Ermak Travel Guide

 

The World at your fingertips 

 

 

Libya

 

Libya Destinations Travel Guide

 

 

Flag of Libya

Language: Arabic

Currency: Dinar (LYD)

Calling code: 218

 

 

 

Libya, whose official name is the State of Libya, is a sovereign country of North Africa, located in the Maghreb. Its capital is Tripoli. It borders the Mediterranean Sea to the north, to the west with Tunisia and Algeria, to the southwest with Niger, to the south with Chad, to the southeast with Sudan and to the east with Egypt.

 

Since the arrival of the Arabs in the 7th century, Libya has been a land of Islamic religion and has had Arabic as the predominant language. In the sixteenth century the Spanish empire and the Order of Malta occupied Tripoli until the beginning of the Ottoman domination in 1551. Libya participated in the Berber wars of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The Ottoman government continued until the Italian occupation of Libya, which brought the colonial period of Italian Libya (1911-1943). During the Second World War the country was the battlefield of the campaign in North Africa. It became independent as a kingdom in 1951, ruled by Idris I until a military coup overthrew it in 1969; this event marked the beginning of a stage of brutal repression of all dissent. The most prominent of the coup leaders was Muammar Gaddafi, who seized power during the Cultural Revolution and kept it until the 2011 war, in which NATO supported the rebels who rose up against him. Libya has experienced instability and political violence that have seriously affected trade and oil production.The European Union has launched an operation to prevent the trafficking of people who exploit refugees fleeing the war to settle in Europe.

Since 2014, there has been a duality of political bodies that claim to be the Government of Libya. The House of Representatives, resulting from the June 2014 elections, is recognized in international circles as the Legislative Legislative Chamber, but does not control territory in the capital, Tripoli; It meets in the Cyrenian city of Tobruk and supports a so-called Interim Government based in the city of Al Baida. As of August 2014, the duality occurred with the General National Congress (CGN, see also: National General Congress); but nowadays it can be confirmed that the CGN has already concluded its activity. On December 17, 2015, an agreement was signed in Sjirat to form a unified and provisional Government, under which a Presidential Council, a nine-member collegial presidency - headed by Fayez al-Sarraj - and a Government of National provisional agreement of seventeen, until the holding of new elections within a period of two years. The General Congress of the Nation was integrated into the new structures and its former members formed a new Chamber of an advisory nature, the Superior Council of State. But the House of Representatives refused to confirm the Presidential Council.

Therefore, the current duality is between the House of Representatives of Tobruk - recognized only as a legitimate Parliament - and the Presidential Council and Government of National Agreement of Tripoli. The United Nations continues to support the dialogue between the two.

 

Travel Destinations in Libya

 

Sabratha

 

Ancient Sabratha is famous for its magnificent Roman ruins that were largely untouched due to its isolation.

Leptis Magna

 

Leptis Magna is an ancient Roman port town situated near modern city of Khoms. It's been largely preserved due to its seclusion.

 

 

 

 

 

History of Libya

Archaeological evidence shows that another 8,000 years BC there were Neolithic cultures in Libya.

In historical time, Libya is associated with the territory under the control of other states and civilizations - these are primarily Phenicia, Carthage, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Vandals, Byzantium. Although there are Greek and Roman ruins in Libya in Cyrene, Leptis Magna and Sabrat, there is little evidence of these cultures.

According to Herodotus, the Phoenicians organized trading points in Libya through which merchants from Tire conducted trade with the Berbers (Herodotus 430 BC. History 4). In the V century BC e. Carthage, the largest of the Phoenician colonies, spread its possessions throughout North Africa, creating a Punic civilization. On the Libyan coast, the Punic settlements were Ea (aka Eya) (lat. Oea, modern Tripoli), Labdah (later Leptis Magna) and Sabrata. These three cities are called Tripoli (literally - three cities), and this place is the modern capital of Libya.

The ancient Greeks occupied eastern Libya when emigrants from the overpopulated island of Thera, on the advice of the Delphic oracle, began to seek a place of settlement in North Africa. In 631 BC e. they founded the city of Cyrene. Over 200 years, they founded four more significant cities: Barka (Al-Marge), Euchesparids (later Berenice, now Benghazi), Tevhira (later Arsinoe, now Tukra) and Apollonia Kirenskaya (Susa), port of Cyrene. Together with Cyrene, these cities formed the Pentapolis (“five cities”).

The Romans united both regions of Libya, and for 400 years Tripolitania and Cyrenaica were considered prosperous Roman provinces. Despite the dominance of Roman merchants and the military, the general character of the cities remained Greek and Punic.

In the V century Tripolitania was captured by vandals (Kingdom of Vandals and Alans). After the Vandal war in the VI-VII centuries, Libya was part of Byzantium. In 642-643, it was conquered by the Arabs and included in the Arab Caliphate.

Middle Ages
The resettlement of Arab tribes (Banu Hilal and Banu Suleim) to Libya in the 11th century led to the gradual Arabization of the local population. Islam has spread. The process of feudalization of the Arab military nobility was accompanied by the deprivation of the Berber leaders of their rights and privileges. The Berber leaders repeatedly revolted against the Arabs, but were defeated each time.

In 1551, Libya was captured by the Ottoman Empire. From the beginning of the XVII century, Libyan ruled Janissaries Bey. They turned the coast into a base for piracy in the Mediterranean.

In 1711, the local dynasty of Karamanli established itself in Libya, a virtually independent state was created. Vassal dependence on Turkey was limited to paying tribute and recognition of the spiritual supremacy of the Sultan.

XIX century
In 1819, the ruler of Libya, Yousef Pasha, under the threat of hostilities of the English and French squadrons, was forced to sign a declaration to end piracy. In 1830, a trade agreement was signed with France.

In 1835, after a popular uprising in Libya against high taxes and as a result of the intra-dynastic struggle, the Karamanli dynasty fell, and the Ottoman Empire restored the direct control of Libya.

In the middle of the XIX century, the Turkish authorities carried out reforms in Libya - slavery and the slave trade were prohibited (in 1855), the first secular educational institution was opened in 1858, a printing house was built, where in 1866 the first Libyan newspaper began to print.

XX century
Until 1911, Libya was part of the Ottoman Empire.

From 1911 to 1942 it was an Italian colony.

Allied occupation
In 1943, as a result of the defeat of the troops of the Italo-German coalition, Libya was occupied by England and France.

In 1947, London began to discuss the creation of Libyan territory, in Cyrenaica, on the route between Benghazi and Tobruk, or Tripolitania, a joint British-American combined-arms military base (including army, naval and aviation infrastructure). Such a base allowed the United States and Great Britain to realize their interests in the production of Libyan and Middle Eastern oil, and control the eastern Mediterranean. For Britain, this was especially true, since the British needed a new base because of the large-scale withdrawal of troops from Egypt and Palestine.

Kingdom
December 24, 1951 - Libya was proclaimed an independent sovereign state - the United Kingdom of Libya, led by King Idris I.

September 1, 1969 - the overthrow of the King of Libya, Idris I, by a group of Libyan army officers who were members of the Movement of Free Officers of the Socialist Union Socialists, led by Captain Muammar Gaddafi. Proclamation of the Libyan Arab Republic (LAR).

Republic

March 28, 1970 - the evacuation of British military bases.

June 11, 1970 - the evacuation of American bases.

October 7, 1970 - the expulsion of Italian settlers.

April 17, 1971 - Egypt, Syria, and Libya signed an agreement establishing the Federation of Arab Republics.

On August 29, 1973, Egyptian President A. Sadat and Libyan President M. Gaddafi announced the unification of Egypt and Libya.

Jamahiriya
March 2, 1977 - LAR was renamed the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.

On December 5, 1977, at the initiative of the Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, a meeting of those members of the League of Arab States who opposed any peaceful settlement with Israel convened in Tripoli. The participants condemned the position of Egypt. It was decided to form the Front of Persistence and Counteraction, the main task of which was proclaimed the struggle to eliminate the Egyptian President A. Sadat as "a traitor to the interests of the Arab nation."

In 1986, the word “Great” was added to the name “Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya”, and the full name of the state was “Great Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya”. Before the civil war, a lot of money was spent on social benefits.

In a 2002 report by the US State Department, “Features of International Terrorism in 2001,” Libya was named a state supporting terrorism.

As a result of the civil war, with military support from a number of NATO countries and their allies, in 2011, the Gaddafi government was overthrown and the Jamahiriya abolished. The authorities in Libya began to try to implement the National Transitional Council.

 

 

 

blog comments powered by Disqus