Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a
sovereign country of Africa in the westernmost part of the Mashrek.
It is a transcontinental country, it is located mostly in the far
northeast of Africa while in Asia, it is located in the Sinai
Peninsula. It borders Sudan to the south, Libya to the west and the
State of Palestine and Israel to the northeast. To the north it
borders on the Mediterranean Sea and to the southeast with the Red
Sea. The greater part of its surface is integrated by the
Sahara desert. The Nile River crosses the desert from north to
south, forming a narrow valley and a large delta at its mouth in the
Mediterranean. These fertile lands are densely populated,
concentrating the largest national population in Africa. Almost half
of Egyptians live in urban areas, especially in the densely
populated centers of Cairo, its capital, and Alexandria.
Egypt was the cradle of the ancient Egyptian civilization, which
together with Mesopotamia were the origin of the current Western
culture, decisively influencing the history of humanity. The remains
of this civilization dot the country like the pyramids and the great
sphinx or the southern city of Luxor that contains a large number of
ancient remains, such as the temple of Karnak and the Valley of the
Kings. Egypt is currently an important political and cultural center
of the Middle East and is considered a regional power. Its current
form of government is the semi-presidential republic. Between 2013
and 2014 it was under interim government, formed after the 2013 coup
that overthrew the country's first democratic president, Mohamed
Travel Destinations in Egypt
Abu Ghurab or Abu Gorab (also Abu Gurob and Abu
Jirab) is an ancient temple dedicated to the Egyptian Sun god
Abu Simbel temple complex is located on the shores
of the lake Nasser in Egypt. Temple at Abu Simbel was entirely
carved out of rock in the XIII century BC.
Abydos or Abidos is situated 45 km (29 mi)
Southwest of Sohag, Sohag Governorate in Egypt. It was known in
the ancient times as Tha Shard or "The Great Land".
Temples on Philae
Island were built over the course of six centuries, from the 3rd century BC
the 3rd century AD.
Akoris is ancient archeological site situated 12 km North of
Al- Minya in Minya Governorate in Egypt. This ancient Egyptian
site of Akoris was inhabited since the Old Kingdom around the
22nd century BC.
Bahariya Oasis is located near Cairo. It is also known after
a small village of Bawiti where most of buses will take you.
Beni Hasa is an ancient burial complex that is located 20 km (12
mi) South of Al Minya in Minya Governorate in Egypt.
Cave of Swimmers
If you curious why do you have a feeling you saw
Cave of Swimmers
somewhere, the chances are you did. It's copy made by modern
artists was portrayed in the movie: "The English Patient"
Dahshur is an ancient archeological site located 40 km
South of Cairo in Egypt. The unique architecture of pyramids
presented here made this site an UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Deir el- Bahri in Egypt is famous for its magnificent Temple of Queen Hatshepsut is unique in its
size and architecture.
Dendera is ancient Egyptian archeological site situated 5 km
(3 mi) Southwest of Qena, Qena Governorate in Egypt. This
enormous temple complex covers a total area of 40,000 square
Pyramids of Giza is the largest and most
recognizable symbols of the Ancient Egypt. It is the only
surviving Wonder of the Ancient World that survived to our days
virtually in original condition.
Karanis is an ancient archeological site situated in Kom Aushim settlement of Faiyum Governorate in
Karnak religious complex is situated in the Luxor
Governorate in Egypt. The
size and complexity of Karnak Temple with
and colossi and
sacred lake is just mind-boggling.
religious complex is located in Luxor Governorate in Egypt. Temple at Luxor is a religious
complex dedicated to a triad of Egyptian gods Amon or Amun,
Mut and Khonsu.
Medamud was excavated in 1925 and several
religious buildings were indentified including that of the temple
dedicated to the god of war Monthu.
Pyramid of Djoser
The step of Pyramid of Djoser is situated Northwest of Memphis in the center of
Ramesseum stands on the opposite side of the Nile
river across the modern city of Luxor in Luxor Governorate, Egypt.
Its construction began in 13th century BC and was continued by
the subsequent generations.
Ras Muhammad National Park
Ras Muhammad National Park that is located off the shores of Sinai peninsula
was designed in 1983. It was the first national marine park of Egypt.
Saint Catherine Monastery
The Greek Orthodox Monastery of Saint Catherine on Mount Sinai
located in the South Sinai Governorate of Egypt. It famous for being the oldest
active Christian monastery.
Valley of the Kings
The remote and barren Valley of the Kings was chosen for a
necropolis by the pharaohs of the New Kingdom to offer better
safety to their earthly remains.
Wadi Al- Hitan is situated some 150 km South West of Cairo.
Wadi El Natrun
Wadi El Natrum is located 100 km (62 mi)
Northwest of Cairo in an natural depression in the western
History of Egypt
At the turn of the IV — III millennium BC. e.
about twenty city-states along the upper reaches of the Nile, and
the same number along the lower reaches, were united under the rule
of two rulers. Soon, the war between Upper and Lower Egypt ended
with the victory of the king of Upper Egypt, who became the
sovereign ruler of the country. So a large state appeared with a
single center, governed by a bureaucratic apparatus, led by the
~ 3000 BC e. - the unification of Egypt by the
pharaoh Narmer, from which the Early Kingdom begins with the capital
in the Upper Egyptian city of Tisza.
~ 2700 BC e. - The beginning
of the Ancient Kingdom with the capital in Lower Egyptian Memphis
~ 2000 BC e. - A new era in the history of Egypt, the
Middle Kingdom, with its capital again in the Upper Egyptian city of
1700 BC e. - the invasion of the Hyksos.
BC e. - 1213 BC e. - reign of Ramses II.
1274 BC e. - battle of
670 BC e. - the conquest of Egypt by the Assyrian king
655 BC e. - the expulsion of the Assyrians by
Psammetichus I and the foundation of the last independent Egyptian
kingdom with the capital in Sais.
525 BC e. - the conquest of
Egypt by the Persian king Cambyses II, the territory of Egypt is
part of the state of the Achaemenids.
332 BC e. - the conquest of
Egypt by Alexander the Great. Founded Alexandria.
305 BC e. - 30
BC e. - The Greek Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt.
30 year BC e. — 395
year - Egypt as part of Ancient Rome.
I century - the spread of
395-645 - Egypt as part of Byzantium.
451 - the
formation of the national Coptic (Egyptian) church.
Egypt as part of the Arab Caliphate. The spread of Islam.
Arabization of Egypt.
868–905 - reign of the Tulunid dynasty.
972 - Cairo founded. The beginning of the reign of the Fatimids.
1171 - the invasion of Saladin. The beginning of Ayyubid rule.
1250 - Mamluk revolution. The sultan becomes Aybek.
1260 - a
reflection of the invasion of the Mongols.
1261 - Mamluks invite
Abbasid caliphs to the post of supreme clergyman.
1347 marks the
beginning of Black Death, a catastrophic plague epidemic that dealt
a devastating blow to the people and economies of Egypt and
1382-1517 - Burjit dynasty (Circassian
1517-1914 - Egypt as part of the Ottoman Empire. They
are ruled by the governors - the Pasha.
1798-1799 - French
invasion led by Napoleon.
1801 - the invasion of the British.
1805 - the advent of Pasha Muhammad Ali, an ethnic Albanian,
virtually independent of Istanbul.
1811 - the beating of the
1811-1818 - war against the Arabian Wahhabis, the defeat
of Wahhabis by the armies of Muhammad Ali.
1823 - the conquest of
1863-1879 - the reign of Ismail Pasha.
1858-1869 - the
completion of the modern Suez Canal under the leadership of the
Frenchman Ferdinand de Lesseps.
1881 - anti-Egyptian rebellion of
the Mahdists in Sudan.
1881-1882 - the rebellion of Ahmad Orabi
1882 - the British occupation while formally retaining
Turkey’s rights to this territory (see the Anglo-Egyptian War).
1914-1922 - Egypt is a protectorate of Great Britain.
independence of the Kingdom of Egypt, led by King Ahmed Fouad I.
Excavations of the tomb of Tutankhamun.
1947-1949 - the
participation of Egypt in the first Arab-Israeli war. Egypt's
capture of the Gaza Strip.
1952 - a group of military overthrows
King Farouk I. The baby becomes Ahmed Fuad II, the regent is
Muhammad Abdel Moneim.
1953 - Egypt was proclaimed a republic.
Mohammed Nagib became President. The end of the reign of the dynasty
of Muhammad Ali.
1954 - Mohammed Nagib resigns, he is replaced by
Gamal Abdel Nasser. The withdrawal of the British troops from Egypt.
1956 - nationalization of the Suez Canal. The attack on Egypt by
Israel, Britain and France. Closing of shipping on the Suez Canal.
1957 (April) year - the opening of the Suez Canal for passage of
ships after the entry of UN troops.
1958 - Egypt and Syria form
the United Arab Republic (UAR) under the leadership of Nasser.
1960-1970 - the USSR builds the Aswan hydroelectric station in the
1961 - Syria leaves the UAR. The United Arab Republic has
become a unitary state.
1967 - Participation of the UAR in the
third Arab-Israeli (Six Day) War. Israeli capture of the Sinai
Peninsula and the Gaza Strip. Closing of canal shipping.
The death of Gamal Abdel Nasser. The new president is Anwar Sadat.
Reorientation of the UAR from the USSR to the USA.
1971 - UAR
transformed into the Arab Republic of Egypt.
1973 - Yom Kippur
War with Israel, for Egypt ended with maintaining the status quo.
1975 (June 5) the year - the end of the clearance of the Suez Canal
and its opening for the passage of ships.
1977 - armed conflict
1979 - signing of peace with Israel in exchange for
the Sinai Peninsula. The expulsion of Egypt from the League of Arab
States. The withdrawal of the Israeli armed forces from Sinai.
1981 - assassination of President Anwar Sadat by
religious fundamentalists, the rise to power of Hosni Mubarak.
1989 - Restoration of Egypt in the League of Arab States.
Since January 25, mass unrest has not stopped in Egypt, which has
grown into a civil uprising between supporters of President Hosni
Mubarak and the opposition. The result of the unrest was the
resignation of February 11, 2011, Hosni Mubarak, who transferred
power to the Supreme Military Council.
2012 - presidential
election (May 23 and May 24 - 1 round, June 16 and June 17 - 2
round). Muhammad Mursi became president.
2013 - July 3, a group
of military overthrows Muhammad Mursi.
2015 - March 16 announced
the construction of a new capital of Egypt, which, according to the
creators, will be able to unload the overpopulated Cairo.
April 8, Cairo and Riyadh signed an agreement on the construction of
a bridge across the Red Sea.
2017 - June 14, the Egyptian
Parliament approved the transfer of the two islands of Saudi Arabia.