Currency: Egyptian pound (EGP)
Calling code: +20
Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a
sovereign country of Africa in the westernmost part of the Mashrek.
It is a transcontinental country, it is located mostly in the far
northeast of Africa while in Asia, it is located in the Sinai
Peninsula. It borders Sudan to the south, Libya to the west and the
State of Palestine and Israel to the northeast. To the north it
borders on the Mediterranean Sea and to the southeast with the Red
Sea. The greater part of its surface is integrated by the
Sahara desert. The Nile River crosses the desert from north to
south, forming a narrow valley and a large delta at its mouth in the
Mediterranean. These fertile lands are densely populated,
concentrating the largest national population in Africa. Almost half
of Egyptians live in urban areas, especially in the densely
populated centers of Cairo, its capital, and Alexandria.
Egypt was the cradle of the ancient Egyptian civilization, which together with Mesopotamia were the origin of the current Western culture, decisively influencing the history of humanity. The remains of this civilization dot the country like the pyramids and the great sphinx or the southern city of Luxor that contains a large number of ancient remains, such as the temple of Karnak and the Valley of the Kings. Egypt is currently an important political and cultural center of the Middle East and is considered a regional power. Its current form of government is the semi-presidential republic. Between 2013 and 2014 it was under interim government, formed after the 2013 coup that overthrew the country's first democratic president, Mohamed Morsi.
Abu Ghurab or Abu Gorab (also Abu Gurob and Abu Jirab) is an ancient temple dedicated to the Egyptian Sun god Ra.
Abu Simbel temple complex is located on the shores of the lake Nasser in Egypt. Temple at Abu Simbel was entirely carved out of rock in the XIII century BC.
Abydos or Abidos is situated 45 km (29 mi) Southwest of Sohag, Sohag Governorate in Egypt. It was known in the ancient times as Tha Shard or "The Great Land".
Temples on Philae Island were built over the course of six centuries, from the 3rd century BC the 3rd century AD.
Akoris is ancient archeological site situated 12 km North of Al- Minya in Minya Governorate in Egypt. This ancient Egyptian site of Akoris was inhabited since the Old Kingdom around the 22nd century BC.
Bahariya Oasis is located near Cairo. It is also known after a small village of Bawiti where most of buses will take you.
Beni Hasa is an ancient burial complex that is located 20 km (12 mi) South of Al Minya in Minya Governorate in Egypt.
If you curious why do you have a feeling you saw Cave of Swimmers somewhere, the chances are you did. It's copy made by modern artists was portrayed in the movie: "The English Patient"
Dahshur is an ancient archeological site located 40 km South of Cairo in Egypt. The unique architecture of pyramids presented here made this site an UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Deir el- Bahri in Egypt is famous for its magnificent Temple of Queen Hatshepsut is unique in its size and architecture.
Dendera is ancient Egyptian archeological site situated 5 km (3 mi) Southwest of Qena, Qena Governorate in Egypt. This enormous temple complex covers a total area of 40,000 square meters.
Pyramids of Giza is the largest and most recognizable symbols of the Ancient Egypt. It is the only surviving Wonder of the Ancient World that survived to our days virtually in original condition.
Karanis is an ancient archeological site situated in Kom Aushim settlement of Faiyum Governorate in Egypt.
Karnak religious complex is situated in the Luxor Governorate in Egypt. The size and complexity of Karnak Temple with its countless courtyards, halls and colossi and huge sacred lake is just mind-boggling.
Luxor religious complex is located in Luxor Governorate in Egypt. Temple at Luxor is a religious complex dedicated to a triad of Egyptian gods Amon or Amun, Mut and Khonsu.
Medamud was excavated in 1925 and several religious buildings were indentified including that of the temple dedicated to the god of war Monthu.
The step of Pyramid of Djoser is situated Northwest of Memphis in the center of Saqqara necropolis.
Ramesseum stands on the opposite side of the Nile river across the modern city of Luxor in Luxor Governorate, Egypt. Its construction began in 13th century BC and was continued by the subsequent generations.
Ras Muhammad National Park that is located off the shores of Sinai peninsula was designed in 1983. It was the first national marine park of Egypt.
The Greek Orthodox Monastery of Saint Catherine on Mount Sinai located in the South Sinai Governorate of Egypt. It famous for being the oldest active Christian monastery.
The remote and barren Valley of the Kings was chosen for a necropolis by the pharaohs of the New Kingdom to offer better safety to their earthly remains.
Wadi Al- Hitan is situated some 150 km South West of Cairo.
Wadi El Natrum is located 100 km (62 mi) Northwest of Cairo in an natural depression in the western desert.
At the turn of the IV — III millennium BC. e.
about twenty city-states along the upper reaches of the Nile, and
the same number along the lower reaches, were united under the rule
of two rulers. Soon, the war between Upper and Lower Egypt ended
with the victory of the king of Upper Egypt, who became the
sovereign ruler of the country. So a large state appeared with a
single center, governed by a bureaucratic apparatus, led by the
~ 3000 BC e. - the unification of Egypt by the pharaoh Narmer, from which the Early Kingdom begins with the capital in the Upper Egyptian city of Tisza.
~ 2700 BC e. - The beginning of the Ancient Kingdom with the capital in Lower Egyptian Memphis (Menfer).
~ 2000 BC e. - A new era in the history of Egypt, the Middle Kingdom, with its capital again in the Upper Egyptian city of Thebes (Wasset).
1700 BC e. - the invasion of the Hyksos.
1279 BC e. - 1213 BC e. - reign of Ramses II.
1274 BC e. - battle of Kadesh.
670 BC e. - the conquest of Egypt by the Assyrian king Asarhaddon.
655 BC e. - the expulsion of the Assyrians by Psammetichus I and the foundation of the last independent Egyptian kingdom with the capital in Sais.
525 BC e. - the conquest of Egypt by the Persian king Cambyses II, the territory of Egypt is part of the state of the Achaemenids.
332 BC e. - the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great. Founded Alexandria.
305 BC e. - 30 BC e. - The Greek Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt.
30 year BC e. — 395 year - Egypt as part of Ancient Rome.
I century - the spread of Christianity.
395-645 - Egypt as part of Byzantium.
451 - the formation of the national Coptic (Egyptian) church.
645-1171 - Egypt as part of the Arab Caliphate. The spread of Islam. Arabization of Egypt.
868–905 - reign of the Tulunid dynasty.
972 - Cairo founded. The beginning of the reign of the Fatimids.
1171 - the invasion of Saladin. The beginning of Ayyubid rule.
1250 - Mamluk revolution. The sultan becomes Aybek.
1260 - a reflection of the invasion of the Mongols.
1261 - Mamluks invite Abbasid caliphs to the post of supreme clergyman.
1347 marks the beginning of Black Death, a catastrophic plague epidemic that dealt a devastating blow to the people and economies of Egypt and neighboring countries.
1382-1517 - Burjit dynasty (Circassian Mamelukes).
1517-1914 - Egypt as part of the Ottoman Empire. They are ruled by the governors - the Pasha.
1798-1799 - French invasion led by Napoleon.
1801 - the invasion of the British.
1805 - the advent of Pasha Muhammad Ali, an ethnic Albanian, virtually independent of Istanbul.
1811 - the beating of the Mamluks.
1811-1818 - war against the Arabian Wahhabis, the defeat of Wahhabis by the armies of Muhammad Ali.
1823 - the conquest of Sudan.
1863-1879 - the reign of Ismail Pasha.
1858-1869 - the completion of the modern Suez Canal under the leadership of the Frenchman Ferdinand de Lesseps.
1881 - anti-Egyptian rebellion of the Mahdists in Sudan.
1881-1882 - the rebellion of Ahmad Orabi Pasha.
1882 - the British occupation while formally retaining Turkey’s rights to this territory (see the Anglo-Egyptian War).
1914-1922 - Egypt is a protectorate of Great Britain.
1922 - independence of the Kingdom of Egypt, led by King Ahmed Fouad I. Excavations of the tomb of Tutankhamun.
1947-1949 - the participation of Egypt in the first Arab-Israeli war. Egypt's capture of the Gaza Strip.
1952 - a group of military overthrows King Farouk I. The baby becomes Ahmed Fuad II, the regent is Muhammad Abdel Moneim.
1953 - Egypt was proclaimed a republic. Mohammed Nagib became President. The end of the reign of the dynasty of Muhammad Ali.
1954 - Mohammed Nagib resigns, he is replaced by Gamal Abdel Nasser. The withdrawal of the British troops from Egypt.
1956 - nationalization of the Suez Canal. The attack on Egypt by Israel, Britain and France. Closing of shipping on the Suez Canal.
1957 (April) year - the opening of the Suez Canal for passage of ships after the entry of UN troops.
1958 - Egypt and Syria form the United Arab Republic (UAR) under the leadership of Nasser.
1960-1970 - the USSR builds the Aswan hydroelectric station in the UAR.
1961 - Syria leaves the UAR. The United Arab Republic has become a unitary state.
1967 - Participation of the UAR in the third Arab-Israeli (Six Day) War. Israeli capture of the Sinai Peninsula and the Gaza Strip. Closing of canal shipping.
1970 - The death of Gamal Abdel Nasser. The new president is Anwar Sadat. Reorientation of the UAR from the USSR to the USA.
1971 - UAR transformed into the Arab Republic of Egypt.
1973 - Yom Kippur War with Israel, for Egypt ended with maintaining the status quo.
1975 (June 5) the year - the end of the clearance of the Suez Canal and its opening for the passage of ships.
1977 - armed conflict with Libya.
1979 - signing of peace with Israel in exchange for the Sinai Peninsula. The expulsion of Egypt from the League of Arab States. The withdrawal of the Israeli armed forces from Sinai.
1981 - assassination of President Anwar Sadat by
religious fundamentalists, the rise to power of Hosni Mubarak.
1989 - Restoration of Egypt in the League of Arab States.
2011 - Since January 25, mass unrest has not stopped in Egypt, which has grown into a civil uprising between supporters of President Hosni Mubarak and the opposition. The result of the unrest was the resignation of February 11, 2011, Hosni Mubarak, who transferred power to the Supreme Military Council.
2012 - presidential election (May 23 and May 24 - 1 round, June 16 and June 17 - 2 round). Muhammad Mursi became president.
2013 - July 3, a group of military overthrows Muhammad Mursi.
2015 - March 16 announced the construction of a new capital of Egypt, which, according to the creators, will be able to unload the overpopulated Cairo.
2016 - April 8, Cairo and Riyadh signed an agreement on the construction of a bridge across the Red Sea.
2017 - June 14, the Egyptian Parliament approved the transfer of the two islands of Saudi Arabia.