Language: Swahili, English
Currency: Tanzanian Shilling (TZS)
Calling Code: +255
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of
Tanzania (in Swahili Jamhuri and Muungano wa Tanzania, in English:
United Republic of Tanzania), is a country located on the east coast
of Central Africa. It borders on the north with Kenya and Uganda, on
the west with Rwanda, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo,
on the south with Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique and on the east with
the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Dodoma. The name of the country
comes from the union of the words "Tanganyika" and "Zanzibar".
In Tanzania, some of the oldest human settlements have been found, including those in the Olduvai gorge where the oldest human footprints (3.6 million years) have been found in Laetoli. Remains of Australopithecus and Paranthropus were found in this gorge
Arusha National Park is situated near Arusha region in North eastern Tanzania. It protects large expanse of land around Maru volcano, Momella lakes and Ngurdoto Crater.
Gombe Stream National Park was found in 1960 as a chimpanzee habitat intended for behavioral research program of these beautiful apes.
Jozani Chwaka Bay National Park is a nature reserve located on the Zanzibar island that belongs to Tanzania. It covers an area of 50 km2.
Katavi National Park covers an area of 4,471 sq km that protect floodplain of Lake Katavi, Lake Chada and Katuma River.
Lake Manyara National Park is located in the Arusha Region of Tanzania. It covers a total area of 325 km².
Mahale Mountains National Park is a nature reserve in the Western part of Tanzania. It covers an area of 1650 km².
Mikumi National Park is a nature reserve near Mikumi in central Tanzania. It was found in 1964 and today covers an area of 3230 km².
Mount Kilimanjaro that stands in the North- eastern Tanzania is the tallest mountain in Africa that reaches an elevation of 19,334 ft.
Ngorongoro Crater was formed 2.5 million years ago as a large volcanic caldera after collapse of a large volcano. It covers an are of over 100 square miles.
Ruaha National Park is a protected area situated 130 km from a city of Iringa in Tanzania. It covers a total area of 20,200 km².
Saadani National Park is a protected area on the shores of the Indian Ocean. This nature reserve covers an area of 1100 km2.
Serengeti National Park is a nature reserve in the Northern Tanzania. It covers an area of 14,763 km2.
Tarangire National Park is situated near town of Arusha in the Northern Tanzania. It covers an area of 2,850 km².
The toponym "Tanzania" is formed as a combination of the names of two former colonies that became part of this country: -tan from Tanganyika and -zan from Zanzibar, and the ending -iya is usually for country names.
Most of the country is occupied by vast plateaus. The coastal lowland
stretches along the coast of the Indian Ocean.
The territory of the country includes part of the largest lakes in Africa: Lake Victoria in the north, Lake Tanganyika (which is often called the twin of Baikal) in the west and Nyasa in the south.
On the territory of Tanzania is the highest mountain in Africa - the stratovolcano Kilimanjaro (5895 m).
The total length of land borders is 3402 km, of which with Burundi - 451 km, with Kenya - 769 km, Malawi - 475 km, with Mozambique - 756 km, Rwanda - 217 km, Uganda - 396 km and with Zambia - 338 km.
The climate in Tanzania is subequatorial. There are two rainy seasons in the north (March-May and September-November), in the south - one (November-April).
On the islands of the Zanzibar archipelago, the climate is humid, the average daily temperature is from +28 to 30 ℃, sea breezes make the weather very pleasant. The water temperature in the Indian Ocean is 24-26 ℃. In the central part of the country (1200-1700 m above sea level), the average temperature is 22-25 ℃, the nights can be cool.
From ancient times, the territory of present-day Tanzania was inhabited by peoples related to the Bushmen and Hottentots, who were engaged in hunting and gathering. Then in the 1st millennium BC. Cushite tribes came from the Ethiopian highlands. By the beginning of N. e. came the Bantu tribes.
Around the middle of the 1st millennium A.D. Persian and then Arab slave traders appeared on the coast of present-day Tanzania. It was then that the formation of a new ethnic community of Swahili began. It was made up of local coastal tribes and newcomers from Iran, Arabia, and also from India.
The Swahili were engaged in international trade, slaves, ivory, gold were exported from Africa, handicrafts, fabrics, food products were imported.
At the beginning of the 16th century, the Portuguese appeared on the coast of present-day Tanzania. Since 1505, they captured almost all port cities, but in the second half of the 17th century, the Arabs and Negroes managed to drive out the Portuguese.
After the expulsion of the Portuguese, the Arabs and locals actively engaged in the slave trade. Negro slaves were supplied to the countries of the Middle East, as well as to India and for European planters on the islands in the Indian Ocean. As a result, some areas in the depths of present-day Tanzania were significantly depopulated in the 18th century.
The peoples of Shambhala, Jagga, Khehe, Khaya, Nyamwezi began to form the beginnings of statehood. For example, the state of the supreme leader of the Shambhala tribe Kimveri extended from the slopes of Kilimanjaro to the coast of the Indian Ocean. The country of the Hehe tribe also arose under the leadership of the supreme leader Muyugumba.
In the middle of the 19th century, many Europeans appeared on the coast of modern Tanzania: traders and missionaries from Great Britain, France, Germany and the USA. The British were especially active, who forbade the Sultan of Zanzibar to engage in the slave trade.
In 1885, the 29-year-old German Carl Peters landed on the coast of Tanzania. He quickly concluded agreements with the leaders of 12 tribes about the protectorate, that is, about their transition under the rule of Germany, and in 1888 he rented the entire coastal part of present-day Tanzania from the Sultan of Zanzibar for 50 years.
Concerned British in November 1890 concluded with the Sultan of Zanzibar a protectorate treaty over him, and in 1891 Peters announced the creation of an imperial colony of German East Africa.
The Germans wanted to turn German East Africa into their settler colony. They created plantations there and cultivated rubber, coffee, cotton, sisal. Since 1902, they began to build railways that connected the coastal ports with the hinterland. By 1914, the number of German settlers had reached 5,400.
In 1905-1907, the Maji-Maji uprising took place in Tanzania, which was suppressed.
In August 1914, the First World War began, Tanzania became a theater of operations. The German troops, which also mobilized local residents, were led by Colonel von Lettow-Vorbeck, who fought with his soldiers against the troops of Great Britain, Belgium and Portugal, making raids in the colonies of these countries, until November 1918, until he was informed that Germany had concluded truce with the Entente.
After the First World War, Tanzania came under the tutelage of Great Britain. The British continued to develop the plantation economy, primarily sisal, as well as cotton and coffee.
period of independence
On December 9, 1961, Britain granted independence to Tanganyika, the mainland of present-day Tanzania, and on December 10, 1963, to Zanzibar, which remained a sultanate. However, already on January 12, 1964, an uprising broke out in Zanzibar, the power of the Sultan was overthrown, on April 26, 1964, the leadership of the Republic of Tanganyika and the People's Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba announced the creation of the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar. On October 29, 1964, the name was shortened, the country became known as Tanzania.
In Tanzania, led by Julius Nyerere, a nation-building course was proclaimed. A “voluntary campaign” has begun throughout the country for the participation of young people, women, and the elderly in the construction of public facilities, roads, and bridges. This duty was combined with military training. At the same time, many of the leaders of the ruling party TANU (Tanganyika African National Union) engaged in personal enrichment. In 1966, student protests broke out, refusing to perform labor duties. The Tanzanian authorities suppressed these demonstrations by military force.
In January 1967, the leadership of TANU announced a program to build communism in Tanzania. After that, banks, industrial enterprises, foreign trade organizations, as well as agricultural plantations, including those owned by foreigners, were nationalized in the country.
In rural areas, collective farms began to be created according to the concept of Ujamaa communism in Tanzania. These innovations met with particular resistance in Zanzibar, where it came to the point that in 1972 the main party leader was assassinated. In retaliation, Tanzanian authorities executed dozens of conspirators.
In the mid-1970s, Operation Maduka took place to completely nationalize all retail trade in the country, but it ended in failure.
The one-party system of government that had existed since the 1970s ceased to exist in 1995 when elections were held on a multi-party basis.
Tanzania has 200 cities with over 12,000 inhabitants. Two capitals: the historical capital of Dar es Salaam serves as the administrative center, and Dodoma, where the government moved the main organs in the 1970s, serves as the legislative center.
As of 2019, the population of the country is about 60
million people. The population is distributed rather unevenly. About 80%
of the country's inhabitants live in rural areas. The largest city in
Tanzania is Dar es Salaam, which is home to over 4 million people. About
120 different ethnic groups live in the country, the most numerous of
which are: Sukuma, Nyamwezi, Jagga, Ngonde, Mkhaya, Khehe, Bena, Gogo
and Makonde, Kuria, Chagga, Wakha, Niaturu. Most of the ethnic groups
belong to the Bantu group of peoples, some belong to the Nilotic and
Khoisan peoples. A small proportion of the population of Tanzania is of
Indian, Arabic, European, Chinese and other origin.
The proportion of persons under the age of 15 years is 44.3%; persons over the age of 65 - 2.6%.
The average age is 17.8 years.
The average life expectancy for 2011 is 58 years.
The average population growth is about 2%. The birth rate is 32.64 per 1,000 people; mortality - 12.09 per 1000. Fertility - 4.16 births per 1 woman.
Infection with the immunodeficiency virus (HIV) - 6.2% (2007 estimate).
The official languages of Tanzania are English and Swahili. Swahili is usually the language of interethnic communication, which is especially true for a country with such a rich ethnic and linguistic diversity. However, the mother tongue of most Tanzanians is the language of their ethnic group. English and Swahili are in the vast majority of cases the second and third languages.
According to Tanzania's language policy, Swahili should be used in the social and political spheres, primary and adult education, English - the language of secondary and higher education, technology and the country's supreme court. In recent decades, there has been a trend towards a decrease in the role of English and, accordingly, an increase in the role of Swahili in various industries.
Slightly more than half of the inhabitants of Tanzania (55-60%) are Christians. The share of Muslims is estimated at 30-32%. Another 12% of the population adheres to local autochthonous beliefs. Among ethnic minorities there are Hindus, Bahais, Buddhists, Sikhs, Jains, etc.
The largest Christian denominations are Catholics (12.4 million), Lutherans (5.8 million), Pentecostals (2.35 million) and Anglicans (2 million).
Muslims are the majority in Zanzibar (97%), in many coastal areas, as well as in some urban areas in the interior of the country. Almost all Muslims are Sunnis (from 80 to 90%), there is a Shiite minority.
Republic. The head of state and head of government
is the president, elected by the people for a 5-year term, with the
possibility of a second term in a row.
On December 14, 2005, the candidate from the ruling Revolutionary Party, the head of the Foreign Ministry of Tanzania, Jakaya Kikwete, won the presidential election, gaining more than 80% of the vote. His main rival was Ibrahim Lipumba, the candidate of the opposition Civic United Front. In 2015, Jakaya Kikwete was replaced as president by John Magufuli, also a candidate of the ruling party. Although he had to face a serious challenge from opposition candidate Edward Lovass, in the elections held on October 25, 2015, Magufuli was declared the winner of the presidential race: he received 58% of the vote. He was sworn in on November 5, 2015. Kikwete remained as leader of the Revolutionary Party.
Parliament is a unicameral State Assembly (Bunge), 274 deputies, of which 232 are elected by the population for a 5-year term, 37 women deputies are personally appointed by the president, and 5 deputies are appointed by the autonomous parliament of Zanzibar.
Political parties (according to the results of the elections in December 2005):
Chama Cha Mapinduzi (Revolutionary Party) - 206 seats in parliament;
Civil United Front - 19 seats;
Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendelelo (Party of Democracy and Development) - 5 seats.
According to the Economist Intelligence Unit, the country in 2018 was classified on the Democracy Index as a hybrid regime.
Tanzania is the only East African country that is part
of the Southern African Development Community (SADC). Tanzania was a
non-permanent member of the UN Security Council from 2005 to 2006.
Diplomatic relations between the USSR and Tanzania (then Tanganyika) were established on December 11, 1961.
Tanzania's GDP in 2014 was $33 billion. GDP at PPP per
capita was $1,813.
Natural resources: hydropower, tin, phosphates, uranium, iron ore, coal, diamonds, precious stones, gold, gas, nickel. At the end of February 2012, the Zafarani gas field was discovered on the Tanzanian shelf.
Despite the richest natural resources, Tanzania's economy is based on agriculture, which employs about 80% of workers. GDP per capita in 2012 - 3.4 thousand dollars (156th place in the world).
Agriculture (27% of GDP) - coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, cashews, tobacco, cloves, corn, corn, tapioca, bananas, fruits, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats are bred.
Industry (23% of GDP) - processing of agricultural products (sugar, beer, cigarettes), mining of diamonds, gold, iron ore, salt, footwear production.
Service sector - 50% of GDP.
Exports in 2017: $5.19 billion - gold, coffee, tea, cashew nuts, cotton.
Major buyers: India - 21.8%, South Africa - 17.9%, Kenya - 8.8%, Switzerland - 6.7%.
Imports in 2017: $8.61 billion - consumer goods, machinery and vehicles, fuel.
Major suppliers: India - 16.5%, China - 15.8%, UAE - 9.2%, South Africa - 5.1%.
It is a member of the international organization of ACT countries.
The culture of the peoples of Tanzania has rich
traditions. This is wood carving, they are famous for their masks,
sculpture, household items. In Zanzibar, they keep the tradition of
coconut shell carving and wood sawing. In Tanzania, the Tingatinga style
of painting was born, named after the author - Eduardo Saidi Tingatinga.
Football is popular in Tanzania (the strongest clubs are the capital's Young Africans and Simba), boxing, volleyball, athletics, and rugby. The Tanzania national football team, which is controlled by the Tanzania Football Federation, has never reached the finals of the World Cup, and played the only time in the African Cup of Nations in 1980 in Nigeria, where they lost two matches in the group and drew with Côte d'Ivoire. Almost all players of the Tanzania national team play in local clubs.
Despite a very large population by African standards, Tanzania has hardly achieved significant success in any sport, even at the regional level.
Tanzania first competed at the Olympic Games in 1964 in Tokyo as the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar. In 1980, at the Games in Moscow, Tanzanians won the first and so far the only Olympic medals in history: runner Suleiman Nyambui won silver in the 5000 meters, and Filbert Bayi became the second in the 3000 meters hurdles. Tanzanians have never competed in the Winter Olympics. In addition to the Olympic Games, Tanzania participates in such major international competitions as the Commonwealth Games, the All-African Games, and the African Athletics Championship.
One of the most famous athletes from Tanzania is basketball player Hashim Thabit, who was selected with the second overall pick in the 2009 NBA draft and has played over 220 league games for Memphis, Houston and Oklahoma City.
The literacy rate in Tanzania was 73% in 2011. Seven years of education is compulsory, but many students drop out of school earlier, and some children don't go to school at all. As of 2000, only about 57% of children aged 5 to 14 attended school.
Mortality among children under 5 years old is 76 per 1000 newborns. The average life expectancy is 51.45 years (50.06 years for men and 52.88 years for women). About 5.7% of the country's adult population is infected with HIV. The most common cause of death among children is malaria. Among adults, HIV/AIDS is the cause. As of 2006, about 55% of the population had access to improved sources of drinking water. 33% have access to improved sanitation.
There are 693 registered periodicals in Tanzania, of
which 171 are published regularly. The most popular publications include
the following newspapers (all published in Dar es Salaam):
Daily News - government publication, published since 1972, in English, circulation 50 thousand copies;
The Guardian - has been published since 1994, in English and Swahili, with a circulation of 70,000 copies;
Uhuru - has been published since 1961, in Swahili, with a circulation of 120,000 copies.
The state television and radio company TBC (Tanzania Broadcasting Corporation - “Tanzania Broadcasting Corporation”) includes the TV channel of the same name, radio stations TBC Redio ya Taifa, TBC FM and TBC International.
Radio broadcasting in the country has been carried out since 1956, television - since 1994 (in Zanzibar - since 1972). Television receivers have less than 5% of the population.
State news agency - Press Services Tanzania.