Niger, officially the Republic of Niger, is a landlocked state in
West Africa. The capital is the city of Niamey.
Niger is one of the poorest countries in the world and consistently ranks last in the Human Development Index. More than 80% of the country's territory is located in the Sahara desert, the rest is occupied by the Sahel semi-desert, which is constantly under the threat of drought and desertification with possible mass famine. The population of just over 23 million is concentrated in the extreme south and west of the country. The main sectors of the economy are agriculture and mining - mainly uranium.
The toponym "Niger" comes from the hydronym of the same name - along the Niger River flowing through it ("great river" or "river of rivers" in the Tamash language).
1 Niamey. Capital, approx. 1 million inhabitants.
2 Maradi. The city is home to several mosques.
3 cinders. important cultural and economic center.
4 Tahoua. Known for the Prix Dan Gourmou, a biennial, multi-day music competition. Every year at the end of February the festival Koran Bori takes place, during which evil spirits are supposed to be chased away.
5 Agadez. The historic center of Agadez is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
1 National Park W (parc national du W) . The course of the Niger
River forms a “W” and is responsible for the name of the park. The park
is in the zone between savannah and forest areas and is an important
ecosystem for the region. It is located in a large savannah area and is
home to a number of endangered wild animal species such as elephants,
cheetahs, leopards and, in particular, a large number of West African
2 Aïr and Ténéré Nature Reserve (réserves naturelles de l'Aïr et du Ténéré) . The national park is located in a mountainous area in central Niger. The Aïr is a mountain range up to 2200m high, to the east of which lies the Ténéré Desert, its dunes are up to 400m high. A small, isolated Sahel region with unique flora and fauna has been preserved in the middle of the desert. Due to military conflicts in the region, the nature park is on the Red List of Endangered Heritage.
1 Historic Center of Agadez (Centre historique d’Agadez) . Important caravan routes intersected in the historic city center. The buildings were traditionally built from clay bricks, with a 27m high minaret being outstanding.
Apart from nationals of neighboring African countries, all visitors
require a visa. This is available in Germany:
Embassy, Machnower Str. 24, 14165 Berlin. Tel.: +49 30 80589660. Application form in duplicate. Submit the application in person or by post, processing time 1-2 weeks. Open: Mon.-Thurs. 9:00 a.m. - 4:00 p.m., Friday until 2:00 p.m., personal consultation by appointment only. Price: single entry €61; up to 3 months several times € 100; only by bank transfer.
Section consulaire de l'Ambassade, 23 Avenue de France, 1202 Geneve. Responsible for Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Austria (there is also an honorary consulate there, Kärntner Ring 10, 1010 Vienna) Open: Mon.-Fri. 9:00 a.m. - 12:00 p.m. Price: single entry 150 sfr, multiple entry 210 sfr.
The international customary stick of cigarette and one liter of schnapps can be imported duty-free. Coffee is limited to 100g and tea to 40g.
There are two international airports: Niamey (Diori Hamani Airport; IATA: NIM) and Agadez (Mano Dayak; IATA: AJY). There are flights to Niamey from both West Africa and Europe. The only company that operates direct flights from outside Africa is Air France. In addition, Royal Air Maroc has good connections via Casablanca.
There are a total of 27 airports, nine of which have paved runways.
There is currently one railway line in Niger, Niamey-Dosso, which was built between 2014 and 2016. The aim was to connect Niamey to the rail network in Benin and thus to the coast. But competing commercial interests from several parties led to endless legal disputes, and the connection to Benin never materialized. The 145km long route now lies deserted and unused, and the tracks end in the middle of nowhere about 6km south of Dosso. After several years of neglect, the tracks have become so badly damaged in some places that they have become unusable.
The land borders with Benin and Nigeria are closed due to ECOWAS sanctions.
The state-owned Sociéte Nigérienne de Transports de Voyageurs (SNTV) operates long-distance bus routes from Niamey to neighboring countries:
Cotonou – Lomé – Accra
On the street
There is right-hand traffic. International driving licenses of the Geneva model are recognized (i.e. Austrian, but not German or Swiss). Trunk roads are the numbered Routes Nationale (RN).
From mid-December to March, the Niger River is navigable from Nigeria to Niamey.
The road network is 10,000km long. Only 800km of it is paved. Almost
all paved roads are subject to tolls. Especially in the desert, the
roads shown on the maps are usually just tracks, i.e. H. stripes marked
with empty barrels and old car tires.
SNTV connects the main cities on the routes:
Niamey – Maradi – Zinder
Niamey - Tahoua - Agadez - Arlit
Zinder – Agadez – Arlit
Zinder – Diffa – N'guigmi
In addition to the official language French, Hausa (various
dialects), Djerma, Tamaschek (the language of the Tuareg) and Fulfulde
(the language of the Fulbe) are also spoken.
Other foreign languages such as English or German are still not very widespread; Outside the hotels, a basic knowledge of French is therefore useful.
The currency unit is the CFA franc (= 100 centimes), which has a
fixed exchange rate to the euro: 1 euro = 656 CFA, 1000 CFA just under
1.50 euros. In addition to the few banks, most hotels exchange euros
into the local currency. Sometimes dealers in cities also accept euros.
It is therefore advantageous to have small euro notes with you. There is
no ATM network in Niger outside the capital. If credit cards are
accepted at all, only Visa is accepted.
Usual business hours are Mon.-Sat. 7:30 a.m. - 12:30 p.m. and 3:00 p.m. - 6:30 p.m., Sun. 8:00 a.m. - 12:30 p.m. Banks' business hours are usually shorter (until 11:30 in the morning, until 5:00 p.m. in the afternoon, not on weekends).
Of course, there is bargaining when buying (except in the few supermarkets): you can offer half the first offer as a counterproposal. You will almost always move towards each other and meet somewhere.
There is a ban on photography of anything that could have any
military significance. This also includes uniformed people.
As a white person, you should not be on the street after dark.
The mines laid as part of the armed conflicts between rebel groups and the military, which have now been officially resolved, pose particular dangers and are not only limited to the Agadez region. There is a risk of becoming an accidental victim. Mine danger still exists in the Aïr and parts of the Djado Mountains (extreme northeast of Niger). The affected zones are known to local guides and the military and must be avoided widely.
A yellow fever vaccination is required for Niger (the international
vaccination certificate is checked upon entry). The country offers
almost the entire spectrum of tropical diseases.
The following vaccinations are strongly recommended:
Hepatitis A, B and E
There is a year-round risk of malaria throughout the country, including cities. The risk is naturally higher in the southern parts of the country, but malaria must also be expected in the Sahara oases. Therefore, malaria prophylaxis should be carried out throughout the entire trip. Since dengue fever also occurs, you should seek protection from bites all day long.
There is an increased risk of infection with meningococcal meningitis during the dry season. During this period, which lasts approximately until May, most cases of meningococcal meningitis are reported in Africa. The vaccination centers offer a mining coccal vaccination.
Nationwide, there is an increased risk of infection for various intestinal infections that are transmitted through contaminated food or drinks (e.g. hepatitis A or E, typhoid, bacterial dysentery, amoebic dysentery, lambliasis, worm diseases, norvo viruses, cholera). In addition to appropriate vaccinations, strict food hygiene is therefore the top priority. Only about 0.8% of the adult population is infected with HIV.
Schistosomiasis must be expected in freshwater, especially in the southern parts of the country.
Medical care is comparatively good in the Niamey area, but hardly available in the remote areas of the north.
The usual restraint required in Muslim countries applies.
See the Diplomatic Missions section in the capital article.
Telephone and Internet
International country code: ☎ +227
Telephone calls are made almost exclusively with cell phones. Remote regions are served with radio and microwave links as well as a state-owned satellite system. The semi-state company SONITEL (mobile communications arm SAHEL-TEL) controls telecommunications and internet censorship takes place.
The Republic of Niger is located in the northeast of West Africa. It borders Algeria to the north and northwest, Libya to the northeast, Chad to the east, Nigeria to the south and southwest, Benin and Burkina Faso to the southwest, and Burkina Faso to the west. from Mali. The country has no access to the sea. The state is located between 11°37′ and 23°33′ north latitude (1300 km from north to south) and 0°06′ and 16° east longitude (2000 km from west to east). The territory of Niger has an area of 1,267,000 km², ranking sixth in Africa in terms of area (after Algeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, Libya and Chad), and is also the largest state in West Africa.
Niger is located entirely on the African platform, composed of Precambrian crystalline rocks - granites and slates. Crystalline rocks in most of the territory are overlain by a sedimentary cover of various ages: Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Tertiary and Quaternary. Three outcrops of crystalline rocks on the surface are rich in minerals. The largest such exit is the Air plateau, with an area of 60 thousand km². On the right bank of the Niger River, Precambrian rocks come out in the form of rocky hills, forming the Liptako Plateau, which occupies 30 thousand km². In the south, near Zinder, ancient rocks form two ridges of granite hills with an area of 7 thousand km². Granite hills-outliers also emerge in the Tenere desert and the Kavar area. The sedimentary cover in the western, southern, and eastern parts of the country is composed of marine, lacustrine, and continental sediments, while in the northern part, it consists of thick strata of sands. Intensive erosion and the duration of geological processes have led to the leveling of most of the territory of Niger.
The relief of the
country is dominated by plains with heights of 200-500 m above sea
level. In the northwest there is the Air massif - a system of plateaus
of different heights, stretching for 400 km from north to south and for
250 km from west to east. The highest point, Mount Idukaln-Tages,
reaches 2022 m. The plateau is inclined to the west, densely indented by
wadis - dry riverbeds that fill up during the rainy season. The eastern
part of Air abruptly breaks off to the vast sandy desert of Tenere with
an area of about 400 thousand km². In the northern (Tenere-Tafazaset)
and central part of Tenere, between the Air and Jado plateaus, there are
mobile sand dunes. In the center of Tenere is Kavar, a steep area with
many oases. In the southern part of Tenere, sparse grass and shrubs hold
back the sands and create fixed dunes. To the west of the Air plateau is
the Talak plain - a desert with moving dunes with an area of 2-3
thousand km². The part of the plain adjoining Air is composed of clay
and irrigated from the wadi during the rainy season, which makes it a
good pasture for nomads.
In the northeast are the sandstone plateaus of Jado and Mangeni. To the east, on the border with Chad, are the Afafi and Chigai plateaus. These plateaus have steep slopes, are indented by canyons and are difficult to access for humans. In the southeast is the semi-desert Manga - the Dried Basin of Lake Chad. The south of the country is occupied by plains with separate outcrops of crystalline rocks.
The main mineral deposits are
located in the outcrops of crystalline rocks on the Air and Liptako
plateaus, as well as in sedimentary rocks in the center and east of the
country. The main wealth of the country is uranium ore, in terms of the
reserves of which Niger is in ninth place in the world (sixth in terms
of production). Explored reserves of uranium ore (uranium oxide) are
estimated at 200 thousand tons. The main deposits of uranium are located
in the west of the Air plateau. Mining is carried out in the cities of
Arlit and Akuta. Exploration for uranium is also being carried out on
the Jado Plateau, large reserves have been found in the Kawara oases,
and there is an assumption that the distribution of uranium in Niger is
much more extensive.
In addition to uranium, the country is also rich in other minerals. To the north of the city of Agadez is the Anu-Araren coal deposit, whose reserves are about 6 million tons. The low quality of coal is compensated by a shallow depth (about 40 m). In the east of Niger, in the sedimentary rocks of the Manga Basin and Lake Chad, there are oil-bearing layers. The iron ore deposit near the city of Sai contains 600-700 million tons of raw materials. A large phosphorite deposit (500 million tons) is being developed near the city of Tapoa. In the vicinity of the villages of Timia and Elmeki, cassiterite containing tungsten and tantalum is mined, deposits have also been discovered near the city of Zinder. Near the city of Malbaza there are large reserves of limestone and gypsum. Salt deposits have been developed in the oases of Bilma, Fashi and Tegiddan-Tesum. Minor gold placers were found in the deposits of the Sirba River.
Separate geological surveys have found copper, niobium, lithium, manganese, cobalt, nickel and other minerals. Geological exploration, study and development of the country's mineral resources are an important and promising task for the development of the country's economy.
The soils of Niger are quite poor. In the north of Niger, on rocky plateaus and in sandy deserts, there is practically no soil cover. Only in areas where water appears, thorny shrubs and drought-resistant grasses form primitive sandy soils. In the south of Niger, in the Sahel, the distribution of soils depends on the amount of moisture. These are mainly red soils and sandy soils of various thicknesses. The sandy soils of the Sahel have little humus, making them vulnerable to wind erosion. Salt marshes are common in the east of the country, in the basin of Lake Chad. In river valleys, wadis, and depressions where water collects, clay soils enriched with alluvium are found, favorable for agriculture. Niger is characterized by the process of soil degradation and erosion, leading to desertification of land, so the struggle for the restoration and conservation of soils is the most important task of the country.
The basis of the hydrographic
network of Niger is the Niger River with tributaries, flowing in the
south-west of the country, and the endorheic Lake Chad with the
Komadugu-Yobe River, located in the south-east . In the rest of
the country, there are only temporary streams (wadis) that fill up
only during the short rainy season.
The Niger River, the third longest river in Africa, flows through the country for about 600 km, creating a vast fertile plain, which is the breadbasket of the country. The river crosses the border with Mali with relatively little water, having evaporated significantly in the deserts. For 200 km, the river passes through the crystalline rocks of the Liptako Plateau. Niamey, the capital of the country, is located on Niger, where one of the few bridges, the Kennedy Bridge, crosses the river. South of Niamey, the riverbed is laid in dense sandstones, where it spreads widely during floods, reaching 5 kilometers in width. On the border with Benin, Niger bends around the spurs of the Atakora mountain range, the bends of the river, resembling the letter Double "B", gave the name to the national park located here. On the territory of the country, the Niger receives several tributaries, the largest of them from the right bank: Goruol, Dargol, Sirba, Gorubi, Tapoa, Alibori, Sota and Mekru. Most of the right-bank tributaries dry up during the dry season, from December to June. With the end of the rainy season, the rivers turn into chains of lakes, where the water remains for quite a long time. From the left bank, only temporary streams flow into the Niger, the largest of them are the dassols (wadis) of Boso and Mauri.
Lake Chad and the large river Komadugu-Yobe that flows into it form a river network in the east of the country. The Komadugu-Yobe River originates in Nigeria, the last 150 kilometers of its course form a natural border between Niger and Nigeria. In the dry season, the river becomes very shallow, in January there is a flood. Niger owns about 3 thousand square meters. kilometers of Lake Chad, one of the largest reservoirs in Africa. Its area varies from 10 to 26 thousand km², and its depth - from 1 to 4 meters. In July, due to intensive evaporation, a decrease in water is observed, and in January the water level is the highest. Lake Chad is rich in fish, but the shores are difficult to access due to vegetation, waterlogging and changes in the coastline.
In the north and in the center of the country there are only temporary drains called wadis, kori, magjii and gulbi. In July-August, during the rainy season, they fill with water in a few hours, sometimes causing floods and forcing the locals to settle on the hills. After rains, water lingers in them for some time, making the channels important for agriculture and cattle breeding. For example, the gulbi Nmaradi has a length of 150 kilometers in Niger, making it the largest temporary watercourse in the country. Groundwater in the areas of the Air, Jado and Kavar plateaus come very close to the surface, giving rise to oases. In other places they are located at a depth of up to 650 meters. Due to the aridity of the country, the exploration and use of groundwater is a very important task.
Niger is one of the hottest countries in the world in terms of
average temperature. Its climate is determined by the continental
position, the proximity of the Sahara and the equator. The average
annual temperature is not less than +25 °C, the average daily
temperature fluctuations are large. In the morning it is cool - about
+15 ° C, and by noon the temperature can reach +35 ° C and above. The
seasons in Niger are distinguished not by temperature, but by the regime
of precipitation. Three seasons are distinguished here: dry cool, dry
hot and rainy. The dry cool season, caused by the northern continental
airflow from the Sahara, lasts from November to February. The night
temperature reaches a minimum annual value of +8 °C, but during the day
it rises to +30 °C. This is the mildest time of the year - the peak of
the tourist season. In the dry hot season, which lasts from February to
July, the daytime temperature reaches +40 °C, and the night temperature
is not less than +25 °C. At this time, the east wind dominates -
Harmattan, which reaches a speed of 10 m / s. Harmattan often causes
dust storms and dusty fog, covering even the southern regions of the
country for several days. In April-May, and in the north of the country
in June-July, the rainy season begins. The wind changes to the
southwest, it rains with a thunderstorm for several hours a day, causing
floods. The maximum precipitation occurs in August. Precipitation is
distributed unevenly: in the north of the country, in the Sahara,
precipitation lasts only a few hours over 2-4 days, and about 20 mm
falls. In some areas there is no rain for several years. In the central
regions of the country, in the Sahel, the average annual precipitation
is 200-250 mm and it rains for two to four months, but it may be late,
or very little falls. Local droughts are a frequent occurrence. Only in
the extreme south, on the border with Benin, 600-800 mm of precipitation
falls annually; The number of rainy days in a year reaches 65.
Most of the territory of Niger belongs to the arid and semi-arid zones. Potential evaporation reaches 2000-3000 mm per year, several times higher than the amount of precipitation. Periodically, the country faces prolonged droughts. They were observed in 1910-1915, 1940-1944, 1968-1974, 1984-1985. Everywhere the groundwater level is lowering, wells are drying up, agriculture and cattle breeding are suffering.
In the zone of deserts and semi-deserts, the vegetation cover is extremely sparse. Date palms grow in the oases of the east of the country. In the valleys of the Air Plateau, due to the proximity of groundwater and temporary streams, vegetation is more abundant, tall grasses are present, and trees are more numerous. The flora of the savannas is represented by a variety of acacias, undersized wild cereals, and wormwood. Grasses and shrubs are the main food for camels, sheep and goats. Most savannah trees and shrubs lose their leaves at the beginning of the dry season. During the rainy season, the savannah is covered with fast-growing grass up to two meters high: bearded vulture and elephant grass. The vegetation of semi-deserts is severely affected by livestock grazing and cutting down for fuel. The south of the savannah is better irrigated during the rainy season, so the vegetation is more abundant here: a neem tree, imported from India, ceiba, or a cotton tree, baobabs, and shea grow. The richest and most diverse flora of the banks of the Niger River. From the trees here grow mangoes and papayas, giving juicy fruits, acacias and palms. Bamboo grows in the floodplain of the river.
The animal world is represented mainly in the southwestern region, near the Niger River: lions, hippos, giraffes, zebras, flamingos, crocodiles and others.
Many insects live in Niger, mosquitoes, locusts and termites bring great harm to the economy. Niger, other rivers, and lakes are rich in fish. Savannah reptiles are diverse: snakes and lizards, from geckos to large monitor lizards, crocodiles are found in the Niger River. Of the birds, ostriches, eagles, white-headed vultures, and kites are numerous. Ducks, geese, sandpipers, herons, cranes, ibises, storks, and marabou live in the southern savannah. Migratory birds from the north, including Europe, winter in Niger from October to March. Oryx and addax antelopes are found in the desert, gazelles are also found in the savannah - gazelle-dama and korin, cheetahs, hyenas and jackals. In the southern savannah, due to human development, there are not many habitats for large mammals left. Yet here you can meet giraffes, warthogs, lions. Two herds of elephants roam near Lake Chad and on the right bank of the Niger River, and hippos live in the river itself.
When a relatively humid climate reigned in the territory of the modern Sahara Desert, the inhabitants of Niger differed from modern ones. In 7-6 thousand BC in Niger there was a Kiffian culture, whose representatives were tall, had a massive physique. In 5-3 thousand BC it was replaced by the Tenerian culture, which disappeared without a trace after the Sahara dried up. Probably, its surviving carriers migrated to more humid areas.
eastern part of Niger was for a long time under the rule of the Kanem
Empire, and soon under the control of the kingdom of Bornu. From the
13th to the 15th centuries, the western territory of Niger was partially
conquered by the empire of Mali, but after its collapse, the neighboring
Principality of Songhai gained the status of a kingdom, which took
control of the western part of the Niger River Valley. However, in 1591,
the Songhai state was conquered by the army of the Sultan of Morocco,
while the southern regions located on the territory of modern Niger
retained their independence. Here arose the principality of Dendi,
headed by Askim Nukha, ruling from Lulani; the border with Morocco ran
at the site of the modern border between Mali and Niger. Subsequently,
the principality of Dendi broke up into several small principalities,
each of which was ruled by a descendant of Askia.
In the 18th century, most of the territory of Niger came under the rule of the Tuareg, nomadic tribes that had lived in the north of modern Niger since the 7th century. They founded the Sultanate of Agadez and had a commercial base in Niamey. The Tuareg did not have a centralized government, only when the preservation of their way of life was threatened, they united in a loose confederation. The south of what is now Niger was inhabited by sedentary agricultural peoples. In the valley of the Niger, the Songhai principality of Dendi and the kingdom of Doso were located. To the east were the Hausa city-states, the largest of which in Niger were Maradi and Damagaram. After the Fulani Jihad and the formation of the Sokoto Caliphate, the population of the Nigerian Hausa states greatly increased due to refugees from the conquered southern cities.
The first European to enter Niger was
the Scot Mungo Park, who explored the Niger River in 1805-1806. Heinrich
Barth and Eduard Vogel made an expedition from the Niger River to Lake
Chad in 1853-1855. They visited Sey (English) Russian. , Sokoto, Zinder,
Gure and Bornu. In 1870, Gustav Nachtigal crossed the territory of Niger
while traveling through the Sahara to Kanem-Borno, visiting Bilma and
Ngigmi. At the Berlin conference in 1884, Niger was included in the
French sphere of influence. At the same time, the exact boundaries were
to be determined by the principle of "effective occupation". In 1897,
the French sent a mission of Captain Kazamaj to Zinder, the capital of
the Damagaram Sultanate. Initially well received, he was assassinated by
one of the factions in the Sultan's court that feared French influence.
To punish the Damagarams and explore the area up to Lake Chad, a
military expedition was equipped under the command of captains Paul
Voulet and Charles Chanoine. The Voule-Shanuan mission went down in the
history of Niger with its cruelty and bloodshed, thousands of local
residents were killed, many Hausan villages were burned.
In 1900, the French founded the "military territory of Zinder", which later became part of the colony of Upper Senegal-Niger, which, in turn, was part of French West Africa. In 1905-1906, Muslim preachers and local sultans tried to provide armed resistance to the French.
Since the 1920s, the French colonialists actively introduced the cultivation of various crops in Niger, intensively developed infrastructure (primarily the road network) and recruited local residents to work in industrial enterprises in other coastal colonies in French West Africa.
In 1946, Niger received the status of an overseas territory within the French Union. An elected General Council was created - a local self-government body. Basically, the places in it were occupied by the leaders of local tribes.
1958 - Niger becomes an autonomous republic of the French Community.
1960 - Gaining independence; Parliament elects Amani Diori President of the country.
1968-1973 - Severe drought - massive loss of livestock and destruction of crops.
1974 - The overthrow of Amani Diori in a military coup led by Lieutenant Seyni Kountché.
1987 - Kunche dies of brain cancer. In his place comes Ali Seybou, head of the state's armed forces.
1989 - Under a new constitution, Niger returns to civilian rule, but the country retains a one-party system. Seibu is elected president.
1990 - Seibu introduces a multi-party system after a wave of strikes and demonstrations.
1990 - Tuareg uprising begins in the north.
July 1991 - The Constitutional Forum strips Ceiba of his powers and forms a transitional government headed by Andre Salifou.
1992 - Under the new constitution, multi-party elections are introduced in the country.
1993 - Mahamane Ousmane elected president. The coalition that supported him - the Alliance of the Forces of Change - receives the majority of seats in parliament.
1995 - A truce is signed between the government and the Tuareg Revolutionary Armed Forces of the Sahara.
In January 1996, a second military coup took place in Niger, led by Colonel Ibrahim Bare Mainassara. President Mahaman Usman was expelled from the country. In May 1996, a new constitution was adopted in a referendum, giving the president additional powers, as well as limiting political activity in the country. In July 1996, Mainassara won the presidential election. The elections themselves were held with violations: all other candidates were placed under house arrest. Mainassara was criticized for his repressive actions and several assassination attempts were made.
April 1999 - Major Daouda Malam Wanke succeeds to the presidency after the assassination of Mainassara by his bodyguards.
August 1999 - A new constitution approved by referendum restores the balance between the legislative and executive branches of government.
October-November 1999 - Tandja Mamadou elected president; his party, the National Movement for the Society in Development, wins the most seats in parliament.
January 2001 - Hunting of a number of animals, including lions and giraffes, is banned in Niger.
2004 - Tanja Mamadou is elected president for a second term.
In August 2009, Tandja Mamadou initiated a referendum, which adopted amendments to the constitution, removing restrictions on the number of terms for re-election of the head of state and giving him additional powers. The amendments were adopted despite protests from the opposition. The Constitutional Court, which declared them illegal, has been dissolved. Parliament was also dissolved. Dissatisfaction with the president grew in the country. On February 18, 2010, the Niger military carried out a coup d'état. The creation of the Supreme Council for the Restoration of Democracy was announced, the country's constitution was suspended, the institutions of power were dissolved, a curfew was introduced, the country's borders and airspace were closed. President Mamadou Tanja was captured and taken to one of the barracks. Major Salu Jibo was declared the head of the military junta that was supposed to organize legitimate presidential elections. The military promised that none of them or members of the interim government would participate in the elections. In March 2010, former tourism minister and rebel leader Rissa Ag Bula was arrested on charges of murder.
On October 31, 2010, at a constitutional referendum of 90.19% of the votes with a 52.02% turnout, a new constitution was adopted, proclaiming the seventh republic. The presidential elections, together with the parliamentary ones, were held on January 31, 2011, and on March 12 the second round was held. Mahamadou Issoufou became the new president of Niger. On April 7, the inauguration took place, during which Salu Jibo transferred power to the legitimately elected president.
In May 2011, the Niger authorities released former President Mamadou Tandjou from prison after being imprisoned for about 14 months.