Mongolia is a country in East Asia, bordering Russia in the north
and China in the south. Mongolia is among the states that do not
have access to the sea.
The state is a member of almost all UN structures, as well as some CIS structures as an observer. The official language is Mongolian, written in Cyrillic (previously, the old Mongolian script was used for writing).
Mongolia borders Russia in the north and China in the south. The capital and largest city is Ulaanbaatar. The country has no access to the sea and is located on a mountainous and desert territory.
The Mongolian Republic is divided into 21 aimags, which in turn have 329 soums. The capital Ulaanbaatar is an independent administrative unit.
After a deep economic crisis, the country is undergoing a transition to a market economy, and at present, the country, which owns a huge amount of natural wealth, is developing the most dynamically of all countries in the world. The economy is based on mining and agriculture. Mongolia ranks second in cashmere production.
Mongols make up about 95 percent of the population. The rest are Kazakhs, Russians, Buryats, small diasporas of different peoples.
Ulaanbaatar - the capital of the country
Darkhan - the second largest city, here is the highest residential building in Mongolia
Erdenet is the third largest city, one of the industrial centers of Mongolia. Here is Asia's largest copper-molybdenum plant
Ulegei - the capital of the Muslim world of Mongolia, most of the population are Kazakhs
Khovd - former Chinese fortress
Sainshand - here is the famous lamaist monastery Hamaryn-khiid
Kharkhorin is the site of the old capital of the Mongol Empire Karakorum, the Buddhist monastery Erdene-zu.
Choibalsan - the industrial center of Eastern Mongolia
Muren is a rapidly developing city in the north near the southern shore of Lake Khubsugul
Zamyn-Uude - a fast-growing city on the border with China, a free trade zone
Altai-Tavan-Bogd National Park
Khubsugul is the deepest lake in Mongolia, the "younger brother" of Baikal.
UNESCO World Heritage Sites
Cultural Landscape of the Orkhon River Valley
Petroglyphs of the Mongolian Altai
The great mountain Burkhan-Khaldun and the surrounding sacred landscape
Landscapes of Dauria
How to get there
Russian citizens do not need a visa to enter Mongolia for up to 30 days. Citizens of most other countries, as well as those requiring a stay of more than 30 days, require a visa.
Ulaanbaatar (Genghis Khan Airport) - international flights to the following countries: Russia (Moscow, Irkutsk, Ulan-Ude), China (Beijing, Hohhot, Erlian, Shanghai, Hong Kong), Japan (Tokyo, Osaka), South Korea (Seoul, Jeju), Thailand (Bangkok), Germany (Berlin), Turkey (Istanbul), Kyrgyzstan (Bishkek) and others.
Ulegey - international flights to Kazakhstan (Ust-Kamenogorsk, Almaty)
Choibalsan - international flights to China (Hailar)
There is a direct train Moscow - Ulaanbaatar
Bus daily routes from Ulan-Ude to Ulaanbaatar. from Ulan-Ude departure at 7:00 local time with arrival at approximately 20:00 at the Ulaanbaatar railway station. crossing point - Kyakhta with a stop for one hour for a break. The bus goes through Gusinoozersk, Sukhe-Bator, Darkhan.
Of all modes of transport in the country, aviation is the most developed. There is a small airport in every city, and there are regular flights to the capital.
The road network in the country is poorly developed, most of the roads are unpaved. The main transport hub is Ulaanbaatar. Railway transport in the country is also poorly developed, the main branch is the Trans-Mongolian highway.
Mongolian, in the west - Kazakh. Older people can know Russian.
The country's currency is the Mongolian tugrik (MNT). 2390 tugriks are approximately equal to 1USD. Most of the items in the country are 2-3 times cheaper than in the rest of the world. Examples:
bread - 1600₮
1.5 l. water - 1600₮
1 kg. apples - 5500₮
dictionary - 18 000₮
Active nightlife is present only in the capital.
Where to stay
In every, even a small town, there is a hotel, but most of the large hotels are located in Ulaanbaatar.
The international dialing code is +976. Country internet domain .mn
The name of the country comes from the ethnonym "Mongols", the origin of which, in turn, continues to be the subject of controversy. So, a number of researchers - in particular, N. Ts. Munkuev - notes that the ethnonym "Mongol" is first found in Chinese sources "Jiu Tang shu" ("The Old History of the Tang Dynasty", compiled in 945) in the form of meng-wu shi -wei - "Mongols-Shiwei", and in the "Xin Tang shu" ("New history of the [dynasty] Tang", compiled in 1045-1060) in the form of men-wa bu - "tribe of men-wa". In various Khitan and Chinese sources of the 12th century, the names of meng-ku, manguli, manguzi, mengu guo were also used for these tribes. D. Banzarov connected the ethnonym "Mongol" with historical geographical names: the river Mon and Mount Mona. According to Hasdorj, the people who lived in the nearby places of Mount Mon in Ordos acquired the name Mon. The word goal was added to it, as a result of which the name Mongol arose. Gol is a Mongolian word meaning "central, main". A version was also put forward, according to which the name Mongol arose by combining the Mongolian words monkh (“eternal”) and gal (“fire”).
The Mongolian scientist Zh. Bayasakh suggests that the name Mongol appeared as a result of a modification of the Mongolian word mongө (“silver”). The connection between the concepts of Mongol and mongo (“silver”) is mentioned in the Chinese texts “Hei-da shi-lue” of 1237; they say that the population of Great Mongolia called their state the "Great Silver Dynasty".
As B. R. Zoriktuev notes, from the many interpretations of the term Mongol, a version stands out about its origin from the Tungus-Manchu word mangmu / manggu / mangga, meaning “strong, resilient, tight”. According to L. Bilegt, the name Mongol is the Tungus-Manchu tracing paper of the Mongolian word kiyan, which translates as “a large stream flowing from the mountains to the lowlands, stormy, fast and strong; rushing current." This version was further developed in the works of A. Ochira.