Ermak Travel Guide

 

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Algiers

Algiers

 

 

 

Location: Wilaya (region) of Algiers

 

 

 

Description of Algiers

Algiers is the largest city in Algeria that also serves as its capital. It is occasionally referred as Alger la Blanche or Algiers the White after the color of its buildings. The original settlement of Ikosim was originally found by Phoenician colonists from the Middle East. The city was an important trading site that saw several civilizations leave its own mark on its design.

 

Travel Destinations in Algiers

Basilique Notre Dame d'Afrique (Algiers)

 

 

Musee National du Moudjahid (Algiers)

Riadh el- Feth Martyrs'

Tel. 021 743414

Entrance Fee: DA20, children DA15

Open: 9am- 5pm Oct- Feb, 9am- 7pm March- Sept

This museum is devoted to French colonialism in Algeria and Northern Africa. Collection of the museum is dedicated to a time period that lasts from the time of French Invasion of 1830 to final independence of the country on July 1962.

 

New Mosque (Djemaa el- Djedid) (Algiers)

Kasbah (Algiers)

Kasbah

 

Palais des Rais (Algiers)

North of Upper Town

www.palaisdesrais-bastion23.dz

Tel. 021 739570

Entrance Fee: DA20, children DA 10

Open: 10am- 12pm and 1- 4:30pm Sun- Thu, 1- 4:30pm Sat

 

Djemaa el- Kebir (Algiers)

rue el- Mourabitine

 

Bardo Museum of Prehistory and Ethnography (Algiers)

3 rue Franklin Roosevelt

Tel. 021 747641

Entrance Fee: DA20, children DA10

Open: 9am- 12pm, 1- 4:30pm Sun- Thu, 1- 4:30pm Sat

 

Djemaa Ketchoua (Algiers)

rue Hadj Omar Algiers

 

 

 

History

The city was founded in 944 by one of the founders of the Berber dynasty Zirid Bologgin ibn Ziri on the site of the ancient Phoenician settlement Ikosim, which was later renamed the Icosium by the Romans. Under Vespasian, the inhabitants of Icosios were given Latin law. Although the Zirids were overthrown by Roger II of Sicily in 1148, they lost control of Algeria as early as 1014, losing it to their fellow tribesmen Hammadids. In 1159, Almohad established control of the city. In the 13th century, the city passed under the control of the Sultans of Tlemcen. Being nominally part of Tlemcen, Algeria retained significant independence.

At the beginning of 1302, the island of Penon at the entrance to the bay of Algeria was captured by the Spaniards, resulting in increased trade between Algeria and Spain. Nevertheless, the significance of Algeria was insignificant until the expulsion of the Moors from Spain, many of which found refuge in Algeria. In 1510, after the occupation of Oran and several other cities on the coast of North Africa, the Spaniards strengthened the island of Penon and introduced customs duties in order to suppress the activities of pirates.

Ottoman period
In 1516, the emir of Algeria, Selim Teumi, invited the corsair brothers Aruj and Hayreddin Barbarossa to expel the Spaniards from Algeria. In the same year, Aruj Barbarossa captured the city and, after the assassination of Selim, became the de facto ruler of the city. After his death, control of the city passed to his brother, Hayreddin. Hayreddin Barbarossa lost control of Algeria in 1524, but regained it in 1529 and then invited the Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent to take sovereignty over the territory and annex Algeria to the Ottoman Empire.

Algeria has become the main base of the Berber pirates. During the Algerian expedition in October 1541, the King of Spain and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V intended to take over the city, however, a significant number of his ships were damaged as a result of the storm, and his army of 30,000 was defeated by Algerian Pasha Hassan.

Since Algeria was on the periphery of the economic interests of both the Ottoman Empire and Europe, and depending on the Mediterranean Sea, which was increasingly used by Europeans for shipping, piracy became the main area of ​​its economy. The result of this was the intensification of the struggle of various states with Algerian pirates who controlled the Western Mediterranean and whose raids reached the coast of Iceland.

In the Ottoman period, the city was surrounded on all sides, except for the promenade, with fortress walls. Access to the city was provided through five gates. In 1556, a citadel was erected in the highest part of the wall. The main road that crossed the city from north to south divided it into the Upper and Lower Towns. The upper city (al-Gabal or 'mountain') consisted of 50 quarters in which the Andalusians, Jews, Moors and Kabiles lived. The administrative, military and commercial center of Algeria was the Lower City (al-Vata or 'plains'), in which representatives of the Turkish administration and families of other representatives of the upper class lived.

In 1816, the city was bombarded by a British squadron under the command of Lord Exmouth, which, with the assistance of the Dutch military, destroyed the pirate fleet.

French period
On July 4, 1830, under the pretext of insulting the French consul, who was hit by a local dei after the consul announced the refusal of the French government to pay off debts to two large Algerian merchants, the city was attacked by the French army under General de Bourmont. The next day the city surrendered. Algeria became the capital of the French Algeria colony.

During the colonial period, many Europeans settled in the city. By the beginning of the 20th century, they constituted the majority of the population of the city. In the 1930s, the architect Le Corbusier drew up a plan for the complete reconstruction of the city. Le Corbusier criticized the difference in living standards of people of European and African descent. However, his plan was ignored by the French administration.

During World War II, Algeria was the last city liberated by the Allies during Operation Torch. It housed the headquarters of the allied command. After the war for the independence of Algeria, the capital of the state.

 

Modern period
In 1962, after a bloody struggle for independence (the death toll is estimated at 350,000-1,500,000 people), the Republic of Algeria gained independence, and the city became its capital. Since then, despite the immigration of the French Algerians, the city has grown significantly. The population of the urban agglomeration exceeded 5 million people (10% of the country's population).