Ermak Travel Guide

 

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Tanzania

 

Tanzania Destinations Travel Guide

 

 

 

Flag of Tanzania

Language: Swahili, English

Currency: Tanzanian Shilling (TZS)

Calling Code: +255

 

 

 

Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (in Swahili Jamhuri and Muungano wa Tanzania, in English: United Republic of Tanzania), is a country located on the east coast of Central Africa. It borders on the north with Kenya and Uganda, on the west with Rwanda, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, on the south with Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique and on the east with the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Dodoma. The name of the country comes from the union of the words "Tanganyika" and "Zanzibar".

In Tanzania, some of the oldest human settlements have been found, including those in the Olduvai gorge where the oldest human footprints (3.6 million years) have been found in Laetoli. Remains of Australopithecus and Paranthropus were found in this gorge

 

Travel Destinations in Tanzania

 

Arusha National Park

 

Arusha National Park is situated near Arusha region in North eastern Tanzania. It protects large expanse of land around Maru volcano, Momella lakes and Ngurdoto Crater.

Gombe Stream National Park

 

Gombe Stream National Park was found in 1960 as a chimpanzee habitat intended for behavioral research program of these beautiful apes.

Jozani Chwaka Bay National Park

 

Jozani Chwaka Bay National Park is a nature reserve located on the Zanzibar island that belongs to Tanzania. It covers an area of 50 km2.

Katavi National Park

 

Katavi National Park covers an area of 4,471 sq km that protect floodplain of Lake Katavi, Lake Chada and Katuma River.

Lake Manyara National Park

 

Lake Manyara National Park is located in the Arusha Region of Tanzania. It covers a total area of 325 km².

Mahale Mountains National Park

 

Mahale Mountains National Park is a nature reserve in the Western part of Tanzania. It covers an area of 1650 km².

Mikumi National Park

 

Mikumi National Park is a nature reserve near Mikumi in central Tanzania. It was found in 1964 and today covers an area of 3230 km².

Mount Kilimanjaro

 

Mount Kilimanjaro that stands in the North- eastern Tanzania is the tallest mountain in Africa that reaches an elevation of 19,334 ft.

Ngorongoro Crater

 

Ngorongoro Crater was formed 2.5 million years ago as a large volcanic caldera after collapse of a large volcano. It covers an are of over 100 square miles.

Ruaha National Park

 

Ruaha National Park is a protected area situated 130 km from a city of Iringa in Tanzania. It covers a total area of 20,200 km².

Saadani National Park

 

Saadani National Park is a protected area on the shores of the Indian Ocean. This nature reserve covers an area of 1100 km2.

Serengeti National Park

 

Serengeti National Park is a nature reserve in the Northern Tanzania. It covers an area of 14,763 km2.

Tarangire National Park

 

Tarangire National Park is situated near town of Arusha in the Northern Tanzania. It covers an area of 2,850 km².

 

     
 

 

 

 

 

 

History of Tanzania

From ancient times, the territory of present Tanzania was inhabited by peoples related to the Bushmen and Hottentots, who were engaged in hunting and gathering. Then in the 1st millennium BC. e. Cushit tribes came from the Ethiopian Highlands. To the beginning of n. e. came the Bantu tribes.

Around the middle of the 1st millennium BC. e. Persian, and then Arab slave traders appeared on the coast of present Tanzania. It was then that the formation of a new Swahili ethnic community began. It was composed of local coastal tribes and aliens from Iran, Arabia, as well as from India.

Swahili engaged in international trade, slaves, ivory, gold were exported from Africa, handicrafts, fabrics, and food were imported.

At the beginning of the XVI century, the Portuguese appeared on the coast of present Tanzania. Since 1505, they have captured almost all port cities, but in the second half of the 17th century, Arabs and Blacks managed to expel the Portuguese.

After the expulsion of the Portuguese, Arabs and local residents, claiming [source not specified 1420 days] for their Arab origin, were actively engaged in the slave trade. Negro slaves were supplied to the countries of the Middle East, as well as to India and to European planters on islands in the Indian Ocean. As a result, some areas in the depths of present Tanzania in the 18th century were substantially depopulated.

Thanks to the slave trade in the depths of the territory of Tanzania, the beginnings of statehood arose. They began to take shape among the peoples of Shambhala, Jagga, Hehe, Haya, Nyamwezi. For example, the state of the supreme leader of the Shambhala tribe of Kimveri extended from the slopes of Kilimanjaro to the coast of the Indian Ocean. Also, a hehe tribe country emerged under the leadership of High Leader Muyugumba.

In the middle of the XIX century, many Europeans appeared on the coast of modern Tanzania: merchants and missionaries from the UK, France, Germany and the United States. The British were particularly active, who forbade the Sultan of Zanzibar to engage in the slave trade.

Colonial period
In 1885, the 29-year-old German Karl Peters landed on the coast of Tanzania. He quickly concluded agreements with the leaders of 12 tribes on a protectorate, that is, on their transfer under German rule, and in 1888 he leased the entire coastal part of present Tanzania from the Sultan of Zanzibar for 50 years.

The worried British in November 1890 entered into a protectorate treaty with the Sultan of Zanzibar, and in 1891 Peters announced the creation of the imperial colony of German East Africa.

The Germans wanted to turn German East Africa into their settlement colony. They created plantations there and cultivated rubber noses, coffee, cotton, sisal. Since 1902, they began to build railways connecting coastal ports with deep areas. By 1914, the number of German settlers reached 5.4 thousand.

In 1905 - 1907 in Tanzania there was a rebellion of Maji-Maji, which was suppressed.

In August 1914 the First World War began, Tanzania became a theater of operations. German troops, which also mobilized local residents, were led by Colonel von Lettow-Forbeck, who fought with his soldiers against the troops of Great Britain, Belgium and Portugal, raiding the colonies of these countries until November 1918, until he was informed that Germany concluded truce with the Entente.

After World War I, Tanzania came under the care of Great Britain. The British continued to develop a plantation economy, primarily sisal, as well as cotton and coffee....

 

In January 1967, the TANU leadership announced a program for building communism in Tanzania. After that, banks, industrial enterprises, foreign trade organizations, as well as agricultural plantations, including those belonging to foreigners, were nationalized in the country.

Collective farms began to be created in rural areas according to the concept of Tanzanian communism, Ujamaa. These innovations met with particular resistance in Zanzibar, where it came to the point that the main party leader was killed in 1972. In retaliation, the Tanzanian authorities executed dozens of conspirators.

In the mid-1970s, Operation Maduka took place to fully nationalize all retail trade in the country, but it ended in failure.

The one-party system of government that existed since the 1970s ceased to exist in 1995, when elections were held on a multi-party basis.