Flag of Egypt

Language: Arabic

Currency: Egyptian pound (EGP)

Calling code: +20


Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a sovereign country of Africa in the westernmost part of the Mashrek. It is a transcontinental country, it is located mostly in the far northeast of Africa while in Asia, it is located in the Sinai Peninsula. It borders Sudan to the south, Libya to the west and the State of Palestine and Israel to the northeast. To the north it borders on the Mediterranean Sea and to the southeast with the Red Sea. The greater part of its surface is integrated by the Sahara desert. The Nile River crosses the desert from north to south, forming a narrow valley and a large delta at its mouth in the Mediterranean. These fertile lands are densely populated, concentrating the largest national population in Africa. Almost half of Egyptians live in urban areas, especially in the densely populated centers of Cairo, its capital, and Alexandria.

Egypt was the cradle of the ancient Egyptian civilization, which together with Mesopotamia were the origin of the current Western culture, decisively influencing the history of humanity. The remains of this civilization dot the country like the pyramids and the great sphinx or the southern city of Luxor that contains a large number of ancient remains, such as the temple of Karnak and the Valley of the Kings. Egypt is currently an important political and cultural center of the Middle East and is considered a regional power. Its current form of government is the semi-presidential republic. Between 2013 and 2014 it was under interim government, formed after the 2013 coup that overthrew the country's first democratic president, Mohamed Morsi.


Travel Destinations in Egypt

Abu Ghurab or Abu Gorab (also Abu Gurob and Abu Jirab) is an ancient temple dedicated to the Egyptian Sun god Ra.

Abu Simbel temple complex is located on the shores of the lake Nasser in Egypt. Temple at Abu Simbel was entirely carved out of rock in the XIII century BC.

Abydos or Abidos is situated 45 km (29 mi) Southwest of Sohag, Sohag Governorate in Egypt. It was known in the ancient times as Tha Shard or "The Great Land".

Temples on Agilkia Island (Philae) were built over the course of six centuries, from the 3rd century BC the 3rd century AD.

Akoris is ancient archeological site situated 12 km North of Al- Minya in Minya Governorate in Egypt. This ancient Egyptian site of Akoris was inhabited since the Old Kingdom around the 22nd century BC.

Bahariya Oasis is located near Cairo. It is also known after a small village of Bawiti where most of buses will take you.

Beni Hasan is an ancient burial complex that is located 20 km (12 mi) South of Al Minya in Minya Governorate in Egypt.

If you curious why do you have a feeling you saw Cave of Swimmers somewhere, the chances are you did. It's copy made by modern artists was portrayed in the movie: "The English Patient"

Dahshur is an ancient archeological site located 40 km South of Cairo in Egypt. The unique architecture of pyramids presented here made this site an UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Deir el-Bahri in Egypt is famous for its magnificent Temple of Queen Hatshepsut is unique in its size and architecture.

Dendera is ancient Egyptian archeological site situated 5 km (3 mi) Southwest of Qena, Qena Governorate in Egypt. This enormous temple complex covers a total area of 40,000 square meters.

Giza Pyramids is the largest and most recognizable symbols of the Ancient Egypt. It is the only surviving Wonder of the Ancient World that survived to our days virtually in original condition.

Karanis is an ancient archeological site situated in Kom Aushim settlement of Faiyum Governorate in Egypt.

Karnak religious complex is situated in the Luxor Governorate in Egypt. The size and complexity of Karnak Temple with its countless courtyards, halls and colossi and huge sacred lake is just mind-boggling.

Luxor religious complex is located in Luxor Governorate in Egypt. Temple at Luxor is a religious complex dedicated to a triad of Egyptian gods Amon or Amun, Mut and Khonsu.

Medamud was excavated in 1925 and several religious buildings were indentified including that of the temple dedicated to the god of war Monthu.

Pyramid of Djoser is situated Northwest of Memphis in the center of Saqqara necropolis.

Ramesseum stands on the opposite side of the Nile river across the modern city of Luxor in Luxor Governorate, Egypt. Its construction began in 13th century BC and was continued by the subsequent generations.

Ras Muhammad National Park that is located off the shores of Sinai peninsula was designed in 1983. It was the first national marine park of Egypt.

The Greek Orthodox Saint Catherine Monastery on Mount Sinai located in the South Sinai Governorate of Egypt. It famous for being the oldest active Christian monastery.

The remote and barren Valley of the Kings was chosen for a necropolis by the pharaohs of the New Kingdom to offer better safety to their earthly remains.

Wadi Al-Hitan is situated some 150 km South West of Cairo.

Wadi El Natrun is located 100 km (62 mi) Northwest of Cairo in an natural depression in the western desert.



The name of the country Egypt came to Europe from the ancient Greek language (ancient Greek Αἴγυπτος, aygyuptos, in Reuchlin's, at that time the most common reading - aegyptos). At the beginning of the 1st millennium BC, when the ancient Greeks began to penetrate into Egypt, the first of the largest cities that they met was Memphis at the turn of the delta and the Nile Valley. One of its names - "Hikupta" (Egypt. ḥwt-kȝ-ptḥ, the house of ka Ptah) - was taken by the Greeks as the designation of the whole country.

The peoples of the Arabian Peninsula, Western Asia and Mesopotamia use another name for Egypt - Misr (Arabic مِصر‎, Hebrew מִצְרַיִם‏‎, populated place, city). The etymology of this word may be related to the population of Egypt and a large number of cities located close to each other. In the dialect of modern Egyptian Arabs, this name sounds like "Masr" (masri مَصر).

In ancient Egypt, the inhabitants called their country Ta-Kemet (Egypt. km.t, black earth), according to the color of the fertile soil of the low Nile valley, as opposed to the “red earth” (deshret, Egyptian dšṛt), that is, the desert. In modern Coptic, this self-name has been preserved and is pronounced as "Keme".

Another ancient name for Egypt is Aeria.

Mizraym (Hebrew מִצְרַיִם‎, Arabic مصر‎) is the name of Egypt in Hebrew and is not a dual number. The Ugaritic writings called Egypt "Musrim", the Amarna archive called it "Misri", and the Assyrian and Babylonian records call Egypt "Musur". The official Arabic endonym (self-name) of Egypt is "Misr" (colloquial "Masr").


History of Egypt

At the turn of the IV — III millennium BC about twenty city-states along the upper reaches of the Nile, and the same number along the lower reaches, were united under the rule of two rulers. Soon, the war between Upper and Lower Egypt ended with the victory of the king of Upper Egypt, who became the sovereign ruler of the country. So a large state appeared with a single center, governed by a bureaucratic apparatus, led by the pharaoh.

~ 3000 BC - the unification of Egypt by the pharaoh Narmer, from which the Early Kingdom begins with the capital in the Upper Egyptian city of Tisza.
~ 2700 BC - The beginning of the Ancient Kingdom with the capital in Lower Egyptian Memphis (Menfer).
~ 2000 BC  - A new era in the history of Egypt, the Middle Kingdom, with its capital again in the Upper Egyptian city of Thebes (Wasset).
1700 BC  - the invasion of the Hyksos.
1279 BC  - 1213 BC - reign of Ramses II.
1274 BC - battle of Kadesh.
670 BC - the conquest of Egypt by the Assyrian king Asarhaddon.
655 BC - the expulsion of the Assyrians by Psammetichus I and the foundation of the last independent Egyptian kingdom with the capital in Sais.
525 BC - the conquest of Egypt by the Persian king Cambyses II, the territory of Egypt is part of the state of the Achaemenids.
332 BC - the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great. Founded Alexandria.
305 BC - 30 BC - The Greek Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt.
30 year BC — 395 year - Egypt as part of Ancient Rome.
I century - the spread of Christianity.
395-645 - Egypt as part of Byzantium.
451 - the formation of the national Coptic (Egyptian) church.
645-1171 - Egypt as part of the Arab Caliphate. The spread of Islam. Arabization of Egypt.
868–905 - reign of the Tulunid dynasty.
972 - Cairo founded. The beginning of the reign of the Fatimids.
1171 - the invasion of Saladin. The beginning of Ayyubid rule.
1250 - Mamluk revolution. The sultan becomes Aybek.
1260 - a reflection of the invasion of the Mongols.
1261 - Mamluks invite Abbasid caliphs to the post of supreme clergyman.
1347 marks the beginning of Black Death, a catastrophic plague epidemic that dealt a devastating blow to the people and economies of Egypt and neighboring countries.
1382-1517 - Burjit dynasty (Circassian Mamelukes).
1517-1914 - Egypt as part of the Ottoman Empire. They are ruled by the governors - the Pasha.
1798-1799 - French invasion led by Napoleon.
1801 - the invasion of the British.
1805 - the advent of Pasha Muhammad Ali, an ethnic Albanian, virtually independent of Istanbul.
1811 - the beating of the Mamluks.
1811-1818 - war against the Arabian Wahhabis, the defeat of Wahhabis by the armies of Muhammad Ali.
1823 - the conquest of Sudan.
1863-1879 - the reign of Ismail Pasha.
1858-1869 - the completion of the modern Suez Canal under the leadership of the Frenchman Ferdinand de Lesseps.
1881 - anti-Egyptian rebellion of the Mahdists in Sudan.
1881-1882 - the rebellion of Ahmad Orabi Pasha.
1882 - the British occupation while formally retaining Turkey’s rights to this territory (see the Anglo-Egyptian War).
1914-1922 - Egypt is a protectorate of Great Britain.
1922 - independence of the Kingdom of Egypt, led by King Ahmed Fouad I. Excavations of the tomb of Tutankhamun.
1947-1949 - the participation of Egypt in the first Arab-Israeli war. Egypt's capture of the Gaza Strip.
1952 - a group of military overthrows King Farouk I. The baby becomes Ahmed Fuad II, the regent is Muhammad Abdel Moneim.
1953 - Egypt was proclaimed a republic. Mohammed Nagib became President. The end of the reign of the dynasty of Muhammad Ali.
1954 - Mohammed Nagib resigns, he is replaced by Gamal Abdel Nasser. The withdrawal of the British troops from Egypt.
1956 - nationalization of the Suez Canal. The attack on Egypt by Israel, Britain and France. Closing of shipping on the Suez Canal.
1957 (April) year - the opening of the Suez Canal for passage of ships after the entry of UN troops.
1958 - Egypt and Syria form the United Arab Republic (UAR) under the leadership of Nasser.
1960-1970 - the USSR builds the Aswan hydroelectric station in the UAR.
1961 - Syria leaves the UAR. The United Arab Republic has become a unitary state.
1967 - Participation of the UAR in the third Arab-Israeli (Six Day) War. Israeli capture of the Sinai Peninsula and the Gaza Strip. Closing of canal shipping.
1970 - The death of Gamal Abdel Nasser. The new president is Anwar Sadat. Reorientation of the UAR from the USSR to the USA.
1971 - UAR transformed into the Arab Republic of Egypt.
1973 - Yom Kippur War with Israel, for Egypt ended with maintaining the status quo.
1975 (June 5) the year - the end of the clearance of the Suez Canal and its opening for the passage of ships.
1977 - armed conflict with Libya.
1979 - signing of peace with Israel in exchange for the Sinai Peninsula. The expulsion of Egypt from the League of Arab States. The withdrawal of the Israeli armed forces from Sinai.

1981 - assassination of President Anwar Sadat by religious fundamentalists, the rise to power of Hosni Mubarak.
1989 - Restoration of Egypt in the League of Arab States.
2011 - Since January 25, mass unrest has not stopped in Egypt, which has grown into a civil uprising between supporters of President Hosni Mubarak and the opposition. The result of the unrest was the resignation of February 11, 2011, Hosni Mubarak, who transferred power to the Supreme Military Council.
2012 - presidential election (May 23 and May 24 - 1 round, June 16 and June 17 - 2 round). Muhammad Mursi became president.
2013 - July 3, a group of military overthrows Muhammad Mursi.
2015 - March 16 announced the construction of a new capital of Egypt, which, according to the creators, will be able to unload the overpopulated Cairo.
2016 - April 8, Cairo and Riyadh signed an agreement on the construction of a bridge across the Red Sea.
2017 - June 14, the Egyptian Parliament approved the transfer of the two islands of Saudi Arabia.


Geographic data

Egypt borders in the west with Libya, in the south with Sudan, in the east with the Palestinian Authority, Israel, it also has a maritime border with Saudi Arabia and Jordan.

It is washed in the north by the Mediterranean Sea, in the east by the Red Sea. Egypt owns one of the largest artificially constructed canals, the Suez Canal, which connects the Mediterranean and Red Seas, thus opening up a short route from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean.

One of the two longest rivers in the world, the Nile, flows through Egypt from south to north.



The bowels of the country contain reserves of oil, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, limestone, manganese, zinc, and lead.


Inland waters

The Nile River, one of the largest rivers in the world (6853 km). This great river became the cradle of civilization in the region.


Soil and vegetation

About 96% of the country's territory is occupied by deserts, 4% falls on the delta and the valley of the Nile River.


Animal world

The fauna of Egypt is characterized by gazelles, foxes, jerboas, hyenas, jackals, hippos, crocodiles, camels, a large number of birds, insects, lizards and snakes.



Egypt is located within the subtropical (small part) and tropical (most) climatic zones. The state has a tropical desert climate.

The Egyptian summer is very hot, during the day the thermometer can sometimes approach the 50-degree mark in the shade, but at night it is always much cooler, the daily temperature drops are quite large. Interseasonal temperature differences are not so large. On the coasts, daily and seasonal fluctuations are somewhat less than inland. Winters in Egypt are cooler, the temperature during the day in January usually varies between 20-25 ° C. The nights are cold, the average temperature is 10 °C, and slight frosts (down to -5 °C) are possible in the deserts.

There is very little precipitation (up to 25 mm per year), only in the far north of Egypt and in the mountains of the Sinai Peninsula does the amount of precipitation reach 200 mm per year.


State structure

Egypt is a republic. The head of state is the president, who is also the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The head of government is the prime minister. The highest legislative body is the bicameral National Assembly. The lower house of parliament, the People's Assembly (Majlis Ash-Shaab), consists of 518 deputies, 508 of whom are elected by the majority system, and 10 are appointed by the president. The People's Assembly has quotas for workers and peasants, as well as for women. On January 29, 2011, the post of vice president, de facto abolished in 1981, was reanimated, to which the former head of intelligence of Egypt, Omar Suleiman, was appointed. On February 11, 2011, President Mubarak handed over power to the Supreme Military Council.

In 2012, presidential elections were held, in which, having received 51.73% of the vote, Mohammed Morsi won. On June 21, 2012, he took office as president. On the night of July 3-4, 2013, Mohammed Morsi was overthrown by the people with the support of the army and police. As a result of the last elections, held on May 26-28, 2014, Abdul-Fattah Al-Sisi became the President.

Major opposition movements: Muslim Brotherhood (banned; activists participate as independent candidates) and the New Wafd Party.


Armed forces

The total number is about 380 thousand people, of which about 300 thousand serve in the Ground Forces, about 45 thousand in the Navy and about 35 thousand in the Air Force.



Advantages: Developed tourist infrastructure. Money transfers from citizens working abroad. Duties for the transport of goods through the Suez Canal. Agricultural products, especially cotton (in the world production of all cotton, the share of Egypt is about 3%). Light industry.

Weaknesses: Dependence on imports. The threat of terrorism caused a temporary drop in tourism revenues; in 2009, due to the crisis, tourism revenues fell again.

GDP per capita in 2008 - 5.4 thousand dollars (135th place in the world). 32% of the working population is employed in agriculture, 17% in industry, and 51% in the service sector. Unemployment is 8.4% (in 2008), 20% of the population is below the poverty line.

The extraction of phosphates is concentrated in the area of ​​the Red Sea coast, in the Nile Valley - iron ore, in the Nile Delta - table salt.

Of the manufacturing industries, the textile industry is especially developed, mainly the production of cotton yarn (275 thousand tons of yarn in 1995-1996) and fabrics, as well as the food and clothing industry. The main centers are Cairo, Alexandria, El-Mahalla-el-Kubra. Ferrous (Helwan) and non-ferrous (Nag Hammadi, Ismailia) metallurgy, mechanical engineering, including machine tool building, car and aircraft assembly, car building (Helwan), shipbuilding (Port Said, Alexandria). Oil refining, petrochemical (Suez, Cairo, Alexandria, Tanta) industry, production of mineral fertilizers (Aswan, Suez, Helwan, Abu Zaabale, Kafr ez Zayat, etc.), building materials.

In agriculture, cotton, rice, corn, other grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables are cultivated; cattle are bred.

About 65% of cotton crops (data for the 1970s) fall on Lower Egypt, 25% on Middle Egypt, and 10% on Upper Egypt. In Upper Egypt, the varieties Dandara and Asmouni are sown, in Middle Egypt - Giza 66 and Giza 72, in Lower Egypt - Giza 45, Giza 67, Giza 68, Giza 69, Giza 70 and Menoufi. All of these varieties were bred after the Second World War, with the exception of Asmouni, which has been cultivated for over 110 years and occupies about 7% of the cultivated area.

International trade
Export in 2017 - 23.53 billion dollars. These are crude oil and oil products, cotton, textiles, fruits, vegetables.

Major buyers: UAE 10.9%, Italy 10%, USA 7.4%, UK 5.7%, Turkey 4.4%, Germany 4.3%, India 4.3%

Imports in 2017 - 53.02 billion dollars. These are industrial products, food, chemical products, timber, fuel.

Main suppliers: China 7.9%, UAE 5.2%, Germany 4.8%, Saudi Arabia 4.6%, USA 4.4%, Russia 4.3%



Domestic politics
The internal policy of the ARE is determined by its economic preferences. Currently, the largest revenues to the state treasury come from payments for the right of passage of ships through the Suez Canal. In second place is tourism, which has received a special status in the country in recent years. In third place is oil and gas production.

Thus, the domestic policy of the country is focused, first of all, on the maintenance and development of budget-forming areas. Companies that are created in the country for investment, for example, in the tourism industry, receive significant tax benefits. The country is allowed to import any currency in unlimited quantities. Foreign companies are encouraged to invest in real estate in the country.

With all this, Egypt until February 11, 2011 was the country of one ruler. Since 1981, the president of the republic has been the permanent Hosni Mubarak, who, under pressure from the masses, resigned on February 11, 2011. Until recently, the policy he pursued did not cause an active protest of the majority of the population. There was practically no political struggle in the republic (at least in its open forms). However, some activists, mostly thanks to the Internet and not without risk to their safety, have openly criticized certain aspects of the regime's policies, such as the use of torture by the police.

Economic backwardness in many sectors forced the government to make efforts to overcome the illiteracy of some segments of the population, introduce modern information technologies, improve the living standards of its citizens, many of whom still live below the poverty line.

The peace treaty between Egypt and Israel, signed in 1979, is still in force today. Despite this, the Egyptian authorities are wary[17] about ties with this country. It is normal for the secret police to show interest in Egyptians with contacts on the other side. For this reason, the Egyptians try to refrain from visiting Israel.

Contributes to distrust and the fact that Egypt supports the Palestinian Authority and, in particular, the Gaza Strip.

However, this does not apply to tourists visiting the country. Since 2006, a regular excursion service has been opened with Israel, anyone can easily travel to Jerusalem, visit Eilat, the Dead Sea and other interesting places.

There is a dispute between Sudan and Egypt over the ownership of the so-called. the Halaiba triangle. In 1899, Great Britain and Egypt declared Sudan as their condominium. The northern border of the country was established along the 22nd parallel, the city of Halayib formally went to Egypt. In 1902, England unilaterally changed the border, transferring the triangle to the Sudan. November 12, 1955 Sudan gained independence. In 1958, Egypt captured the area of ​​Halaiba. Then the triangle was given to the use of Sudan. In 1992, Sudan caused extreme dissatisfaction with Egypt by giving the coast of the triangle to the concession of the Canadian oil company International Petroleum Corporation. In 1993-1994, armed clashes took place on the border of Egypt and Sudan. In 1995, Egypt sent troops to the region and took control of all disputed lands, with the exception of the city of Halaiba. In 2000, Sudan withdrew its troops from Halayib, the land was completely under Egyptian control. In August 2002, Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir told the press that he had sent an appeal to the UN Security Council to review land ownership, since the Halayib triangle is Sudanese territory.

As a result of the Great Russian Exodus of 1920, thousands of our compatriots found themselves in Egypt. Accommodation was carried out both in special refugee camps organized by the British, and privately in the largest cities of the country. Even the Don Cadet Corps ended up on the shore of Crocodile Lake near the Suez Canal. Over time, there was a dispersion of Russians in different countries of the world, but large diasporas existed throughout the 20th century, contributing to the culture and science of the country. After 1991, the "old" emigrants were joined by "new" ones, which was greatly facilitated by the development of Egypt as a tourist destination.

In the first half of 2005, the trade turnover between Russia and Egypt amounted to $450 million. Russian exports to Egypt reached $387 million, while Egyptian exports to Russia amounted to $61 million. Egypt imports steel, oil products and grain from Russia, exports some agricultural products.

On November 22, 2005, Russia and Egypt completed negotiations on Russia's accession to the WTO by signing an appropriate agreement. Russia, in exchange for the Egyptian willingness, gave him some trade preferences for a number of goods he exports.

A plant for the assembly of VAZ cars was opened in Cairo. After the election of President Mohammed Morsi, interstate relations with Russia became more intense.

The tragedy of September 11, 2001 pushed the United States away from many countries in the Arab world, including Egypt. Recently, however, American investors are increasingly turning their eyes to the country.

In December 1991, Egypt was one of the first states in the world to recognize the sovereignty of Kazakhstan. Diplomatic relations between Egypt and Kazakhstan were established in 1992, and already in 1993, Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev paid an official visit to Cairo.

Egypt is the only foreign country where there is a street with the name of a Kazakh educator. In the city of Cairo, at the request of Ambassador Bolatkhan Taizhan, in 1998, a street was opened to them. Abay, which at that time was the embassy of Kazakhstan.

In 2009, the active trade balance between the countries exceeded 250 million US dollars. The number of Kazakh tourists in Egypt in 2008 was about 30,000 people.


Administrative-territorial division

The Arab Republic of Egypt is administratively divided into 27 governorates (arab. محافظة‎ muḥāfaẓä).

In 2008, Helwan and October 6 governorates were established. In December 2009, the governorate of Luxor was established.

Governorates are divided into administrative centers or districts (markazes) and cities. Markazes, in turn, are divided into nakhi (districts).

The new capital of Egypt
The construction of a new capital of the country is being completed (a territory of about 700 km², a promising population of about 5 million people, its own international airport) 45 km east of Cairo, which should lose its functions as a capital.



The population of Egypt is 100,704,000 as of 2020.
Population growth rate of 2.51% per year (fertility - 3.53 births per woman) for 2016.
Average life expectancy is 70.4 years (68 for men and 73 for women).
Ethnic composition - Arabs 75-85%, Egyptians 10-20%, as well as Nubians, Bejas, Berbers and others.
Religions - Muslims (mostly Sunnis) 79-90%, Coptic Christians (Egyptians) 10-20%, other Christians 1%.
Literacy - 75%.
Urban population - 45%.

Egypt is the most populous country in the Middle East and the second most populous in the African continent. The population grew rapidly between 1970 and 2010 due to advances in medicine and increased agricultural productivity, the so-called green revolution. When Napoleon invaded in 1798, the population of Egypt was only 3 million. In 1939, the population of Egypt was 16.5 million.

The population is concentrated along and in the Nile Delta (in particular, Cairo and Alexandria), as well as near the Suez Canal. About 90% of the population adheres to Islam, most of the rest are Christians, primarily the Coptic Orthodox denomination. Along with religious affiliation, Egyptians can be divided into those who live in large urban centers and fellahs, farmers living in rural areas.

Egyptians are by far the largest ethnic group at 99.6% of the total population. Ethnic minorities include Turks, Greeks, Arab Bedouins living in the eastern desert and the Sinai Peninsula, Berbers and Nubian communities along the Nile River. There are tribes such as the Beja, Dom and Faiyum, which are gradually assimilated as urbanization increases. According to the International Organization for Migration, about 2.7 million Egyptians live abroad. About 70% of Egyptian migrants live in Arab countries (923,600 in Saudi Arabia, 332,600 in Libya, 226,850 in Jordan, 190,550 in Kuwait and other countries in the region), while the remaining 30% live mainly in Europe and North America ( 318,000 in the United States, 110,000 in Canada and 90,000 in Italy).

Egypt also hosts an unknown number of refugees and asylum seekers, estimated at between 500,000 and 3 million. There are about 70,000 Palestinian refugees and about 150,000 recently arrived refugees from Iraq, the largest group of refugees from Sudan. The once representative Greek and Jewish communities in Egypt have almost disappeared and only a small number of representatives live in the country, but many Jews make pilgrimages to Egypt on religious holidays. Several important Jewish archaeological and historical sites are located in Cairo, Alexandria and other cities.

In terms of income distribution, it is estimated that 35 to 40% of the Egyptian population earns less than the equivalent of $2 a day, while 2-3% of the population can be described as wealthy.



The Egyptian capital of Cairo is a leading center for the production of Arabic films and contemporary Arabic music.



The literature of Egypt originates in the literature of ancient Egypt.

The largest library in Egypt, the National Library and Archives.


Mass media

State television and radio company - Ertu (Egyptian Radio and Television Union, اتاد الا# و التيوووuss المص Post), includes the General Program (إذ mater الimes الlf) (launched in 1934), and the European program (launched in 1934) () in English and French), Voice of the Arabs (launched 1953), Cultural Program (إذاعة البرنامج الثقافي) (launched 1957), Middle East Radio (إذاعة الشرق الأو) (launched 6), Radio Koran ”(اذال القship الكoff) (launched in 1964),“ Musical program ”(إذال# الورird الم don) (launched in 1968),“ Youth Program ”(إذاو الشوا# "(الإذاو التmpيمية), regional radio stations (الاذات الإقليices) (launched in 1981), radio" Songs "(الغالي) (launched in 2000), Ertu 1 television channels (launched in 1960) and Ertu 2 (launched in 1961 ), satellite TV channel, Nile TV channel, and 6 regional TV channels.



Egypt is one of the places most interesting for scientists. The science of Egyptology deals with the study of the culture, language and history of ancient Egypt. The foundation of Egyptology as a science is considered to be the publication of J. F. Champollion dated September 14, 1822, “Letters to Mr. Dasier”, which accurately and correctly described the system of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic writing. Champollion made a message about this in Paris at the Academy of Inscriptions on September 22, 1822.

At the Cairo Egyptian Museum there is a memorial with busts of 23 great Egyptologists of the world, among them a bust of V. S. Golenishchev, a famous Russian Egyptologist, which appeared there in 2006. There are also busts of the following Egyptologists: F. J. Schaba, Johann Dümichen (1833-1894), Conradus Leemans (1809-1893), C. W. Goodwin (1817-1878), E. Rouget, S. Birch, E. Hinks (1792-1866), L. Vassalli (1812-1887), E. Brugsch (1842-1930), K. R. Lepsius, Sh.-T. Deveria (1831-1871), I. Rosellini, L. Habashi (1906-1984), S. Gabra (1892-1979), S. Hassan (1887-1961), A. Kamal (1851-1923), M. Z Goneim, J.-F. Champollion, A. Peyron (1785-1870), V. Playte (1836-1903), G. Maspero, P. Le Page (1822-1897). These busts surround the monument to Auguste Mariet.



The main part of the population speaks Arabic and professes Sunni Islam, there are also Coptic Christians. According to various sources, up to 15% of Egyptians profess Christianity, up to 90% of the indigenous population adheres to Islam. Coptic Christians are minimally represented in law enforcement, public security and civil service, and are discriminated against in the labor market based on their religion. In Egypt, the positions of officially banned radical Islamic organizations are quite strong. Many ideologists of Wahhabism and radical Islam studied at Cairo University. During the last 30 years there has been a rather peaceful time in the religious life of Egypt. However, despite this, from time to time conflicts flare up between radical Islamists and Copts. On January 1, 2011, in Alexandria, during the New Year's liturgy in a Coptic temple, a terrorist attack was committed, a bomb was detonated, killing more than 20 people, and more than 100 people were injured.

Christianity in Egypt originated in Alexandria and from there spread throughout the country. The Alexandrian Orthodox Church was founded in the middle of the 1st century by Saint Mark the Evangelist. Also in Alexandria is the center of the pre-Chalcedonian Coptic Orthodox Church, whose representatives also consider themselves the successors of the first Egyptian Christians. She rejects the decisions of the Council of Chalcedon and adheres to Miaphysitism. The Patriarch is the head of the Coptic Church. At the moment, the patriarchal throne (after the death of Patriarch Shenouda III on March 17, 2012) is occupied by Theodore II. The residence of the patriarch is in Alexandria.

Islam is a later religion. He came in the 7th century and made Egypt the political and religious center of the Muslim world. Under Anwar Sadat, Islam acquired the status of the official state religion, and Sharia became the main source of law. Today, Islam has an immeasurably greater influence on the family and society than Christianity. The basis of secular legislation in Egypt is formed by a set of norms of Islamic law - Sharia, which, however, operates in a relaxed form. Islam plays a central role in the lives of most Egyptians. The Azan (Islamic call to prayer) is heard five times a day, exerting an informal influence on everything from business to media to entertainment. Cairo is famous for its numerous mosques, minarets and is rightly called the city of 1000 minarets.



Tourism is one of the main income items in Egypt, so the state contributes in every possible way to the development of this industry. Resort complexes are being intensively built and modernized on the sea coast, in the resort cities of Sharm el-Sheikh, Hurghada, etc.

In Egypt, there are monuments of various eras and civilizations: ancient Egyptian, Christian (Coptic), medieval Arabic. Most visited attractions:

Ancient Egyptian necropolises (the pyramids of Giza and others, the Valley of the Kings and Queens in Luxor, the tombs of the nobility);
Temples of the pharaohs, especially in Luxor and Abu Simbel;
Monuments of the Middle Ages - Islamic and Old Cairo.
On the Red and Mediterranean Seas there are numerous resorts for lovers of diving, surfing and similar hobbies.

A characteristic feature of Egyptian tourism is communication with local residents. The manner of bargaining adopted here very often catches newcomers by surprise. However, in many ways this is only an obligatory part of the performance, which is traditionally played out between the seller and the buyer. Seeing a foreigner, local merchants can significantly inflate the price, so it is recommended to bargain boldly, with exclamations, defiant departures and returns. It should also be remembered that, as in many places where tourists gather, there are scammers and pickpockets on the streets of resort towns, so you need to carefully monitor your valuables. When you go to take pictures - take only a camera, go to buy something - take a small amount of money. In difficult situations, a special tourist police will come to the aid of tourists, where you should contact to resolve issues.

According to the statistics of the UN World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) on the international tourist flow in 2017, Egypt showed the largest increase in the tourist flow - 55.1%.