Qatar (Arabic قطر Qatar, DMG Qaṭar, in the local dialect Qiṭar, officially the state of Qatar) is an emirate in the Middle East and is located on the east coast of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf.

The country largely consists of a peninsula that borders Saudi Arabia to the south. The Kingdom of Bahrain lies off the coast in the northwest. The national territory also includes some islands. The country stretches around 180 kilometers from south to north and 80 kilometers from west to east. The entire national territory is a desert with no year-round water and almost no vegetation. Around 80% of Qatar's population lives in the capital Doha and the surrounding suburbs.

Qatar has the second highest proportion of immigrants in the world. Of the approximately 2.7 million inhabitants, only around 10% are Qatari citizens. The vast majority of the population are migrant workers without permanent residence permits; Qatar has the highest rate of migrant workers in the world. Due to the majority of South and Southeast Asian origins of these workers, South Asians alone make up over half of all Qatari residents. Because the workforce is largely male, Qatar also has the highest proportion of men in the country's population in the world.

Qatar gained full independence from the United Kingdom in 1971. Since then it has been ruled as an absolute monarchy. The state religion is Islam and Sharia is considered a main source of legislation. The human rights situation in the country is considered critical; low-wage migrants in particular are often treated inhumanely and are sometimes in modern slavery.

The Qatari government has also been criticized in recent decades for its support of the Muslim Brotherhood and other radical Islamic groups, as well as terrorist organizations such as Hamas. This led to the 2017 to 2021 Qatar crisis, during which Qatar was boycotted by some countries in the Arab world.


Getting here

Entry requirements
To enter Qatar you need a passport. A visa is not necessary for German, Austrian and Swiss citizens. When you enter the country, you will receive a sticker in your passport indicating the permitted length of stay (30 or 90 days). This should not be exceeded, otherwise high fines could be levied when leaving the country.

No alcohol, 400 cigarettes. The import of cigars, loose tobacco, e-cigarettes and nicotine chewing gum is prohibited.

Special regulation from/from Oman
Anyone who wants to travel to Oman within the validity of their residence permit and indicates this at the airport upon arrival in Qatar will receive a “visa waiver,” which allows them to travel to Oman without paying the local visa fee. This exemption also applies in the opposite direction, but the Omani visa fee then due is almost twice as high.

The list of eligible nationalities is limited, for Europeans essentially the core EU before the eastward expansion, Swiss and Liechtensteiners.

The country's only commercial airport is Doha Hamad Airport (‏مطار حمد الدولي‎, ​IATA: DOH). It serves as a hub for the national airline Qatar Airways and is served by many international airlines.infoedit
The land border with Saudi Arabia has no longer been closed since January 2021.

The sea border has no longer been closed since January 2021. With the Karaneh Line you can take a car ferry to Kuwait and Oman.


Local transport

Since 2019 there has been a section with 13 stations of the Doha Metro, which is scheduled to be completed by 2020. Three lines are planned: the Golden Line runs from Villagio to Airport City North. The Green Line starts at Al Rayyan Stadium and ends at Msheireb and the Red Line runs from Lusail Center to Al Wakra North. A third line, the Blue Line, is scheduled to follow by 2026. There is WiFi in all train stations.
Metrolink buses are operated by the rail company. They offer feeder lines within a 2-5 km radius of the stations.

Operating hours are Saturday to Thursday 6 a.m. to 11 p.m., Friday 2 p.m. to midnight. A trip costs 2 QAR, the day ticket costs 6 QAR. Meera, Lulu, Carrefour, Family Food Center or Jumbo Electronics sell standard cards (card fee R10). There is also a first class, the Gold Club. Here you pay five times the price and the prepaid card costs R100!

The tram network with four lines complements the metro. Transfers are at the Lusail and Legtaifiya metro stations. The expansion to 28 stops should also be completed at the start of the World Cup.

Similar to other Arab countries, there are family compartments. Women traveling alone or people with children under 9 must use them. Eating, drinking, spitting and smoking are prohibited on the train and in the stations. Likewise, you should not stretch out or sleep on the benches.

Public buses
The state-owned Mowasalat is the operator of the buses nationwide. There are around 50 bus routes nationwide under the Karwa Bus brand. Many people drive via the Golden Souq in Doha. In Doha, modern air-conditioned buses run on a very well-developed route network. The app is ideal for this. A one-way trip costs 2.5-9 QAR depending on the route.

Before using the bus, a rechargeable Karwa Smart Card must be purchased for 30 riyals. You can do this at the counter in the Doha bus terminal. Recharge can be done at the ticket machines at Hamad International Airport, Doha Bus Station, Karwa Bus Station and The Pearl Qatar. Otherwise in certain shops or via Ooredoo mobile phone top-up. For holidaymakers there is a Limited Card for 10 QAR, which includes two trips within 24 hours, or an Unlimited Card for 20 QAR with unlimited trips within 24 hours.

City tour
The Doha Bus company offers a hop on hop off bus that runs a circuit through the city. Stops include Souq Waqif, the Museum of Islamic Art, the City Center Mall, the Katara Cultural Village, the Corniche, the Pearl district, the Grand Mosque and the Msheireb Museums. The stops are served every 40 minutes. The ticket costs 180 QAR.

Within Doha, it's best to take one of the omnipresent taxis. The rates are extremely cheap by European standards. Sometimes taxi drivers “forget” to turn on the meter and then charge an excessive fee. However, rides without a taximeter are free for the passenger.

The taxi apps Uber and Careem are slightly cheaper than taxis.



The official language is Arabic. The guest workers speak their respective home languages. English is spoken and very well understood by all residents of Qatar.



The Souk Waqif in the old part of Doha is particularly worth visiting because of the spices and specialties, which are of much better quality than in the supermarkets that are common everywhere today. If possible, visit the bazaar only after 6 p.m., otherwise the heat is really unbearable. However, some stores have air conditioning. The air conditioning units heat up the narrow bazaar aisles.

The Qatari currency is called Qatari riyal (QR or QAR). A QAR is divided into 100 dirhams. There are notes of 1, 5, 10, 50, 100 and 500 QAR and coins of 50 and 25 dirhams. The currency is pegged to the US dollar with an exchange rate of 1:3.64. Compared to the euro, the exchange ratio is approximately 1:4, which means that 1 QAR is worth approximately €0.24 (as of March 2019). It is easily possible to get cash from the ATMs located in many places. A credit card with the option to withdraw money worldwide for free is a great advantage here.


Night life

European-style nightlife does not exist in Qatar.



Qatar is an extremely safe country to travel to, but tourists should inform themselves about the rigid moral codes and related criminal regulations. Homosexual acts are illegal in Qatar and can be punished with prison sentences of up to 15 years. Men traveling together should also not book double rooms in hotels. Heterosexual sex outside of marriage is also forbidden. Drug trafficking, drug smuggling and drug possession of a certain amount or more leads to long prison sentences, and in the worst case scenario to the death penalty. It should not be assumed that tourists will be punished more leniently than locals. In all traffic accidents, unlike in Germany, there is an obligation to call the police on the emergency number 999, even if there are accidents without any other party involved, such as a car sliding into a ditch. The consumption of alcoholic beverages is permitted for non-Muslim tourists in the hotel area and on private hotel beaches, but staying in public is prohibited for people who are still under the influence of alcohol. Alcohol is not served in public in restaurants and no alcoholic drinks are sold in supermarkets and kiosks.



Qatar has a relatively well-developed healthcare system. The core element is the Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC), which is a state institution. Hamad General Hospital is the point of contact for all ailments. Here you can receive outpatient treatment or, if necessary, inpatient treatment. Qatari citizens and citizens of the so-called Gulf Council countries are usually treated free of charge or for a small fee. Citizens of third countries have to pay a low fee compared to Germany.

HMC tries to adapt the standards of its treatment to international standards. For this purpose, among other things, an extensive cooperation agreement was concluded with the Heidelberg University Hospital.


Climate and travel time

Due to its proximity to the Persian Gulf, the climate is humid all year round. It is subtropical and hot. In summer (May to September) the temperature is between 35°C and 45°C, in winter (December to March) between 15°C and 25°C, and at night it is below 10°C (there are no heaters). The humidity is 80%. Qatar is one of the rainiest and most water-poor countries in the world, but it can nevertheless have cold, humid weather in winter with e.g. T. significant rainfall occurs over several days.


Rules and respect

Qatar is an absolute monarchy, with the Emir as head. The state religion is Sunni Islam and Sharia is the main source of legislation. In the lives of travelers, this is reflected in strict morals and rules of conduct, which can even be punishable by law.

Clothing: This particularly applies to clothing, which should not be too revealing. This means that neither shorts nor short skirts should be worn. Strapless, low-cut or transparent clothing is also taboo. The dress code is less strict on beaches than in cities.
Sexuality: In general, the exchange of affection in public is not permitted, as is nudism on the beach, homosexuality, etc.
Gender separation: There are shielded sitting and standing areas on public buses for women and their children. These shielded areas on public transport may be used by all women, including tourists, but there is no obligation to use the separated areas for women. It is considered very impolite to look or stare at people conspicuously and directly. Men also approach strange (Arab) women on the street, for example. B. asking for directions may be frowned upon.
Photography: Military installations, public buildings, mosques, palaces, airports and seaports are not allowed to be photographed. Of course, you should not photograph people without their consent, especially locals and women.
Alcohol: The consumption of alcoholic beverages is only permitted in hotel bars and on private hotel beaches, but is prohibited in public. Tourists are allowed to consume alcohol in the hotel areas, alcohol is not served in restaurants outside of hotels, and people who are obviously intoxicated are prohibited from being in public.
Religion: During the Muezzin's call to prayer, non-Muslims should also remain quiet and not listen to music or use cell phones, including for Internet use.
The fasting month of Ramadan is taken very seriously in Qatar. Of course it is not binding for non-Muslims. Eating, drinking or smoking in public during this time during the day can be perceived as a provocation. In general, restrictions in everyday life can be expected, e.g. E.g. restaurants (outside tourist hotels) close during the day, authorities have reduced working hours. Compliance with clothing regulations is even more stringent than usual during this time.
In general, a certain respect for Islam is certainly not wrong. Negative or critical comments against Islam or the Prophet Mohammed could be construed as blasphemy or insults to religion, which is a criminal offense in Qatar.


Post and telecommunications

Using your own SIM card is a decidedly bad idea in Qatar. Most German network operators classify Qatar in the most expensive tariff group, with costs then being €3/min or more! It is much cheaper to use a local prepaid SIM card, e.g. from ooredoo or Vodafone Qatar. The minute then costs around 0.55 QAR (around €0.13). Even calls to Germany are comparatively cheap, with Vodafone Qatar around 1 QAR, or €0.24, per minute.

The custom of sending a postcard to relatives at home, which is well known in Europe, is hardly known in Qatar. It will be correspondingly difficult to find postcards and even more difficult to buy stamps. The best place to get postcards is in one of the large supermarkets, for example Carrefour. Stamps are available almost exclusively at post offices. Both are rarely sold in the local markets (souqs)! Mailboxes are also in absolute short supply, so it is best to take the already written postcards with you to the post office and post them there directly after buying the stamps.

The Internet is censored in Qatar, and websites that are or could be offensive according to local ideas (e.g. pornography of all kinds) are blocked. Messenger and VoIP services e.g. B. WhatsApp are generally blocked in Qatar. The use of VPNs is also not permitted in Qatar and is enforced through network blocks.



According to E.M. Pospelov, the state and the peninsula of Qatar were named after the village of Kadaru, which existed in ancient times on this peninsula.




Salt marshes and strips of desert separate Qatar from the rest of the Arabian Peninsula. The salt pans - so-called Sabcha - at sea level are relics from the time when Qatar was still an island. The connection to the Arabian mainland was only established through a slight uplift of the land. From these swamps, the gently undulating hill country rises to the north, which characterizes the whole of Qatar. At 103 meters, the highest point is the Qurain Abu l-Baul mountain in the south of Qatar. To the east the land slopes gently towards the sea. The predominantly flat land is characterized by scree and gravel desert. Sand dunes occur only sporadically, mostly on the coast in the extreme southeast. The coast is divided into several elongated bays. There are numerous coral reefs, especially on the east side.

The groundwater has a high salt content; Drinking water is obtained in seawater desalination plants. In the southeast is the sea lagoon Chaur al-Udaid.



With low annual rainfall of less than 100 mm, Qatar is one of the driest landscapes in the world. Due to its proximity to the Persian Gulf, the climate is humid, subtropical and hot all year round. Depending on the month, the humidity is between 40 and 70%. In summer temperatures of 45 °C are not uncommon, in winter they drop to an average of 17 °C. However, temperatures below 10 °C have been more common, especially in recent winters. The dry, dusty northwest wind Shamal often blows.

With regard to natural disasters such as volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, earthquakes, droughts and sea level rise, Qatar is considered one of the safest countries in the world. In the 2021 World Risk Report, it had the lowest disaster risk among 181 countries surveyed.


Flora and fauna

In many places Qatar is barren, desolate and even more inhospitable than the other Arab desert states. Only in the north, where rainfall is somewhat more frequent, do desert hyacinths, palm trees and thorn bushes grow. After the rare rain, grasses and herbs sprout up, produce flowers and fruit in a very short time and immediately wither again. Sparse salt-loving grasses and shrubs (halophytes) grow in the salt pans.

Only a few animal species - gerbils, hedgehogs, geckos and monitor lizards - can exist in the extreme living conditions of the desert. Migratory birds rest on the northern coast in winter. There are about 30 native bird species. A wildlife park was built south of Doha for the endangered oryx. The waters of the Persian Gulf are very rich in fish. Sometimes sperm whales, dolphins and the comparatively rare manatees can also be found. On the north coast, west of Ras Laffan, there are sea turtle egg-laying beaches.

The al-Wabra Wildlife Park is home to 50 of the 80 Spix's Macaws living in human care.



In 2021, 99 percent of Qatar's residents lived in cities. According to the April 2010 census, the largest cities are:
Doha with 521,283 inhabitants
Ar-Rayyan with 392,428 inhabitants
Ar-Rayyan Industrial Area with 260,726 inhabitants
adh-Dhachira with 128,574 inhabitants, al-Khor with 80,220 inhabitants
al-Wakra with 79,457 inhabitants, Umm Salal with 60,509 inhabitants
Ash-Shaḥānīyah with 35,393 inhabitants
Musay’īd with 35,150 inhabitants.



The area of today's Emirate of Qatar still had rich vegetation in earlier millennia and was already populated in the Stone Age. In the 5th millennium B.C. It experienced a heyday in the 4th century BC. Climate changes led to the creation of today's desert landscape and the migration of the population. In the following millennia the region was only sporadically populated.

Christianity arrived in the 5th century AD. However, with the arrival of Islam two centuries later, it almost completely disappeared. In 628 AD, the people of Qatar joined the Prophet Muhammad and converted to Islam.

Even in the period that followed, the country was of little importance due to a lack of water. Apart from sporadic trading settlements on the coast, the country was inhabited only by Bedouins. Around 1760, nomadic Bedouin tribes moved from their traditional grazing areas in the interior of the Arabian Peninsula to the area of Qatar. These Bedouins also included the Al Thani clan, who founded the village of al-Bid, today's Doha. Sheikh Muhammad Al Thani gradually gained power over the desert peninsula and became the founder of today's dynasty. The following 100 years were characterized by power struggles with the Al Khalifa clan, who invaded the peninsula from what is now Kuwait and founded the settlement of az-Zubara. In 1783 the Al Khalifa succeeded in conquering Bahrain, after which a large part of the tribe settled on this island.

At the end of the 18th century, Saudi Wahhabis, followers of a strictly orthodox Islamic sect, invaded the peninsula and temporarily conquered al-Bid. Since then there have been close ties with Saudi Arabia.

Until well into the 1850s, the coast of Qatar, like that of today's United Arab Emirates, was known as the "Pirate Coast". The intervention of the British East India Company, which saw its trade routes to India threatened, put an end to piracy. In 1867 there was another fierce battle for control of Qatar between the Al Thani and the Al Khalifa of Bahrain. The United Kingdom intervened and forced a peace. With the treaty of December 18, 1878, the country came under British influence. The Al Thani agreed to protect the interests of the British and act as their partner, while Britain in return acted as the protector of the Al Thani and confirmed Qatar's independence from Bahrain. At the same time, the nine Bedouin tribes of Qatar, symbolized by nine spearheads in the Qatari flag, were united as the strongest force under the dominance of Al Thani. December 18th was declared a public holiday (national holiday) on June 21st, 2007 by decree of the then Crown Prince and heir to the throne, Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani.

In the second half of the 19th century, the Ottomans laid claim to Qatar and occupied parts of the country. Qasim Al Thani then turned to the Wahhabis with a request for help. In 1913, the United Kingdom intervened again to suppress Ottoman and Wahhabi influence. In 1915 the last Ottoman troops had to leave the country. In the period that followed, Great Britain asserted its political and economic interests.

The first petroleum deposits were discovered in 1939, which soon made oil production the new economic mainstay of Qatar. In the period that followed, the growing wealth led to a profound modernization of the state and economy. When the British announced the withdrawal of troops “east of Suez” in 1971 at the end of the 1960s, Qatar proclaimed its independence on September 3, 1971 and, like Bahrain, rejected annexation to the United Arab Emirates; a treaty of friendship was concluded with the United Kingdom. The Sheikhs of Qatar also now assumed the title of Emir. In the same year, the Nord field, the largest natural gas field in the world, was discovered.

In 1972, Emir Ahmad ibn Ali was overthrown by Khalifa ibn Hamad (1972–1995); He subsequently made greater efforts to develop the country economically and establish industry. The dynasty's absolute rule remained. In 1974 all oil and gas companies were nationalized. In 1981, the Gulf Cooperation Council was founded with Oman, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait.

In 1995, Khalifa ibn Hamad was overthrown by his son Hamad ibn Khalifa, who began to initiate reforms. Since 1998, Qatar has been the headquarters of the headquarters of US troops in the Middle East and was also the command center in the Iraq War in March 2003. Since June 25, 2013, Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani, the second son of the former Emir Hamad ibn Khalifa, has been Emir of Qatar.

In early June 2017, Egypt, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates broke off diplomatic relations with Qatar and declared all land, air and sea borders closed. The reason they gave was that Qatar had supported terrorism. The governments of Yemen, Libya, the Maldives and Mauritius also said they were ending their ties with Qatar. Turkey sided with Qatar and sent a small contingent of soldiers and armored vehicles into the country. In June 2017, US President Donald Trump accused Qatar of having been a financier of terrorism for years. A few days later, US Secretary of Defense James N. Mattis and the Qatari Defense Minister signed a long-prepared purchase agreement for 36 F-15 fighter jets. Qatar is paying twelve billion US dollars for this.

The crisis ended in January 2021; diplomatic relations were restored.




Qatar has had one of the fastest growing populations in the world in recent decades. Due to a relatively high birth rate and heavy immigration, Qatar's population has grown from approximately 50,000 in 1950 to 2,700,000 in 2017. The number of births per woman was statistically 1.8 in 2020, and that of the Middle East and North Africa region was 2.7. The life expectancy of Qatari residents from birth was 79.1 years in 2020 (women: 80.7, men: 78.2). The median age of the population was 32 years in 2020. In 2020, 15.4 percent of the population was under 15 years old, while the proportion of those over 64 years old was 1.3 percent of the population.


Population structure and migration

The population composition is extremely ethnically diverse due to the large number of foreigners. In 2019, only about 10.5% of the population were Qatari nationals. 56% of the population came from South Asia, i.e. from India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan or Sri Lanka. Non-Qatari Arabs also made up a significant portion of the population, including 300,000 (9.35%) Egyptians, 60,000 (1.9%) Sudanese, as well as the Syrian, Jordanian and Lebanese diaspora, each with around 40,000 to 55,000 migrants, a total of around 5% the population. There were also numerous immigrants from other Arab states in Qatar. Expats from Western countries also formed a significant minority, including 40,000 (1.25%) Americans, 22,000 (0.7%) Brits, 9,200 (0.3%) Canadians and tens of thousands of Australians and EU citizens, including 1,800 German. The large community of Filipinos numbered 236,000 people: 7.35% of the population, and there were also numerous citizens of other Southeast Asian countries in the country. There were also around 30,000 (1%) Iranians and 10,000 (0.3%) Turks living in Qatar. Around 30,000 Kenyans (1%) and other sub-Saharan Africans also formed a noticeable minority. The East Asian community included up to 10,000 (0.3%) Chinese and 2,000 South Koreans in Qatar. The rest of the population came from all over the world.

Because most foreigners are male, Qatar has the most unbalanced gender ratio in the world. In 2016, there were 3.4 men for every woman in Qatar.

The distribution of wealth is not equal; Foreigners have fewer rights than Qatari citizens (tribalism). They predominantly work for the Qatari state, from which they receive high incomes, or as entrepreneurs and are at the top of the social hierarchy. They receive high state benefits to which foreigners are usually not entitled. Many foreigners in Qatar, for example from the West, Arab countries, Turkey, Iran and East Asia, work in middle to high income jobs. Their main motivation for working in Qatar is the high salaries and lack of income taxes.

Emigrants from the West often live in the relatively liberal northern part of the greater Doha area, including West Bay, West Bay Lagoon, The Pearl or Lusail, but also often in so-called “villa compounds”, which are often found in the capital Doha. Many employees of foreign origin live in Qatar with their spouses and children, and many of these children attend private schools with the curriculum of their home country, including the German International School Doha. According to official statistics, 196,000 students attend private schools, which are mainly attended by migrant children, while 122,000 children are educated in the state school sector.

Southeast Asians, especially Filipinos, mostly work in the service sector, such as hotels and restaurants. Many Southeast Asian women work as domestic workers. The often poor treatment of these domestic workers and other low-wage migrants has drawn international criticism. The low-wage migrants, who mostly come from South and Southeast Asia and Africa, work as construction workers, domestic workers, security guards or cleaners, among other things. They are also the ones who built the infrastructure for the 2022 World Cup. A large number of them live in collective accommodation outside the capital Doha. Migrant workers from South and Southeast Asia and Africa often work in the low-wage and service sectors. However, this is not always the case and migrant workers from these countries can be found in all sectors in Qatar, including middle to high income jobs. Sometimes they also live with their families in Qatar.

Foreigners in Qatar whose employment contract is terminated or expires without renewal must leave the country if they cannot find another job, and there are no unemployment benefits for foreigners. Therefore, the unemployment rate for foreigners in Qatar is very low.



The official language is Arabic. English also plays an important role, especially in communication between ethnic groups and in dealing with foreign countries (trade, media). Due to the high number of migrants in Qatar, Malay, Balochi, Indonesian, Hindi, Persian, Malayalam, Sinhala, Tagalog, Urdu and Nepali are also spoken.



Islam is the state religion and most citizens are Sunni Wahhabis while the rest are Shiites. In addition, the largest religion among foreigners is Sunni Islam. Together with Qatari citizens, Muslims make up about 65.2% of the Qatari population. The proportion of Hindus is around 15.9%, Christians 13.7% and Buddhists around 3.8%. The remaining 1.4% of the population believe in other religions, including folk religions, or are areligious. There are also a small number of foreign Jews living in Qatar. Qatar's native society is strictly Islamic. The majority of locals follow orthodox Sunni Wahhabi Islam. The country's rules are primarily rooted in conservative Islam. Homosexual sexual intercourse is forbidden.

In Qatar, drinking alcohol and being drunk in public is punishable or prohibited. Alcoholic drinks are only served to non-Muslims over the age of 21 in licensed restaurants, bars and selected high-priced hotels. There is a liquor store in Qatar that is only open to non-Muslim residents.

According to a 2010 study, 67.7% of the country's population is Muslim; Christians and Hindus each make up 13.8% of the population, 3.1% were Buddhists, 0.9% did not belong to any religious community and 0.7% were members of another religion. Almost all non-Muslims in Qatar are foreigners.

The state also allows the establishment of churches, and as of 2019 there are a total of eight churches in Qatar. All were opened at the request of the large Christian expat community. There are no known official places of worship for the other large migrant religious communities in Qatar, such as Hindus or Buddhists. There is a Hindu temple in Qatar that is actually a villa. However, it is not recognized by the state. Only Islam and Christianity are recognized by the state and other religions have difficulty building proper places of worship.


Social welfare

As a state with one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, Qatar has a very good social welfare system. Those in need receive fixed monthly payments. Health and medical care is good and available free of charge. There is a general compulsory education; school lessons are free at all levels of education in the Qatari mainstream schools, but are subject to a fee in the numerous private schools. Citizens also enjoy tax-free income (like all residents), guaranteed high-paying government jobs, free higher education, cheap loans, financial support for newlyweds, housing benefits, maternity benefits, unemployment benefits, free water and electricity, generous retirement savings and much more. The state gives the vast majority of state benefits only to Qatari citizens and in this way the ruling elite enjoys great loyalty and support. It is also virtually impossible for foreigners to become a naturalized Qatari. Foreigners are eligible for public health insurance if they pay 100 riyals annually for a health card. Foreign children can also attend public schools free of charge if their parents work in the public sector, otherwise modest school fees apply.



Qatar University in Doha, founded in 1973, follows Anglo-Saxon patterns: Bachelor's and master's degrees can be acquired in six colleges. A special feature compared to universities in Western countries is that both Western law and Islamic law (such as Sharia) as well as historical Islamic studies can be pursued side by side. In the 2013/2014 academic year, the university had around 15,000 students. With the Education City project, Qatar has founded six “offshoots” of well-known American universities and has operated them since 2002. In Qatar, more women than men attend university. Qatar University had a comparatively high proportion of women, around 70%, among the 7,660 students in the 2005/2006 winter semester. This may be because men have an easier time getting army or business positions (which do not require a college degree) compared to women. Many young men also study abroad; Young women are less likely to be allowed this by their families for cultural reasons.

The literacy rate was 97.8% in 2015.



The country's healthcare spending amounted to 2.9% of gross domestic product in 2019. In 2018, there were 24.9 doctors per 10,000 residents practicing in Qatar. Mortality among under-5s was 5.3 per 1,000 live births in 2021.


State structure

Qatar is an absolute monarchy.

The state structure of Qatar includes ministries, high councils and other state institutions. Qatar's public administration institutions are developing rapidly and are striving to meet the needs of citizens and institutional service clients. About 90,000 employees, including Qataris and foreigners, work for the government and other public sector institutions.

The system of government in Qatar is based on the separation and cooperation of powers. Executive power is vested in the emir and heir apparent, assisted by the Council of Ministers as provided by the Constitution, while legislative power is vested in the Consultative Council.

The emir is the head of state and represents the country within the country, abroad and in all international relations. He is also Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, which he directs with the assistance of the Defense Council, which is under his direct authority. Judicial power belongs to the courts of general jurisdiction; and judgments are proclaimed in the name of the emir.

The Emir is assisted by a Council of Ministers or cabinet, a prime minister and six higher councils. The emir appoints the prime minister and ministers, accepts their resignation and releases them from their positions by decrees of the emir. He assigns the tasks of each ministry to a minister or prime minister in accordance with the emir's decree of appointment.

The Prime Minister presides over the meetings of the Council of Ministers and oversees the coordination of work between the various ministries in order to achieve unity and integration of all branches of government. He also signs the Council's decisions.

The Cabinet is formed by decree of the Emir at the suggestion of the Prime Minister. The duties and powers of ministers and government departments are determined in accordance with the law. The Council of Ministers, being the highest executive body in the country, is authorized to control all internal and external affairs within its competence in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution and the law.

Ministries and other government agencies are responsible for the implementation of government policies and programs related to them.

Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani took up his duties as Emir of the State of Qatar on June 25, 2013 after the announcement by his father, Emir Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, of the decision to transfer his power to his heir.

In Qatar, the creation of political parties, trade unions, and demonstrations are prohibited.


Foreign policy

The Emirate of Qatar is a member of the United Nations (since September 21, 1971),[90] the Arab League, the IOZ, the OAPEC, the WTO and the Gulf Cooperation Council. The country was also part of OPEC until 2019.

The increasingly influential role that the emirate wants to play with its ambitious foreign policy among the Arab states in the Mediterranean region is raising questions among observers about the goals and methods of this influence, especially with regard to the development of Libya and Syria and of Islamism in general. Tunisian analysts in particular criticize Qatar's increasing influence on Tunisian politics. Qatar is a country that worries the world as a financier of Salafists and extremists.

Millions of dollars are said to have flowed from Qatari private individuals to radical Islamic terrorist groups such as the Islamic State, Al-Qaeda and Hezbollah. The United States has made clear it has no evidence that the government of Qatar itself is funding the Islamic State, but it believes that private individuals in Qatar are helping to fund this and similar groups and that the Gulf state is not doing enough to stop it to stop. Qatar has also often been accused internationally of directly supporting terrorist groups such as Hamas and HTS.

On January 3, 2012, the Taliban from Afghanistan announced their intention to set up an office in Qatar. The news magazine Der Spiegel reported in October 2012 that both the Islamist Hamas and the Taliban have their own diplomatic missions in Qatar and that the country itself maintains a diplomatic mission office in Gaza. This year, Qatar rose to the top financial backer of Gaza, ahead of the United States and the European Union. Half a billion US dollars will be used to expand the transport infrastructure and build an entire city. Qatar also finances rebels in other Mediterranean countries, such as Syria and previously Libya.

Qatar is the only country that is officially permanently represented by a non-governmental organization (NGO) in the Islamist-dominated north of Mali (as of 2013). On Malian television, Mohammed Diko from the country's High Islamic Council said: "We have to completely rethink our relationship with Qatar." The US also accused Qatar's government of financially supporting the Al-Shabaab militias in Somalia. As Qatar was accused of supporting the Islamist Muslim Brotherhood, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain withdrew their ambassadors from the country in 2014. Qatar's support of extremist Salafist groups in other states led to massive public protests in Egypt and Libya, during which Qatari flags were also burned. In September 2019, a financing program by the State of Qatar was announced aimed at strengthening the influence of political Islam across Europe by financing 140 mosques, cultural centers and schools, all linked to the Muslim Brotherhood. According to research by ARD, the Muslim Brotherhood's connections extend to the top of the state of Qatar and the ruling Al-Thani family.

The country is also accused in Germany of being one of the most important financiers of the Islamic State terrorist militia. Germany's Development Minister Gerd Müller (CSU) mentioned the “keyword Qatar” in an interview in June 2017 in connection with IS financing; In a subsequent interview, Angela Merkel indirectly distanced herself from this accusation. The CDU vice-chairman Thomas Strobl indirectly questioned Qatar's suitability as a major investor in Germany (Volkswagen, Deutsche Bahn, Deutsche Bank, Siemens). Qatar's distancing itself from this accusation is generally considered to be implausible. The Green Bundestag member Katja Keul said that Qatar was supporting Islamist and terrorist organizations in Egypt, Mali, Syria, Iraq and Libya. In particular, Qatar refuses to criminalize the participation of its own nationals in fighting abroad and the call to take part in such fights, thereby complying with UN Resolution 2170. Unlike in Saudi Arabia, advertising for IS, recruiting fighters and supporting Qataris through donations is still possible today without any consequences. In 2014, Ralf Stegner (SPD) called Qatar's influence on the conflicts in the region “not exactly defusing the crisis”.

Qatar has also had a Taliban office in Doha since 2013, apparently at the request of the US government to facilitate political reconciliation between the Taliban and the US. After the collapse of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan on August 17, 2021, the Qatar Air Force flew Taliban deputy chief and head of the political office Mullah Abdul Ghani Baradar back to Afghanistan. In Germany, calls for a boycott of the 2022 World Cup became loud again.

Qatar-based Al Jazeera is considered an instrument of soft power. The channel often sympathized with organizations such as the Muslim Brotherhood, with which the state of Qatar is allied.

Turkey is considered one of Qatar's most important allies, with ties dating back to the Ottoman Empire. Another important ally is the United States and in 2022 Qatar was admitted to the group of major non-NATO ally. According to the country's defense minister, Qatar is seeking full membership in NATO. Germany has also developed strong economic and military ties with the small Gulf state during the Angela Merkel era, despite opposition from the Green Party.


Human rights

Qatar has been a member of the United Nations since 1971 and in 2018 joined both the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (UN Social Covenant) and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (UN Civil Covenant). However, Qatar has declared reservations with regard to the equality of men and women in Article 3 of the UN Social Covenant as well as with regard to the marriage law provisions in Article 23 Paragraph 4 of the UN Civil Covenant, insofar as the provisions do not comply with Sharia law and patrilineal succession in Article 8 of the Qatari Constitution are compatible.

Qatar submitted to the United Nations Human Rights Council's Universal Review Procedure (UPR) in 2010, 2014 and 2019.

Although Germany appreciated the initiated revision of labor laws, it also recommended taking active action against discrimination against women, withdrawing reservations to the Convention on the Rights of Women, respecting freedom of expression and media freedom and ratifying fundamental international human rights treaties such as the UN Social Pact and the UN Civil Pact .


Environmental Protection

World Bank statistics describe Qatar as the country with by far the highest CO2 emissions per capita in the world. In 2011, each resident of Qatar produced an average of 31 tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) per year (for comparison: USA an average of 17.3 tons, China an average of 7.2 tons and Germany an average of 9.9 tons of CO2 per capita per year; Qatar's total emissions were approximately equal to that of Berlin and Hamburg together with about half as many inhabitants). The Emirate of Qatar has rich reserves of natural gas and oil, the burning of which is partly responsible for global warming. The 2012 UN Climate Change Conference took place in Doha. The 2012 UN climate conference in the country with the world's highest CO2 emissions per capita evidently illustrates this again. Failure of global climate protection policy according to the “Emissions Gap Report 2012” from the UN environmental protection program UNEP.



The armed forces of Qatar (Arabic القوات المسلحة القطرية) consist of the army (10,000 men), air force (2,000 men) and navy (including maritime police) (2,000 men) (as of 2020). In response to increasing tensions with neighboring countries and the Qatar crisis, the armed forces have been significantly expanded in recent years.

According to CIA estimates, the country spent around 4.0% of its economic output on the armed forces in 2020. This corresponds to an increase of almost 30% compared to 2016, when the share was still 3.1%. Overall, defense spending in 2021 was around $6.0 billion.

According to the CIA, Qatar ranks 18th in the world in terms of military spending as a share of economic output, at 4.0%. Nevertheless, the expenses are below average in regional comparison. With the exception of Iran (approx. 2.1%), all neighboring countries are spending more on their military. Saudi Arabia, for example, spends around 7.8% of its economic output on the army. At the same time, Qatar's economic output is significantly lower than that of Iran, the United Arab Emirates or Saudi Arabia, so its military spending is relatively low even in absolute comparison to these countries.

Qatar has been importing an increasing number of weapons systems in recent years. From 2016 to 2020, the import volume was almost five times higher than from 2011 to 2014. This meant that the country was responsible for around 4% of global arms imports between 2016 and 2020 and ranked 8th in a global comparison. Among other things, the country imported or is importing fighter jets from the USA, Great Britain and France, several hundred armored vehicles from Turkey, short-range ballistic missiles from China and Leopard 2 tanks from Germany.

Until the Qatar crisis in 2017, the Qatari armed forces took part in the military intervention in Yemen since 2015 with around 1,000 soldiers and 10 fighter planes.

Southwest of Doha is Al Udeid Air Base, the largest US military base in the Middle East with around 11,000 soldiers. Britain has four Royal Air Force C-130s stationed in Qatar. The USA also operates a joint HBCT equipment depot (APS) for the Army, Air Force, Navy and Marines in Qatar. The base is also a forward headquarters, meaning it serves as a forward headquarters for the United States Central Command in the event of a crisis.

Turkey has also had a military base in the country since 2016, which has capacity for up to 3,000 soldiers. Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan announced in November 2019 that construction of a new Turkish military base in Qatar had been completed.



The United Nations Development Program lists Qatar as one of the countries with very high levels of human development. Qatar has been a member of the Gulf Cooperation Council since its founding in 1981.

The main sources of income are natural gas (Qatar owns around 13% of the world's available gas reserves; in 2016 it supplied a third of the world's total liquefied natural gas), petroleum, petrochemical products (e.g. fertilizers) and the paid provision of troop storage areas and rest areas for the US Army. In 2004, 0.2% of the gross domestic product was generated in agriculture, 62.2% in industry and 37.6% in the service sector. In 2001, 2% of the workforce was employed in agriculture, 38% in industry and 60% in the service sector. Inflation averaged around 2.5% between 2011 and 2015. Qatar is (as of 2019) the fourth richest country in the world in terms of purchasing power-adjusted gross domestic product per capita. According to Transparency International's Corruption Perception Index, Qatar ranked 40th out of 180 countries in 2022 with 58 points out of a maximum of 100.

The unemployment rate was 0.6% in 2017, making it one of the lowest in the world. The total number of employees is estimated at 1.9 million in 2017. 14.1% of the workforce are women (with women making up 24% of the population and 19% aged between 20 and 65).

In the Global Competitiveness Index, which measures a country's competitiveness, Qatar ranks 25th out of 137 countries (as of 2017-2018). The country ranked 29th out of 180 countries in the 2017 Economic Freedom Index.


Qatar Investment Authority

Qatar is committed to diversifying its oil and gas revenues into international investments. For this purpose, the sovereign wealth fund Qatar Investment Authority (QIA) was founded in 2005, whose capital stock comprises several hundred billion US dollars (as of April 2017: 335 billion US dollars). The fund's volume therefore already exceeds Qatar's actual economic output.

At the beginning of June 2009 z. B. Discussions were held that led to the fund investing in Porsche AG. At the beginning of December 2010 it became known that the QIA was seeking a stake in Hochtief AG, which would counteract the threatened takeover by the Spanish construction group Grupo ACS. Such investments are very desirable because these funds generally do not intend to influence operational business activities, but are simply looking for a long-term investment. An example of such a capital investment is QIA's five percent stake in the French environmental service provider Veolia Environnement. The stake was purchased in April 2010.

Qatar Holding, which belongs to the company, held 10% of the ordinary shares of Porsche Automobil Holding from mid-2009 to June 2013.

On the 8th/9th In June 2011, Qatar agreed a strategic partnership with Luxembourg, initially targeting the aviation (Cargolux), satellite services (SES Astra) and banking sectors. As part of the implementation of this agreement, Precision Capital S.A., whose board of directors includes members of the Qatari ruling family, purchased the Luxembourg private bank branch KBL European Private Bankers from the Belgian KBC banking group for 1.05 billion euros. The same financial group took over Dexia's Luxembourg subsidiary Dexia-BIL, which was valued at 730 million euros at the time of the transaction, with the Luxembourg state contributing 10% of the capital.

In 2016, QIA acquired a stake in Rosneft. In September 2017, the share was still 4.7% after QIA, together with Glencore, sold a 14.2% share to CEFC China Energy Company Ltd. had sold. The stake in Hapag-Lloyd is stated as 14.4% in August 2017. As of 2019, QIA holds 5.21% of Credit Suisse. In October 2022 it was announced that the QIA would become its largest individual shareholder with a stake of over 9% via a mandatory convertible bond from its wholly owned subsidiary Qatar Holding worth 2.43 billion euros to RWE AG.



Despite ambitious government projects, agriculture can only cover a small percentage of domestic demand. Only 0.3% of the national territory is designated as arable land, which also requires artificial irrigation. The main crops are tomatoes, pumpkins, grains, dates, vegetables and citrus fruits. The once purely nomadic livestock industry was restructured through the establishment of livestock farms. Fishing continues to expand.

In 2011, 90% of the food consumed in Qatar was imported. The Qatar National Food Security Program (QNFSP) under director Fahad al-Attaiyah is intended to ensure supplies. With a decree from the then heir to the throne and current Emir Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani (Emiri Directive No. 45 of 2011), a working group was set up that is responsible for ensuring food supplies. A food security plan should be drawn up by 2013 and implemented between 2013 and 2023. The export of food should be stopped.



The pearl trade had existed since the Dilmun culture in 3200 BC. BC, which was based in Bahrain and had trade connections as far as India, Qatar's most important source of income before natural pearls were replaced by cheaper cultured pearls and many people lost their livelihood as a result. After 1930, the boom in the pearl trade in the Gulf largely collapsed due to the emergence of Japanese cultured pearls. This led to a severe economic crisis that forced many Qataris to emigrate.


Mineral resources

Qatar has the world's third largest conventional natural gas reserves after Russia and Iran with a share of 15%. Around 60% of the gross domestic product is still generated from the fossil natural resources gas and oil. Qatar also has mineable limestone, gravel, clay and gypsum deposits.

When oil was first discovered at Jabal Dhukan in 1938, Qatar had the opportunity to create a new source of income to make up for the losses caused by the collapsed pearl trade. Commercial production began just a year later, but due to the Second World War, Qatari oil did not leave the country until 1949. As a result, there was an oil boom. In 1961 Qatar joined OPEC. Qatar was greatly modernized and, as it were, catapulted from the Middle Ages straight into modern times, which was accompanied by social upheaval. Guest workers came to the country primarily from Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal and the Philippines, a total of around 600,000 people to date. As a result, the population grew enormously and the number of foreigners in the country now far exceeds the number of locals. In 1972 the state took over the oil companies. Qatar was the first small oil-producing country in the Gulf to own one hundred percent of its reserves. Rising oil prices also made Qatar increasingly rich and ensured a very high per capita income. Total oil reserves are estimated at more than 25 billion barrels. Qatar is one of the countries that together form the so-called strategic ellipse.

In November 2018, Qatar announced that it would leave OPEC.

natural gas
Qatar's greatest wealth lies in natural gas. Beneath the ocean floor lies the North Gas Field, which is the largest natural gas field in the world with 381,000 billion cubic feet of reserves (10,800 km³). Qatar has approximately 25.5 trillion cubic meters (25,500 km³) of natural gas, according to QatarPetrol.

Qatar has developed a leading global role in gas processing in recent years. The center of the gas industry is the Ras Laffan Industrial City in the north. There are two companies that are represented in the gas business. By commissioning a natural gas liquefaction plant, the economical removal of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is made possible. The main buyers are the GCC countries. Due to increasing demand, the emirate became the world's largest exporter of liquefied natural gas in 2006. In 2022, it was the third largest liquefied gas exporter after the USA (41.4 million t) and Australia (39.6 million t) with 38.5 million t (20% of the global exported volume).

Industrial establishments include a steel mill, a fertilizer factory, a petrochemical plant, a flour mill and seawater desalination plants, the main locations of which are Mesaid and Ras Laffan. Qatar is home to one of the largest primary aluminum plants in the world, Qatalum, a joint venture between Norsk Hydro and Qatar Petroleum. The annual production volume was 585,000 tons in October 2012. In 2012, Qatar planned to develop its own solar cell industry.

Foreign trade
In terms of imports in 2015, the United States led the way with $3.1 billion, followed by China with $2.9 billion, the United Arab Emirates with $2.3 billion, Germany with $1.9 billion and Japan with $1 .7 billion USD in front. The largest buyer countries were Japan, Korea and India. While imports increased from USD 28.5 billion in 2015 to USD 31.9 billion in 2016, exports fell sharply from USD 77.3 billion in 2015 to USD 57.3 billion in 2016 due to low oil and gas prices .

State budget
In 2016, the state budget included expenses of the equivalent of $53.9 billion, compared to revenues of the equivalent of $41.7 billion. National debt was 47.6% of GDP in 2016.

In 2006, the share of government spending (in % of GDP) was in the following areas:
Health: 4.3%
Education: 3.3% (2005)
Military: 10.0% (2005), 2010 it was 1.5%



Sightseeing features

The Museum of Islamic Art, opened in 2008, and the Arab Museum of Modern Art, opened in 2010, are located in the capital Doha or in its outskirts. These two museums show parts of the ruling family's international art collections. Other unique attractions include The Pearl, Souq Waqif, National Museum of Qatar, Qatar National Library, Mall of Qatar, Villaggio Mall, Katara and Banana Island. Qatar has invested large sums of money in projects and tourist attractions built in connection with the World Cup, including $45 billion for Lusail.



The news channel Al Jazeera is based in Qatar. English-language newspapers read include The Peninsula, the Gulf Times, Qatar Tribune and the Khaleej Times from Dubai. Socially critical articles are increasingly being read, particularly dealing with the situation of non-Qatari workers.

At the end of 2005 it was reported that the monopoly Qatar Telecom (Qtel, renamed Ooredoo in 2013) was blocking audio and video communication services such as MSN Messenger, Yahoo Messenger or Google Talk in its own data network, which was also confirmed by a spokeswoman for the company. This approach is particularly explosive since around 80% of Qatar's residents are foreigners (guest workers, etc.), for whom this type of communication is the only affordable one. However, this seems to have been partially relaxed or lifted, as you can at least make phone calls and chat without restrictions via Skype.

Some websites are subject to censorship. When accessing some pages, the user is redirected to a Qatar Telecom page. There you will find the note: “This site has been blocked by Internet Qatar as the content contains materials which are prohibited in the State of Qatar.” This occurs, among other things, when accessing pages with pornographic or sexual content, but also, for example, when accessing Yahoo groups and similar communities.

Qatar was ranked 123rd out of 180 countries in the 2017 press freedom rankings published by Reporters Without Borders. According to the non-governmental organization's report, the situation of press freedom in the country is "difficult." There is talk of massive censorship, especially for publications that are critical of the system. The press law, passed in 1979, has never been reformed and is designed to be so flexible that the government can extend the bans at any time. Journalists in Qatar lack any union or advocacy group to support them in disputes with the government.

In March 2014, it was announced that the Qatari satellite Es'hail-2 would carry an amateur radio relay station to a geostationary position, a joint project of the Qatari amateur radio association QARS, the Qatar Satellite Company and the German amateur radio satellite association AMSAT-DL. Two transponders are intended to enable radio amateurs from Brazil to Europe to India to establish radio connections with one another. The launch is planned for 2018, with a planned position of 25.5 degrees East. The uplink will be in the 2.400 to 2.450 GHz range and the downlink in the 10.450 to 10.500 GHz range within the respective amateur radio allocations.

Several radio and television stations can be easily received via the Internet, e.g. B. Broadcast Qatar. The state-owned Qatar Broadcasting Service (QBS) broadcasts its domestic programming on both FM and medium wave. If propagation conditions are good, the medium wave transmitter can also be received in Europe at 675 kHz in the evenings and at night. English-language reception reports are confirmed by the station with QSL cards.

In 2016, 92.0% of the population used the internet.



Traditional sports in Qatar include camel racing and falconry.

The national football league, the Qatar Stars League, has been played since 1963. With lucrative contracts, numerous foreign stars were able to be signed over time, who ended their careers financially profitably in the less demanding league. These players include Mario Basler, Stefan Effenberg, Gabriel Batistuta, Marcel Desailly, Fernando Hierro, Hakan Yakin, Xavi and James Rodríguez.

Especially since the beginning of the 1990s, Qatar has also hosted a large number of tournaments and world championships in a wide variety of sports. It started with the men's ATP tennis tournament, which has been taking place in Doha since 1993 at the beginning of January. The women's WTA tournament has also been held from 2001 to 2008 and since 2011; The WTA Tour Championships also took place in the country from 2008 to 2010. In table tennis, the Qatar Open has been held in Doha every year since 1994 - with three exceptions - and is now part of the highest category of the ITTF World Tour. Qatar also hosted the 2004 Table Tennis World Championships. Doha also hosted the men's squash world championships four times and the women's championships once; The Qatar Classic is an annual PSA World Series tournament in Doha.

Special Olympics Qatar was founded in 1994 and has participated in Special Olympics World Games several times. The association has announced its participation in the Special Olympics World Summer Games 2023 in Berlin. The delegation will be looked after by Schleswig before the games as part of the Host Town Program.

In 2004, Qatar held rounds of the Motorcycle World Championship and the Superbike World Championship for the first time at the Losail International Circuit near Doha; The first night race of the Motorcycle World Championship was held there in 2008. The new Motodrom was later built north of Doha for these competitions. In cycling, the Tour of Qatar from 2002 to 2016 with the opening race, the Doha International GP, was an important stop for the professionals. Erik Zabel liked to use this race to start the season, as did Tom Boonen and Alessandro Petacchi, for example in 2007.

In 2004, with the construction of the Aspire Academy in Doha, one of the world's largest training and competition facilities for top athletes was created. The 2010 World Indoor Athletics Championships took place there six years later. Qatar had already hosted the West Asian Games in 2005, as well as the 2005 World Weightlifting Championships and the 2006 Asian Games the following year.

In December 2010, Qatar finally received permission to host the 2022 FIFA World Cup, the event with the greatest international interest next to the Olympic Games. The following year they hosted the 2011 Asian Football Championship, but in the years after the award, world championships for other sports were also held. In swimming, the 2014 World Short Course Championships were held. At the 2015 Men's Handball World Championship, the country was not only the host, but the local team surprisingly achieved second place behind France. This was possible thanks to extensive investments, especially in the naturalization of experienced players from other countries. In addition to the 2015 Boxing World Championships and the 2016 UCI Road World Championships, Qatar also hosted two major sporting events: the 2018 World Gymnastics Championships and the 2019 World Athletics Championships. However, there was international criticism because of the lack of spectators at the World Athletics Championships.

Qatar hosted a Formula 1 race for the first time in 2021. The 20th race of the 2021 World Championship was initially held as a replacement for the Australian Grand Prix; At the same time, Formula 1 announced a 10-year contract, which will give the country a permanent place in the calendar with annual races from 2023.

The 2021 FIFA Arabia Cup was held in Qatar from November 30 to December 18, 2021, which served as a dress rehearsal for the 2022 World Cup.