Tajikistan is located in Central (Central) Asia. It borders Afghanistan in the south, China in the east, Kyrgyzstan in the north, and Uzbekistan in the west and northwest. The area of the country is 143,000 km2, the population at the end of 2022 is more than 10 million people.

Tajikistan is a former republic of the USSR. It received its modern borders only in the 30s of the XX century. At the same time, territories predominantly populated by Tajiks, such as Samarkand and Bukhara, went to Uzbekistan. The main monuments of historical Tajik culture remained there.

In Soviet times, Tajikistan was the poorest of all 15 republics. With the advent of independence, the situation only worsened due to the outbreak of the civil war of 1992-1997. With the assistance of Russia, the war ended. From that time until now, a native of Dangara Emomali Rahmon (president of the republic) has been in power. However, active opponents of the current government are still hiding in the Pamir mountains. In the Gorno-Badakhshan region, armed riots periodically occur.

Now the economic situation is slowly improving. The main official income of the republic is connected with hydropower. Unofficial - with drug trafficking from Afghanistan. The amounts sent by migrant workers to the country amount to 60% of GDP. According to this indicator, Tajikistan ranks first in the world. Most migrants go to work in Russia.

Most of the country is occupied by mountains: Pamir and Pamir-Alai (Fan Mountains). On the territory of Tajikistan there are several seven-thousanders, including the highest point of the Soviet Union, Communism Peak (7495 meters). The current name is Ismail Somoni Peak.



The Republic of Tajikistan administratively consists of the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region (GBAO), Sughd and Khatlon regions, as well as regions of republican subordination (RRS): Varzob, Vakhdat, Gissar, Dzhirgatala, Nurabad, Rasht, Rogun, Rudaki, Tavildara, Tajikabad, Tursunzade, Fayzabadsky, Shakhrinavsky. GBAO, Sughd and Khatlon regions also have their own districts.

From the point of view of the traveler, the cities and regions of the country can be divided as follows:
Ferghana Valley
The Ferghana Valley is the northernmost region of Tajikistan. It occupies the northern half of the territory of the Sughd region. The Fergana Valley of Tajikistan is part of the larger Fergana Valley, which Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan share with Tajikistan. Most of the territory of the region is occupied by valleys surrounded by high mountains (from the north the valley is limited by the Kuraminsky Range, from the south by the Turkestan Range). The region is famous for its fertile lands, rich and beautiful nature. The Syrdarya River flows through the region. From the northern and western sides, the region borders on Uzbekistan, on the eastern side, on Kyrgyzstan. Here, the Uzbek diaspora as a whole makes up at least 20% of the population.

Zeravshan valley
The Zeravshan Valley is the western region of Tajikistan. Covers the southern part of the Sughd region. From the north, the region borders on the rest of the Sughd region, from the northeast and east by Kyrgyzstan, from the southeast and south by regions of republican subordination, and from the west by Uzbekistan.

Karategin is the central region of Tajikistan. Covers the entire territory of the regions of republican subordination (RRS). It is on the territory of this region that the capital of Tajikistan, Dushanbe, is located. From the north it borders with the Sughd region, from the northeast by Kyrgyzstan, from the south by the Khatlon region, from the east by the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region, and from the west by Uzbekistan. The east of Karategin is considered a stronghold of the Islamists, and because of this, there are increased security measures, but it does not pose a danger to the traveler.

Khatlon is the southern region of Tajikistan. Covers the entire territory of the Khatlon region. From the south, the region borders on Afghanistan, from the north by regions of republican subordination, from the east by the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region, and from the west by Uzbekistan.

Khatlon is the southern region of Tajikistan. Covers the entire territory of the Khatlon region. From the south, the region borders on Afghanistan, from the north by regions of republican subordination, from the east by the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region, and from the west by Uzbekistan.



Dushanbe is the capital and largest city of Tajikistan. It is a city of republican significance, the largest scientific, cultural, political, economic and industrial center of the country. As of the beginning of 2022, the population of the city is about 900 thousand people, and with the agglomeration around it - over one and a half million people. The area of the city is 203.1 km². The first written mention of Dushanbe occurs at the end of 1676. In 1826-1923 the city was called Dushanbe-Kurgan, in 1924-1929 Dyushambe, in 1929-1961 Stalinabad, and from November 1961 Dushanbe.

Khujand (formerly Leninabad) is the second largest city in Tajikistan, located in the north of the country. The administrative center of the Sughd region. As of 2022, the population of the city is about 200 thousand people, and with the agglomeration around it, about 800 thousand people. The area of the city is 285 km². Khujand is one of the oldest cities in Central Asia.

Bokhtar (formerly Kurgan-Tube) is the third largest city in Tajikistan, located in the southwest of the country. The administrative center of the Khatlon region. As of 2022, the population of the city is over 120 thousand people, and with the agglomeration around it, about 150,000 people. The area of the city is 26 km².

Kulob is the fourth largest city in Tajikistan, located in the south of the country. It is part of the Khatlon region. As of 2022, the population of the city is over 110 thousand people, and with the agglomeration around it, about 120,000 people. The area of the city is about 20 km².

Istaravshan (formerly Ura-Tyube) in the Sughd region is the only city in Tajikistan where the medieval structure of the urban environment has been preserved in the center with narrow streets, houses overlooking them with blank walls and fences, as well as several medieval monuments, including the Kok-Gumbaz mosque of the 15th century .

Khorog is the administrative center and the only city of the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region. As a city, it is not particularly interesting, but if you are going to Gorno-Badakhshan, you cannot do without Khorog. Over 35 thousand people live here, and most of them are representatives of the Pamir peoples.

Ancient cities

Other destinations
The Great Silk Road on the territory of Tajikistan
Reserve Tigrovaya Balka
Lake Karakul
Sarez Lake - currently closed to foreigners due to the threat of a breakthrough.
Lake Iskanderkul
Kairakum reservoir


Getting there

By plane
Tajikistan has four international airports in four cities: Dushanbe, Khujand, Kulyab and Kurgan-Tube. The largest of them is Dushanbe International Airport, which as of April 2022 has regular flights with the following cities: Istanbul, Dubai, Mashhad, Tashkent, Almaty, Moscow, St. Petersburg, Rostov-on-Don, Krasnodar, Sochi, Mineralnye Vody, Kazan , Naberezhnye Chelny, Samara, Ufa, Chelyabinsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhnevartovsk, Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk and Irkutsk, Khujand International Airport, in addition to the above Russian cities, additionally has flights with Samarkand, Surgut and Barnaul, and Kulyab Airport additionally with Nizhny Novgorod and Perm.

All airports in Tajikistan are naturally connected with each other by air. There are four airlines operating in the country: Tajik Air, Somon Air, East Air, Asia Airways. In addition to local airlines, foreign airlines, including Russian ones, also operate in the country.

By train
Rail transport is not developed enough and therefore is not popular not only among tourists, but also among the local population. The length of public railways in the country is 680 km. The railway network consists of two lines: Termez - Dushanbe - Vahdat - Yavan - Bokhtar - Kulyab and Bekabad - Shurab with a branch line to Khujand. There is no railway connection between Dushanbe and Khujand. By rail from foreign countries it is connected with Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan and only freight transportation is carried out.

By car
Road transport is the most developed type of transport in Tajikistan. By car, you can get to Tajikistan through Uzbekistan, at three border crossings in Tashkent, Samarkand and Surkhandarya regions. The country also has road links with Kyrgyzstan in the north of the country, with China in the east, and with Afghanistan in the south.

By bus
Intercity bus service is not developed due to dangerous roads that pass through passes, high mountains, tunnels and roads along steep cliffs, but exists in low-lying areas of the north, south and west of the country.

By ship
Tajikistan has no access to the sea and, accordingly, does not have a navy. There are numerous lakes in the country (for example, Lake Sarez and Kairakkum reservoir) with a fairly large area; boats and boats are used only for fishing and other purposes, including tourism. Due to the border status and low water level, there is practically no movement of boats and boats along the Pyanj River.



The main transport of movement between the settlements of Tajikistan is automobile. Many mountain roads are poorly paved but are gradually being restored. Jeep taxis are common on these roads.

The road between the country's two largest cities, Dushanbe and Khujand, passes through two Iranian-built tunnels. The tunnels are located on Mount Anzob and Shahristan. The track has a good asphalt surface. From Dushanbe to Khujand can be reached by taxi for $20-25.

Public transport in Dushanbe includes a fixed-route taxi, a taxi, a bus and a trolleybus. Public transport in many cities are Hyundai minibuses (1 somoni or $0.20) and taxi minibuses and taxis themselves (usually Opel, Samand or Daewoo brands) (3 somoni or $0.60).



The state and official language of the country is Tajik, which is actually a variant or dialect of the Persian language (also known as Farsi), whose speakers understand each other almost without problems. The Tajik language belongs to the Iranian group of the Indo-European family of languages (and not to the Turkic, as the inhabitants think), and the inhabitants of Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Iran in general can communicate with each other without an interpreter. From the 7th century until 1929, writing was based on the Arabic-Persian script, and with the advent of Soviet power, in 1930 the Tajik language was translated into Latin, and in 1940 it was translated into Cyrillic, which is used to this day.

The language of interethnic communication is officially recognized by the Constitution of the republic as Russian, which is understood without problems by about 80% of the population. Usually, in cities, almost everyone will understand Russian (except for some women), but in rural areas not everyone will understand it (mostly the elderly and adults, as well as young people who have visited Russia). About 35% of the population speak Uzbek at various levels. As a rule, Tajiks who speak Uzbek are mainly distributed in the Sughd region of the country, where Uzbeks make up more than 30% of the population, and also partially in the south and in the extreme southwest of the country. English has also become popular in recent years and is spoken mainly among young people and tourism workers.

The country's currency is the Tajik somoni (TJS). In banks, they exchange rubles, dollars and other currencies for somoni without any problems. In tourist bases in the mountains, both somoni and foreign currencies are accepted for payment. In the bazaars, you can buy fruits and vegetables very cheaply by the standards of other countries, in addition, you can and should bargain.



in Dushanbe and its environs:
National Museum of Tajikistan
Flagpole in Dushanbe
Memorial Ensemble of Ismoili Somoni
Opera and Ballet Theatre. S. Aini
Hissar fortress

Sughd region:
Mosque-madrasah of Abdulatif Sultan
Museum of History and Local Lore of Archeology and Fortification
Fann Mountains
Seven lakes - Haft kul (Marguzor lakes)
Lake Iskandarkul
Kairakkum reservoir

Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region:
Pamir mountains for mountaineering
Lake Sarez
Lake Karakul
Hot spring "Garmchashma"

Khatlon region:
Mausoleum of Amir Ali Hamadoni in Kulyab
Childukhtaron in Khovaling
Mausoleum of Khoja Mashhad
Archological site "Ajina-Teppa"
Sanatorium "Chilluchorchashma"
Khulbuk Historical and Cultural Reserve
Nurek reservoir
Reserve Tigrovaya Balka and much more.

Things to do
Tourists primarily visit the mountainous regions. You can do both light trekking and serious climbing. The main regions are the Fann Mountains and the Pamirs.

Tajik cuisine is similar to Uzbek and Afghan. Kurutob, pilaf, kebabs, samsa, shurpa, manti, chuchvara (here they are called barak), kazan-kebab, lagman, mastava are popular.

You can eat cheaply in street eateries: barbecue 6-15 somoni, a portion of some kind of soup 5-12 somoni, pies with potatoes 0.5-5 somoni, pasties 1-5 somoni. In cafes and canteens: from 15 somoni for lunch. Going to a restaurant will cost from 35 somoni (in Dushanbe and Khujand - from 70 somoni).

Night life
In the usual sense, nightlife fully and in general in a civilized form exists only in Dushanbe and in single establishments in Khujand.

Where to stay
In large cities of Tajikistan there are ordinary hotels and hostels where you can stay, it is usually possible to book such accommodation in advance. However, in small towns and villages, there is usually no organized accommodation for the night. If you find yourself in such a place and are looking for an overnight stay, ask the locals, someone will definitely let you in for the night. In principle, they do not expect a reward, but are unlikely to refuse if offered one.

Precautionary measures
Tajikistan is a secular state, but in the post-Soviet space it is the most conservative Muslim country. Keep in mind that the majority of the inhabitants are believing Muslims, mostly Sunnis. With the exception of Dushanbe and Khujand, you should not wear short shorts and T-shirts, and when visiting religious institutions and monuments you should not enter with bare shins and too open arms, but in fact this rule is not observed everywhere, and almost no one will reprimand you.
The Tajik police have long been considered one of the most corrupt in the world. On the occasion of the year of tourism declared in 2018, reforms were undertaken to eliminate or minimize corruption among police officers. However, you should be careful when dealing with them. Police officers or traffic police (if you are with your car) can be asked to show registration at any time, this requirement is legal. At the same time, you should not go on about and pay the required fines on the spot or give away your property. In case of conflict situations, you can ask to go to the department.
Most of the year Tajikistan is hot and sunny. It is recommended that you bring sun cream with you and be sure to have enough drinking water. In the Pamirs and the highlands, it can be very cold and windy in the morning and evening.
Drinking from the tap and brushing your teeth with running water is not recommended; it is better to use bottled water bought from trusted places for this. The exceptions are mountain springs and artesian water.
Tajikistan is considered a fairly safe country, but you should be careful in the southern parts of the country, especially in the south of the Khatlon region and in the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region.
Homosexual relations are now decriminalized in Tajikistan, but the vast majority (even young people) have an extremely negative attitude towards same-sex relations and the LGBT movement as a whole. Try not to advertise your preferences and positions on these issues.

The international dialing code of Tajikistan is +992. Internet domain of the country .tj The following mobile operators operate in the republic:
Babylon Mobile http://babilon-m.tj
Tcell (Indigo)http://tcell.tj
M Teko
MLT (Megafon)
Such (Beeline)
Skytel CDMA