Libya, whose official name is the State of Libya,
is a sovereign country of North Africa, located in the Maghreb. Its
capital is Tripoli. It borders the Mediterranean Sea to the north,
to the west with Tunisia and Algeria, to the southwest with Niger,
to the south with Chad, to the southeast with Sudan and to the east
Since the arrival of the Arabs in the 7th century,
Libya has been a land of Islamic religion and has had Arabic as the
predominant language. In the sixteenth century the Spanish empire
and the Order of Malta occupied Tripoli until the beginning of the
Ottoman domination in 1551. Libya participated in the Berber wars of
the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The Ottoman government
continued until the Italian occupation of Libya, which brought the
colonial period of Italian Libya (1911-1943). During the Second
World War the country was the battlefield of the campaign in North
Africa. It became independent as a kingdom in 1951, ruled by Idris I
until a military coup overthrew it in 1969; this event marked the
beginning of a stage of brutal repression of all dissent. The most
prominent of the coup leaders was Muammar Gaddafi, who seized power
during the Cultural Revolution and kept it until the 2011 war, in
which NATO supported the rebels who rose up against him. Libya has
experienced instability and political violence that have seriously
affected trade and oil production.The European Union has launched an
operation to prevent the trafficking of people who exploit refugees
fleeing the war to settle in Europe.
Since 2014, there has
been a duality of political bodies that claim to be the Government
of Libya. The House of Representatives, resulting from the June 2014
elections, is recognized in international circles as the Legislative
Legislative Chamber, but does not control territory in the capital,
Tripoli; It meets in the Cyrenian city of Tobruk and supports a
so-called Interim Government based in the city of Al Baida. As of
August 2014, the duality occurred with the General National Congress
(CGN, see also: National General Congress); but nowadays it can be
confirmed that the CGN has already concluded its activity. On
December 17, 2015, an agreement was signed in Sjirat to form a
unified and provisional Government, under which a Presidential
Council, a nine-member collegial presidency - headed by Fayez
al-Sarraj - and a Government of National provisional agreement of
seventeen, until the holding of new elections within a period of two
years. The General Congress of the Nation was integrated into the
new structures and its former members formed a new Chamber of an
advisory nature, the Superior Council of State. But the House of
Representatives refused to confirm the Presidential Council.
Therefore, the current duality is between the House of
Representatives of Tobruk - recognized only as a legitimate
Parliament - and the Presidential Council and Government of National
Agreement of Tripoli. The United Nations continues to support the
dialogue between the two.
Leptis Magna is an ancient Roman port town
situated near modern city of Khoms. It's been largely preserved
due to its seclusion.
History of Libya
Archaeological evidence shows that another 8,000
years BC there were Neolithic cultures in Libya.
historical time, Libya is associated with the territory under the
control of other states and civilizations - these are primarily
Phenicia, Carthage, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Vandals,
Byzantium. Although there are Greek and Roman ruins in Libya in
Cyrene, Leptis Magna and Sabrat, there is little evidence of these
According to Herodotus, the Phoenicians organized
trading points in Libya through which merchants from Tire conducted
trade with the Berbers (Herodotus 430 BC. History 4). In the V
century BC e. Carthage, the largest of the Phoenician colonies,
spread its possessions throughout North Africa, creating a Punic
civilization. On the Libyan coast, the Punic settlements were Ea
(aka Eya) (lat. Oea, modern Tripoli), Labdah (later Leptis Magna)
and Sabrata. These three cities are called Tripoli (literally -
three cities), and this place is the modern capital of Libya.
The ancient Greeks occupied eastern Libya when emigrants from
the overpopulated island of Thera, on the advice of the Delphic
oracle, began to seek a place of settlement in North Africa. In 631
BC e. they founded the city of Cyrene. Over 200 years, they founded
four more significant cities: Barka (Al-Marge), Euchesparids (later
Berenice, now Benghazi), Tevhira (later Arsinoe, now Tukra) and
Apollonia Kirenskaya (Susa), port of Cyrene. Together with Cyrene,
these cities formed the Pentapolis (“five cities”).
Romans united both regions of Libya, and for 400 years Tripolitania
and Cyrenaica were considered prosperous Roman provinces. Despite
the dominance of Roman merchants and the military, the general
character of the cities remained Greek and Punic.
In the V
century Tripolitania was captured by vandals (Kingdom of Vandals and
Alans). After the Vandal war in the VI-VII centuries, Libya was part
of Byzantium. In 642-643, it was conquered by the Arabs and included
in the Arab Caliphate.
Middle Ages The resettlement of
Arab tribes (Banu Hilal and Banu Suleim) to Libya in the 11th
century led to the gradual Arabization of the local population.
Islam has spread. The process of feudalization of the Arab military
nobility was accompanied by the deprivation of the Berber leaders of
their rights and privileges. The Berber leaders repeatedly revolted
against the Arabs, but were defeated each time.
Libya was captured by the Ottoman Empire. From the beginning of the
XVII century, Libyan ruled Janissaries Bey. They turned the coast
into a base for piracy in the Mediterranean.
In 1711, the
local dynasty of Karamanli established itself in Libya, a virtually
independent state was created. Vassal dependence on Turkey was
limited to paying tribute and recognition of the spiritual supremacy
of the Sultan.
XIX century In 1819, the ruler of Libya,
Yousef Pasha, under the threat of hostilities of the English and
French squadrons, was forced to sign a declaration to end piracy. In
1830, a trade agreement was signed with France.
after a popular uprising in Libya against high taxes and as a result
of the intra-dynastic struggle, the Karamanli dynasty fell, and the
Ottoman Empire restored the direct control of Libya.
middle of the XIX century, the Turkish authorities carried out
reforms in Libya - slavery and the slave trade were prohibited (in
1855), the first secular educational institution was opened in 1858,
a printing house was built, where in 1866 the first Libyan newspaper
began to print.
XX century Until 1911, Libya was part of
the Ottoman Empire.
From 1911 to 1942 it was an Italian
Allied occupation In 1943, as a result of the
defeat of the troops of the Italo-German coalition, Libya was
occupied by England and France.
In 1947, London began to
discuss the creation of Libyan territory, in Cyrenaica, on the route
between Benghazi and Tobruk, or Tripolitania, a joint
British-American combined-arms military base (including army, naval
and aviation infrastructure). Such a base allowed the United States
and Great Britain to realize their interests in the production of
Libyan and Middle Eastern oil, and control the eastern
Mediterranean. For Britain, this was especially true, since the
British needed a new base because of the large-scale withdrawal of
troops from Egypt and Palestine.
Kingdom December 24, 1951
- Libya was proclaimed an independent sovereign state - the United
Kingdom of Libya, led by King Idris I.
September 1, 1969 -
the overthrow of the King of Libya, Idris I, by a group of Libyan
army officers who were members of the Movement of Free Officers of
the Socialist Union Socialists, led by Captain Muammar Gaddafi.
Proclamation of the Libyan Arab Republic (LAR).
March 28, 1970 - the evacuation of British
June 11, 1970 - the evacuation of American
October 7, 1970 - the expulsion of Italian settlers.
April 17, 1971 - Egypt, Syria, and Libya signed an agreement
establishing the Federation of Arab Republics.
On August 29,
1973, Egyptian President A. Sadat and Libyan President M. Gaddafi
announced the unification of Egypt and Libya.
March 2, 1977 - LAR was renamed the Socialist People's Libyan Arab
On December 5, 1977, at the initiative of the
Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, a meeting of those members of the
League of Arab States who opposed any peaceful settlement with
Israel convened in Tripoli. The participants condemned the position
of Egypt. It was decided to form the Front of Persistence and
Counteraction, the main task of which was proclaimed the struggle to
eliminate the Egyptian President A. Sadat as "a traitor to the
interests of the Arab nation."
In 1986, the word “Great” was
added to the name “Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya”, and
the full name of the state was “Great Socialist People’s Libyan Arab
Jamahiriya”. Before the civil war, a lot of money was spent on
In a 2002 report by the US State Department,
“Features of International Terrorism in 2001,” Libya was named a
state supporting terrorism.
As a result of the civil war,
with military support from a number of NATO countries and their
allies, in 2011, the Gaddafi government was overthrown and the
Jamahiriya abolished. The authorities in Libya began to try to
implement the National Transitional Council.