Deir el-Bahri Archaeological Site

Deir el-Bahri

Location: Map

Open: 6am- 4pm winter

6am- 5pm summer



Deir el- Bahri Archaeological Site in Egypt is famous for its magnificent Temple of Queen Hatshepsut is unique in its size and architecture. Temple of Queen Hatshepsut at Deir el- Bahri is entirely carved from the slope of the mountain and devoted to only woman in the history of Ancient Egypt to rule the land for over 20 years. The chief architect of the religious complex was Senenmutu. The construction of Temple of Queen Hatshepsut took nearly all of her rule. For 15 years thousands of workers were extracting tons of mountain to clear way for this temple. The temple consists of three open terraces, rising one after another on the slope of the cliff. Temple of Queen Hatshepsut is decorated with statues, reliefs and drawings depicting life of a queen, including queen's journey to the country of Punt. The sanctuary is famous for the goddess Hathor columns with capitals in the form of the head of a goddess. On one wall of the sanctuary preserved fresco depicting warriors with different weapons. The temple was partially destroyed by Ramses II. Later it was converted to a Christian monastery. Left of the temple of Hatshepsut are the remains of nearly ruined temple Mentuhotep I.



Mentuhotep mortuary temple
Pharaoh Mentuhotep II (11th Dynasty) was the first to have his temple and burial place built here. An avenue leading to the grave monument was lined with painted sandstone statues depicting him. He had his queens, soldiers and high officials buried in and around the temple. This temple also stands out for its unique architecture. Another special feature is the fact that this is the only monumental complex in West Thebes from the Middle Kingdom period.

Hatshepsut's mortuary temple
The Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut (Djeser-djeseru) dates from the 18th Dynasty and is the best-preserved temple in Deir el-Bahari. Its idiosyncratic architecture is striking. In Christian times, the monastery of Saint Phoibammon was built on the temple of Hatshepsut. The Phoibammon Monastery was used until the 11th century and was visited by various bishops. In the 19th century, the monastery ruins were demolished by Auguste Mariette and Edouard Naville in order to access the temple parts underneath. Naville documented his work in detail in seven volumes: The Temple of Deir el Bahari (= EEF, 12-14, 16, 19, 27, 29). 7 volumes, London, 1894–1898.

Mortuary temple of Thutmose III.
In addition to his existing temples Ach-menu (Karnak) and Henket-anch (north of the Ramesseum), Thutmose III had. Towards the end of his reign, the mortuary temple Djeser-achet (Holy Horizon) was built above the Hathor Chapel.

The complex built in the middle behind Hatshepsut and Mentuhotep II's mortuary temples is the smallest of the three temples and the most destroyed. This temple was built slightly higher because there would have been no space between the other two temples. Also the temple of Thutmose III. is aligned on its axis exactly with the Karnak Temple. The two temples of the New Kingdom were built as million-year houses.

Model of the entire system
Since October 2016, a walk-in model of the facility has been created in Second Life using the latest scientific findings, the main focus of which is on the overall architectural design and the interaction between the buildings and gardens.



The cachette of Deir el-Bahari
The most spectacular find in Deir el-Bahari was probably the discovery of grave DB320 (also TT320) around 1871 by Ahmed Abdelrassul. The Abdelrassul family kept quiet about the discovery of the tomb from the 21st dynasty, which, in addition to rich grave goods, also contained the mummies of over 40 people, including numerous royal mummies from the 17th to 21st dynasties. Piece by piece, parts of the find were sold until the then head of the Antiquities Authority, Gaston Maspero, became aware of it. On July 6, 1881, his assistant Emil Brugsch was able to recover the finds of what is now known as the “King's Cachette of Deir el-Bahari”.