turned it into their
colony. The country became known as French Sudan.
In the mid-50s of the 20th century, an anti-colonial alliance was formed in Mali under the leadership of a descendant of the ancient Malian kings, Madibu Keita. In 1958, Keita managed to achieve autonomy for Mali, and in 1960 Mali became an independent republic. Of course, Madibu Keita becomes the president of the country, who is heading towards building socialism and strengthening relations with the USSR. Like all other African leaders of that time, Keita cared more about his own welfare than about the country's economy, and when the latter fell into complete disrepair, he tried to enlist an alliance with France and transfer its key enterprises. This caused discontent among the population. In 1968, as a result of a coup organized by the Military Committee of the People's Liberation, Keita was removed from the presidency, and Musa Traore, the head of the WPC, took his place. A military one-party regime was established in the country. Discontent again spread across the country - unemployment, economic collapses, self-willed officials four times led to coup attempts. During the reign of Traore, Mali became one of the poorest countries in the world. Relations with the USSR, China and the countries of the social bloc were slowly winding down. A Tuareg uprising followed in the 1990s, and a year later, in March 1991, thousands of people took to the streets of Bamako to protest. During this demonstration, Traore's soldiers opened fire on the protesters, killing more than 150 people. At the same time, Lieutenant Colonel Amadou Toumani Toure entered the political arena, who, after the March events, removed Traore and his party from power with his army. A new government composed of military and civilians was formed, and Touré promised his fellow citizens to support multi-party elections. In 1992, Alfa Oumar Konare was elected president of the country, in 1997 he was re-elected for a new term. However, despite the fact that he was highly respected by the inhabitants of the country, Konare could not prevent the devaluation of the CFA franc. In 2002, he was replaced as president by Amadou Touré.
The climate in Mali is subequatorial, tropical. The rainy season in Mali lasts from June to September, and the hottest time is from April to June and September-October. At this time, the temperature exceeds 40 degrees. From January to June, dry dusty harmattan winds blow in the country - at this time, visibility drops sharply and many attractions become unattainable. The best time to visit Mali is from November to January, when cool winds blow from the northeast, dropping the temperature to 25-30 degrees, which is considered cool weather for the region.
The population of the country is 13,518,000 people. Mali is a presidential republic, since 2002 the president is Amadou Toumani Toure.
The population of Mali consists of numerous African tribes. Most of the inhabitants are settled in the south of the country, in the north - in desert areas - only 10% of the population lives. The most numerous tribes are the Bambara (33%), living mainly in the south and in the center of the country. Together with the Soninke and Malinke living in the west, they make up half the population. Other nationalities are Fulani (17%), Senoufo (12%), Dogon (7%), Songhai (6%), Tuareg (6%).
Most of the country's inhabitants profess Islam (90%), the rest of the population is disposed to local beliefs (9%). Only 1% are Christians.
The official language of Mali is French. 80% of Malians also speak the Bambara language.
Mali is an agricultural country. The economy of the country is the cultivation of various fruits, vegetables and cereals. High-quality cotton is produced in Mali, and the once core industry, gold mining, is rapidly developing. Animal husbandry and fishing are developed.
National Museum - it houses a fairly extensive collection of masks, statues, archaeological finds and a good model of the mosque in Djenne
Muso Kunda Museum - dedicated to women, the exposition - national clothes, household items
Bamako Museum - the exposition consists of various ethnographic finds
Grand Marche Market - a huge market, occupying an entire block, was built in the colonial style
Point G - from this point in the north of the city there is an excellent view of Bamako
Fort Medina - part of the French defenses near the city
Port Mopti is the busiest port in Mali, from here you can take a boat tour of Niger
The Misire Mosque is a beautiful Sahel-style mosque located in the old part of the city.
Pirogue rides - for about $30 you can ride local canoes on the river
Koro is a small village near Segou, made up of clay houses.
Tata - the remains of a clay wall from the time of the capture of the country by the French
Dernier Rua Palace - a beautiful palace in the west of the city
Mamelon - the sacred hill of the kings of the Kenedugu dynasty
Hombori Tondo - rock formations, a popular place for trekking and rock climbing, the most famous rock is the "Hand of Fatima"
Clay Mosque of Djenne - one of the main attractions of Mali, the largest clay building in the world
Djenne Dzheno - the ruins of an ancient city founded about 2300 years ago
Mosque of Sidi Yahya
Sankore Mosque - the three largest clay mosques left over from ancient times
Ethnographic Museum - has a lot of exhibits in its collection: clothes, musical instruments, jewelry
Ahmed Baba Center - the largest repository of ancient books and manuscripts of the golden age of Mali
The country of the Dogon is one big attraction - beautiful nature, sheer cliffs, ancient culture. The most popular pastime is trekking.