Tanzania, officially the United Republic of
Tanzania (in Swahili Jamhuri and Muungano wa Tanzania, in English:
United Republic of Tanzania), is a country located on the east coast
of Central Africa. It borders on the north with Kenya and Uganda, on
the west with Rwanda, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo,
on the south with Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique and on the east with
the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Dodoma. The name of the country
comes from the union of the words "Tanganyika" and "Zanzibar".
In Tanzania, some of the oldest human settlements have been
found, including those in the Olduvai gorge where the oldest human
footprints (3.6 million years) have been found in Laetoli. Remains
of Australopithecus and Paranthropus were found in this gorge
Travel Destinations in Tanzania
Arusha National Park is situated near Arusha
region in North eastern Tanzania. It protects large expanse of
land around Maru volcano, Momella lakes and Ngurdoto Crater.
Gombe Stream National Park
Gombe Stream National Park was found in 1960 as a
chimpanzee habitat intended for behavioral research program of
these beautiful apes.
Bay National Park
Jozani Chwaka Bay National Park is a nature
reserve located on the Zanzibar island that belongs to Tanzania.
It covers an area of 50 km2.
Katavi National Park covers an area of 4,471 sq
km that protect floodplain of Lake Katavi, Lake Chada and Katuma
Lake Manyara National Park is located in the
Arusha Region of Tanzania. It covers a total area of 325 km².
Mahale Mountains National
Mahale Mountains National Park is a nature
reserve in the Western part of Tanzania. It covers an area of
Mikumi National Park
Mikumi National Park is a nature reserve near
Mikumi in central Tanzania. It was found in 1964 and today
covers an area of 3230 km².
Mount Kilimanjaro that stands in the North-
eastern Tanzania is the tallest mountain in Africa that reaches
an elevation of 19,334 ft.
Ngorongoro Crater was formed 2.5 million years
ago as a large volcanic caldera after collapse of a large
volcano. It covers an are of over 100 square miles.
Ruaha National Park
Ruaha National Park is a protected area situated
130 km from a city of Iringa in Tanzania. It covers a total area
of 20,200 km².
Saadani National Park
Saadani National Park is a protected area on the
shores of the Indian Ocean. This nature reserve covers an area
of 1100 km2.
Serengeti National Park is a nature reserve in
the Northern Tanzania. It covers an area of 14,763 km2.
Tarangire National Park
Tarangire National Park is situated near town of
Arusha in the Northern Tanzania. It covers an area of 2,850 km².
History of Tanzania
From ancient times, the territory of present
Tanzania was inhabited by peoples related to the Bushmen and
Hottentots, who were engaged in hunting and gathering. Then in the
1st millennium BC. e. Cushit tribes came from the Ethiopian
Highlands. To the beginning of n. e. came the Bantu tribes.
Around the middle of the 1st millennium BC. e. Persian, and then
Arab slave traders appeared on the coast of present Tanzania. It was
then that the formation of a new Swahili ethnic community began. It
was composed of local coastal tribes and aliens from Iran, Arabia,
as well as from India.
Swahili engaged in international
trade, slaves, ivory, gold were exported from Africa, handicrafts,
fabrics, and food were imported.
At the beginning of the XVI
century, the Portuguese appeared on the coast of present Tanzania.
Since 1505, they have captured almost all port cities, but in the
second half of the 17th century, Arabs and Blacks managed to expel
After the expulsion of the Portuguese, Arabs
and local residents, claiming [source not specified 1420 days] for
their Arab origin, were actively engaged in the slave trade. Negro
slaves were supplied to the countries of the Middle East, as well as
to India and to European planters on islands in the Indian Ocean. As
a result, some areas in the depths of present Tanzania in the 18th
century were substantially depopulated.
Thanks to the slave
trade in the depths of the territory of Tanzania, the beginnings of
statehood arose. They began to take shape among the peoples of
Shambhala, Jagga, Hehe, Haya, Nyamwezi. For example, the state of
the supreme leader of the Shambhala tribe of Kimveri extended from
the slopes of Kilimanjaro to the coast of the Indian Ocean. Also, a
hehe tribe country emerged under the leadership of High Leader
In the middle of the XIX century, many Europeans
appeared on the coast of modern Tanzania: merchants and missionaries
from the UK, France, Germany and the United States. The British were
particularly active, who forbade the Sultan of Zanzibar to engage in
the slave trade.
In 1885, the 29-year-old
German Karl Peters landed on the coast of Tanzania. He quickly
concluded agreements with the leaders of 12 tribes on a
protectorate, that is, on their transfer under German rule, and in
1888 he leased the entire coastal part of present Tanzania from the
Sultan of Zanzibar for 50 years.
The worried British in
November 1890 entered into a protectorate treaty with the Sultan of
Zanzibar, and in 1891 Peters announced the creation of the imperial
colony of German East Africa.
The Germans wanted to turn
German East Africa into their settlement colony. They created
plantations there and cultivated rubber noses, coffee, cotton,
sisal. Since 1902, they began to build railways connecting coastal
ports with deep areas. By 1914, the number of German settlers
reached 5.4 thousand.
In 1905 - 1907 in Tanzania there was a
rebellion of Maji-Maji, which was suppressed.
In August 1914
the First World War began, Tanzania became a theater of operations.
German troops, which also mobilized local residents, were led by
Colonel von Lettow-Forbeck, who fought with his soldiers against the
troops of Great Britain, Belgium and Portugal, raiding the colonies
of these countries until November 1918, until he was informed that
Germany concluded truce with the Entente.
After World War I,
Tanzania came under the care of Great Britain. The British continued
to develop a plantation economy, primarily sisal, as well as cotton
In January 1967, the TANU leadership announced a
program for building communism in Tanzania. After that, banks,
industrial enterprises, foreign trade organizations, as well as
agricultural plantations, including those belonging to foreigners,
were nationalized in the country.
Collective farms began to
be created in rural areas according to the concept of Tanzanian
communism, Ujamaa. These innovations met with particular resistance
in Zanzibar, where it came to the point that the main party leader
was killed in 1972. In retaliation, the Tanzanian authorities
executed dozens of conspirators.
In the mid-1970s, Operation
Maduka took place to fully nationalize all retail trade in the
country, but it ended in failure.
The one-party system of
government that existed since the 1970s ceased to exist in 1995,
when elections were held on a multi-party basis.