Burkina Faso is a state of West Africa that
borders the northwest with Mali, the northeast with Niger, the south
with Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo and Benin. Burkina Faso does not have
access to the sea. It became independent from France on August 5,
1960. Government instability during the 1970s and 1980s was followed
by multi-party elections in the early 1990s. Several hundred
thousand rural workers migrate each year to Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana
looking for work.
Formerly called the Republic of the Upper Volta,
the country was renamed on August 4, 1984 by President Thomas
Sankara, who considered the name of Upper Volta a legacy of French
colonialism, alien to the history and national reality of the
Voltaic / Burkinabe people. Burkina Faso means 'homeland of honest
men', from the Mossi Burkina term, 'honest men', and from the diula
faso voice, 'homeland'. According to the Constitution of Burkina
Faso, "Faso is the republican form of the State", so there is no way
"Republic of Burkina Faso" or "Republic of Burkina" to officially
refer to this African country, but the name official is "Burkina
Faso". Similarly, the head of state is called as "president of the
Faso" (abbreviated, "PF"), instead of president of the Republic.
Loropéni are fairly well preserved ancient ruins
lost in an African jungle of Burkina Faso.
History of Burkina Faso
Early story At the beginning of the XI century,
Mosi tribes from the north-east of present Ghana came to the
territory of the country. Mosi subjugated the local tribes of
Nyenese, Grusi and Busa. The Dogon tribe retreated north. In the
territory of modern Burkina Faso, the states of Ouagadougou,
Yatenga, Tenkodogo, and Fadan Gurma have existed since the 14th
century. From the XIV to XVI century, the state of Yatenga conquered
part of the territories of neighboring Mali and Songai.
Colonial period At the end of the XIX century, the colonization
of land by the French began. In 1895, the army of the state of
Yateng was defeated, in 1897 Fadan Gourmet recognized the
protectorate of France. From 1904 to 1919, Upper Volta was part of
the French colony of Upper Senegal - Niger, then separated into a
separate colony. In 1915-1917, a large part of the country was swept
by the anti-colonial uprising of the Volta Bani. In 1934, a railway
was built to Abidjan. In 1947, the Upper Volta colony was restored.
The African Democratic Association (ADO) was gaining strength, led
by Kulibaly, then Maurice Yameogo. From 1947 to 1958, the French
Upper Volta was the overseas territory of France, then the
autonomous Republic of Upper Volta was formed as part of the French
community. In 1958, Upper Volta expressed its desire to join the
then planned and existing in 1959-1960 Federation of Mali (Mali and
Senegal), but under pressure from the Ivory Coast adjacent to it,
she refused to participate in this federation. In December 1959,
Yameogo became president of the republic, banning all political
parties except his own first.
Period of independence On
August 5, 1960, Yameogo proclaimed the independence of the Upper
Volta State and became its president.
In January 1966, a
nationwide strike began, as a result of which Yameogo was
overthrown. Power passed to the military, led by Lt. Col. Sangula
February 18, 1967 established diplomatic relations
with the USSR.
In 1970, a new constitution was adopted,
political parties were allowed, Lamizana (who became a brigadier
general) was elected by universal suffrage as the country's
president. However, on the eve of the next presidential election in
1974, disagreements among the leaders of the ruling party
intensified, and in February 1974 Lamizana usurped power. In 1977,
Lamisana returned the country to civilian rule.
November 1980, a military regime was again established in Upper
Volta, led by Colonel Saye Zerbo. The Constitution of Upper Volta,
adopted in 1977, was abolished, the power in the country passed to
the Military Committee.
In November 1982, Zerbo was ousted as
a result of another military coup that brought Major Jean Baptiste
Ouedraogo to power. In 1983, the new president decided to break with
the "left" in his government, one of the measures was the removal
from the cabinet of ministers of the adherent of socialist views,
captain Thomas Sankara.
As a result of the next military coup
in August 1983, Sankara became the head of state and proclaimed a
course for the social revolution, which he implemented in very
unusual ways. On August 4, 1984, at his initiative, the country was
renamed Burkina Faso. He was very popular in society, not least
because of his emphasized proximity to the people - for example, he
passed a law on the disclosure of the income of all officials,
refused his president’s salary (about $ 2,000) and donated it to an
orphanage every month, lived at $ 460 a month, he didn’t use air
conditioning in his office, “because it’s not available to the
people,” refused to authorize the hanging of his portraits in public
places and offices due to the fact that “in our country there are
seven million people like me ". For his leftist views, Sankara was
nicknamed "African Che Guevara."
In 1985, a border conflict
erupted with Mali over a territory rich in mineral resources that
was located on an unmarked section of the border (the so-called
“Agasher War”). By decision of the International Court of Justice of
the United Nations, where the parties appealed, the disputed
territory was divided approximately in half.
On October 15,
1987, Sankara was killed in a coup made by his closest ally, Blaise
Compaoré. On June 11, 1991, a new constitution was adopted. In 1997,
restrictions on the number of re-election of the president were
lifted, which gave Compaore the right to occupy this post for
Against the backdrop of mass demonstrations
provoked by the preparation of constitutional amendments, according
to which President Compaoré, who has been in power for 27 years,
could again apply for this post next year and remain in power for
another 5 years, on October 30, 2014, a coup took place in the
country . The military came to power. A curfew was imposed in the
country. The government was dismissed, and parliament dissolved.
Instead, a provisional governing body will be formed, which should
restore constitutional order within a year.
On September 16,
2015, the military of the Presidential Guard of Burkina Faso broke
into the building where the government meeting was held and detained
and. about. President Michelle Cafando less than four weeks before
the election. In addition, Prime Minister Yitzhak Zida and two
ministers were detained and the creation of a “National Council of
Democracy" was announced, to which all power was transferred. The
putschists explained their actions as “a difficult security
situation on the eve of the elections” and the need to “prevent the
destabilization of the situation in the country.” However, the
provisional government of Burkina Faso previously announced plans to
restructure the presidential guard, which consists of approximately
1,200 soldiers, which served as a real reason for rebellion. On
September 23, having not received the support of either the
population or the army, the “end” of the coup was announced, Acting
President Kafando and Prime Minister Zida returned to their duties.
On October 1, the head of the putschists, Brigadier General Gilbert
Dyendre, was arrested.