Serengeti National Park is a nature reserve in the Northern
Tanzania. Serengeti National Park covers an area of 14,763 km2.
It is home to half a million of wildebeest and 250,000 zebras.
Over the centuries, the vast wastelands of the Serengeti plains
were practically not settled, but about 100 years ago, the
nomadic Masai tribes came from the north with their cattle. The
first European to get here was the German researcher and
naturalist Dr. Oscar Bauman in 1891. The first European
professional hunters came to Serengeti in 1913. In 1921, a
partial nature reserve of 3.2 km² was formed in the Serengeti,
and in 1929 a complete nature reserve, which became the basis
for the National Park. With a growing understanding of the need
to protect wildlife, the reserve was expanded in 1951 and turned
into a national park. In 1959, the Ngorongoro reserve with an
area of 8288 km² was allocated from the Serengeti. Serengeti
is the most famous national park in Tanzania and the second
largest after Selous Park.
In the summer of 2009, the
Serengeti celebrated the 50th anniversary of its existence. The
anniversary was an occasion for scientists to discuss the need
to protect the park from increased tourist flow and illiterate
development. Recently, in the east of the park, in the area of
the Olduvai Gorge, which is also called the "cradle of
mankind," traces of an ancient man were found. Archaeologists
argue that uncontrolled access to the excavation site can
seriously damage research. In this regard, it was decided to
close this part of the park for visiting by tourists for an
Serengeti Park is famous for its rich wildlife.
About five hundred species of birds and three million individuals of
large animals live on the plains of the park.
One of the
features of the park is the migration of animals. More than a
million wildebeests and about two hundred and twenty thousand zebras
move from the northern hills to the southern plains annually, during
the dry period of October and November, where at this time it rains
for a short time. Then, with the onset of the rainy season in
April-June, animals migrate west and north. The ancient instinct of
animals drives them so strongly that neither drought nor predators,
including crocodiles that fill the rivers, can stop them. At the
same time, herds migrate not only within the Serengeti, but also
through the territory of other parks and reserves. During this
annual long journey, animals travel 3,000 km. According to
scientists, all this giant biomass requires 4000 tons of grass every
day. Many animals die along the way, but about a quarter million
cubs are born.