Ngorongoro Crater is a Conservation Area located 180 km (110 mi)
West of Arusha in Tanzania. Ngorongoro Crater was formed 2.5 million
years ago as a large volcanic caldera after collapse of a large
volcano. Ngorongoro Crater covers an area of 100 sq mi (264 sq km).
Ngorongoro Crater was formed 2.5 million years ago after collapse of
a volcano. From above this unusual geologic formations looks like a
chalice with its walls reaching a height of 1000 meters above the
lowest point. Ngorongoro Crater covers an area of 100 sq mi (264 sq
km) with a total diameter of 19 kilometers.
Due to the elevation and dynamics of the air masses, the
microclimate in Ngorongoro varies greatly depending on the location.
Higher areas are usually wet and foggy. The plain is subject to
strong temperature fluctuations. Most precipitation falls in
November and April; their amount also varies greatly depending on
location. The edges of the crater are covered with shrubbery and are
wet savannah with tall grass and residual evergreen mountain
forests. At the bottom of the crater, the grass is shorter; there
are sources for drinking and acacia forests.
thousand animals live in the crater; it has the highest density of
predators in all of Africa. Especially often in Ngorongoro there are
zebras, buffalos and various types of antelopes, such as wildebeest,
cannons and gazelles. They are hunted by lions and leopards living
in the crater. In addition to them, black rhinos, elephants and,
which is unusual for these latitudes, hippos also live in
Ngorongoro. Large migratory flows of animals from the Serengeti
often pass through the Ngorongoro Crater.
At the beginning of the XX century, a German
farmer Adolf Zidopf with his wife Paula settled in a deserted crater
and began to engage in cattle breeding and wheat cultivation. At
this time, a small group of Masai settled in the crater to mutually
help each other in raising livestock and repelling the attacks of
predators. At the end of World War I, Zidopf returned to Germany.
The Masai also left the crater - they were evicted, since poachers
could hide among them.
Since 1951, the crater has been part
of the Serengeti National Park. In 1959, a special reserve was
created outside the crater - the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, in
which the Masai were allowed to settle and graze livestock. In 1975,
agricultural activity in the crater was finally banned. In 1979,
Ngorongoro Crater was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List as
an outstanding natural monument, and in 1981 it was recognized as a
In a 2006 report to the World Natural
Heritage Commission, the administration indicates that the growing
number of tourists' cars in the park is becoming an increasing
problem. In the outer territories of the park, residents of
neighboring regions try to settle every now and then, and repeatedly
had to eliminate illegal agricultural land. Recently, in the whole
national park there are up to 60 thousand shepherds with more than
350 thousand head of cattle. This is much more than it is possible
to feed without illegal grain cultivation. The Tanzanian government
is going to solve the problem by purchasing land outside the park.