Taiwan, also Republic of China, Formosa is located in East Asia. A group of islands, the main of which is the island of Taiwan, is located southeast of mainland China, southwest of Okinawa and north of the Philippines. The island, de facto independent from China, is self-determined as the Republic of China, while the PRC does not recognize the independence of Taiwan and considers it its territory.

Other destinations
Alishan is a wonderful area with seas of clouds, views of Mount Yushan, and Taiwan's longest narrow gauge railway.
Taroko Gorge is a gorge and national park in the east of the island.

Taipei 101, Taipei. The skyscraper with a height of 509.2 meters and 101 floors is the second highest in the world.



Taiwanese snacks
The 10 most popular night market snacks in Taiwan
Chicken Popcorn (鹽酥雞 Yán sū jī)
Chicken Fillet (雞排 Jī pái)
Milk tea with balls (珍珠奶茶 Zhēn zhū nǎi chá)
Oyster Omelet (蚵仔煎 Hé zǐ jiān)
Stinky Tofu (臭豆腐 Chòu dòu fu)
Papaya milk cocktail
Mango shaved ice (芒果冰 Máng guǒ bīng)
Oyster Vermicelli Soup (蚵仔大腸麵線 Hé zǐ dà cháng miàn xiàn)
Sausage in Glutinous Rice Bread (大腸包小腸 Dà cháng bāo xiǎo cháng)
Hot potato balls (地瓜球 Dì guā qiú)

Mayor's Precautions
Do not drink tap water from the island's central water supply system (it is dirty), preferably buy bottled water.

The international dialing code for Taiwan is +886. Internet domain countries .tw



Republic of China (1912-1949)
The Republic of China was founded in 1912 and was ruled by the Kuomintang as a one-party state. She controlled a significant part of mainland China and Mongolia (the latter not earlier than from 1917 until February 3, 1921). After the end of World War II, the group of islands of Taiwan and Penghu, which had belonged to Japan since 1895, came under the control of the Republic of China.

Republic of China (Taiwan)
In 1950, after the defeat in the civil war, the Kuomintang administration evacuated to Taiwan and established the city of Taipei as the temporary capital. The islands of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and other small islands, including those in the South China Sea, remain under the control of the Republic of China. Despite de facto jurisdiction over this territory only, until the 1970s, the Republic of China was recognized by most states and international organizations as the legitimate authority for all of China; so, until 1971, its representative occupied the chair of China in the UN.

Constitutionally, the Republic of China has not renounced its rights to mainland China, although it has not been very active in recent times, and has not declared its independence from it. Political parties in the Republic of China often have radically different views on its independence. The two former presidents, Li Tenghui and Chen Shui-bian, held the view that there was a sovereign and independent state separate from mainland China, and therefore did not see the need to formally declare their independence and sovereignty.

The Republic of China is a democracy with a semi-presidential system and universal suffrage. As one of the "Four Asian Tigers", the Republic of China has the 19th largest economy in the world. Its technology industry plays an important role in the global economy. The standard of living is very high, according to IMF data for 2019-2020. The country in terms of GDP per capita significantly exceeds China.



The "Taiwan Region" is an area that covers 36,197.07 km² and includes the islands of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu, as well as a number of smaller islands. Since the evacuation to Taiwan in 1949 by the Kuomintang government, the term "Taiwan Region" also refers to the area under the de facto jurisdiction of the government of the Republic of China.

Taiwan is the largest of a chain of islands located on the border of the Asian continental shelf and located between Japan and the Philippines. The island reaches 394 km in length and 144 km in its widest part. The coastline has a rather smooth contours and stretches for 1566 km (including the islands of the Penghu archipelago). The island is separated from the east coast of mainland China by the Taiwan Strait, 130 to 220 km wide, and is approximately equidistant from Shanghai and Hong Kong SAR and Macau. Part of the islands of the Taiwan region (Kinmen and Matsu) are located in close proximity to the mainland.


Population and placement

The population of Taiwan as of December 2022 was estimated at 23,264,640 people. Since the area of the Republic of China is 36,197 km², the population density is 643 people per square km. It is the 10th largest in the world in terms of population density and the second in Asia (after Bangladesh), excluding micro-countries. Almost the entire population of the Republic of China is urban. The main population of the Republic of China is concentrated on the flat western coast of the island of Taiwan and lives in a megalopolis (urban agglomerations flowing one into another), from Xingbei in the north to Kaohsiung in the south. As of 2019, one third of the total population of the Republic of China lived in the north of Taiwan in the Greater Taipei metropolitan area. The population decline in 2021 was 1.3%.

Most of Taiwan's population lives in urban areas. The largest of them are as follows: New Taipei (6,607,115 people), Kaohsiung (2,752,008), Taichung-Zhanghua (2,161,327), Taoyuan (1,814,437), Tainan (1,237,886), Hsinchu (671,464 ), Chiayi (373,417). All of them are located on the west coast of Taiwan. Largest cities (as of 2009: Taipei (2,620,273), Kaohsiung (1,526,128), Taichung (1,067,366), Tainan (768,891), Hsinchu (396,983), Jilong (390,299), Chiayi ( 272 718).

Ethnic composition and languages
97% of Taiwan's population are ethnic Chinese (Han); almost 3% are indigenous peoples (the oldest population of the island of Taiwan) who speak the Taiwanese languages of the Austronesian family. The official language is Chinese (Goyu), but the majority of the population speaks other dialects of Chinese, Taiwanese and Hakka. Traditional Chinese characters are used.

Until recently, indigenous languages did not have official status and gradually disappeared, but since 2016, progress has been made in implementing the policy of mainstreaming ethnic issues.

In 2017, Parliament passed the Indigenous Languages Act. Now they can be taught in schools for an hour a week and on a voluntary basis. In December 2018, a draft law on the support of national languages was adopted, which affirms the equality of all languages spoken in the republic; the use of national languages should not be subject to discrimination or restrictions. The bill also provides for the support of printed materials, films and television programs in the languages of the Republic of China.

There are 27 registered religious denominations in Taiwan, including mainstream world religions and new religious movements. A significant part of religious life in Taiwan is associated with Chinese folk religion. The religious traditions of the aboriginal Austronesian population of Taiwan lost their former significance; in the post-war period, the aborigines massively converted to various denominations of Christianity.

The largest number of followers has religious traditions originating in mainland China. These are different schools of Buddhism, Taoism and other beliefs, the characteristic features of which, especially at the everyday level, are polytheism and syncretism, a high degree of convergence with each other. Sanctified in Confucian ethics, ancestor worship is also widely observed in Taiwan regardless of religious affiliation. Monotheistic religions, primarily Christianity, are practiced by a relatively small portion of Taiwan's population; Islam has a certain number of followers.

18% of the population are not religious, of the believers, 94% are followers of religions traditional for Chinese culture, including Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism, less than 4.5% - Christianity or Islam.

We can single out the main features that characterize the religious situation in Taiwan:

a high degree of religious tolerance;
syncretic religiosity of the majority of believers;
an abundance of religious symbols and practices used in everyday life.

LGBT and same-sex marriage
In 2017, the Republic of China legalized same-sex marriage and thus became the first state in Asia to allow same-sex marriages to be registered.

On May 24, 2017, the Constitutional Court ruled that the constitutional right to equality and freedom of marriage guarantees same-sex couples the right to marry in accordance with the Constitution of the Republic of China. The Ordinance (Judicial Yuan Interpretation No. 748) gave the Legislative Yuan two years to harmonize marriage laws, after which the registration of such marriages would automatically take effect. Since the ruling, progress in implementing the same-sex marriage law has been slow due to government inaction and strong opposition from some conservative people and Christian groups. In November 2018, the Taiwanese electorate held referendums to prevent the recognition of same-sex marriage in the Civil Code and to limit the teaching of LGBT issues. The government responded by affirming that the Court's decision would be implemented and that referendums could not uphold laws that were contrary to the Constitution.

On February 20, 2019, a bill titled "JY Interpretation Enforcement Act No. 748" was promulgated. The bill gave same-sex couples almost all of the rights available to heterosexual couples under the Civil Code, except that it would only allow the adoption of a child genetically related to one of them.

The Executive Yuan handed it over the next day, sending it to the Legislative Yuan for a quick review. The bill was passed on May 17, signed by the President on May 22, and entered into force on May 24, 2019 (the last day possible under the Court's order).

At the same time, initially marriages with citizens of foreign states were registered only if it was permissible in the country of citizenship of the foreign partner. According to Art. 46 of the Law on the Regulation of Civil Affairs with the Participation of Foreign Citizens, the conclusion of a marriage union is regulated by the law of the country of citizenship. Any marriages between partners, one of whom is Taiwanese, had to first be contracted in the foreign partner's country and then approved by the Taiwanese Ministry of the Interior. In January 2023, the Ministry of Internal Affairs decided to allow the registration of same-sex marriages with foreigners regardless of their citizenship, however, the exception remained in force for KN citizens.