Location: Tibet Map

Tel. (0891) 683 4362

Open: 9am-5pm daily

Description of Lhasa

Lhasa (Tibetan: ལྷ་ས) is the capital of the autonomous province of Tibet. It is famous for the Potala, the residence of the Dalai Lama. In addition to the Potala, the Jokhang Monastery and the Norbulingka Palace (the traditional summer residence of the Dalai Lama) are also UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

The Tibetan capital of Lhasa, also spelled Lasa, lies in a sheltered valley of the Kyi Chu or Lhasa River at an altitude of 3,650 m. The peaks of the surrounding mountains reach heights of up to 5,300 m. On summer days, the temperature rarely rises to 30 °C , in winter the thermometer drops to a cold -15 °C. Nevertheless, Lhasa can boast more than 300 sunny days per year on average.

The founding of the city dates back to the 7th century and the 33rd Tibetan King Songtsen Gampo. His palace stood on the west side of the city on Maripori, or Red Mountain, on this spot is now the Potala Palace, the city's landmark. Southwest of Maripori is the Chakpori or Iron Mountain, west of Marpori is the smaller Barmari or Rabbit Mountain. At that time, two temples were built in the east of Lhasa, which today are among the most important Buddhist sanctuaries in the country: the Jokhang and the Ramoche.


Getting here

By plane
Lhasa-Gonggar Airport (IATA code: LXA, ICAO code: ZULS) is located about 60 km south-east of Lhasa in Shannan province. It is mainly served by domestic Chinese airports, there are also flights to and from Kathmandu.

By train
The Lhasa Railway connects Lhasa to Xining via Golmud. From there, trains run to the hub in Lanzhou and on to Beijing.

By bus
The main bus station in Lhasa is near the Norbulingka or Tibet Museum by the Lhasa River. As a foreigner needs a group visa, individuals usually cannot buy tickets.

In the street
The main road link to Lhasa is the Friendship Highway, it comes from Zhangmu on the Nepalese border and ends in Lhasa. In fact, this highway is just one stage of China's G318 trunk road, which begins 4760 km away in Shanghai.



The main sights in the old town can be explored on foot, there are numerous cycle rickshaws and taxis.

With the bicycle rickshaws you have to negotiate the price.

Taxis within the city cost Y10 each way. However, the driver will try to fill up his taxi by picking up other passengers going in the same direction. Everyone still pays Y10 - this way the drivers can increase their income despite the fixed price. Both Tibetan and Chinese taxi drivers can be found, and few speak English. So it helps to have someone you know write down your destination in Chinese. You can hail a taxi anywhere on the street.

Foreigners can also travel by bus within the city. There are numerous bus lines covering the main routes of the city. Each trip costs Y1 - there is no change. Line numbers are shown in Arabic numerals, but the destination is only in Chinese.



World Heritage
The three most famous sights of the city have been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1994: the Potala, the Jokhang and the Norbulingka.

Potala Palace
The Potala, former seat of the Dalai Lama, secular and spiritual center of power of ancient Tibet, is located in the city center on Marpori Hill north of Beijing Dong lu. On the southern side of the street is the huge Potala Square, which offers a good view of the palace. In the late evening hours, water features and colored lighting together with musical accompaniment conjure up a kitschy and beautiful backdrop.

The Jokhang monastery complex, built in the 7th century, is the most important Buddhist sanctuary in Tibet. It is located in the heart of Lhasa on Barkor Square and is surrounded by the ancient Barkor pilgrimage route. The side entrance on the right is open to tourists. Inside the complex is the church, the Tsuglagkhang, completely surrounded by a walkway, the Nangkor. One of its chapels inside is the actual Jokhang or House of Jobo with the statue of Jobo Shakyamuni. Photography is not permitted inside the building. A goal of many tourists is the upper floor. From here you have a good view of Barkor Square and the surrounding streets, to the west the Potala rises above the rooftops of Lhasa.

In the southwest of Lhasa is a park that was begun in 1754 as the summer residence of the 7th Dalai Lama. Under his successors, this Norbulingka, meaning Treasure Park, was expanded. The last structure was built in 1954-1956, it is the Tagten Minjur Phodrang, the summer palace of the 14th Dalai Lama, who went into exile just three years later. A great deal of memorabilia of its former owner remains in the building, but the images of the person have all been removed. You can see the audience room, the private rooms such as the bedroom and bathroom, personal items such as B. an old radio from Soviet production. In the former summer residence, the Kelsang Phodrang, you can see a number of thangkas in the audience hall. The park includes open-air stages, pavilions and ponds, and there is an unusually beautiful stock of old trees by Tibetan standards.
The park is open to the public, in its western part there is a zoo as another attraction. Photography is not allowed inside the Norbulingka.


Monasteries and temples

Drepung Monastery
Drepung Monastery (Chinese: Zhaibung) was founded in 1416 on the western outskirts of Lhasa. Before the 5th Dalai Lama moved his official residence from this monastery to the Potala Palace, Drepung was the center of Tibet's political power. Before the peaceful liberation of Tibet, it was the largest monastery with over 10,000 monks, today around 450 monks live there.
The monastery lies at the foot of the 4,645 m high Mount Gephel. The mountain slopes surrounding the monastery are strewn with prayer flags, with large Tibetan inscriptions and images. Parts of the monastery are currently being renovated (as of 2013).

Worth seeing in the large complex is the Ganden Phodrang, the former seat of the 5th Dalai Lama. Inside, glazed cupboards are filled with numerous figures, and Buddhist scriptures are stored on shelves. Another interesting building is the large assembly hall Tsogchen Dukhang with the Buddha statues of the three times. In the Dalai Lama's former peach garden, monks are busy decorating tantric figures with prayer notes and preparing them for sale to believers or as souvenirs. Also impressive is the new large assembly hall and the kitchen next to it, from which the monks are supplied with butter tea, tsampa or other traditional dishes.

Sera Monastery
About 5 km northwest of the city center is the Sera Monastery. When you visit, you always notice children who have black noses. In Sera Je, they are blessed by a horse-headed protector god, in which a monk wipes their noses with soot from yak butter lamps. In the building next to it, artistic three-dimensional mandalas are sometimes on display (photos, as almost always, cost extra). A special event for western visitors is a visit to the debating courtyard, where young monks practice lively discussions every day from 3 p.m.

Ani Sangkhung Nunnery
The small nunnery is located in the city center just a few meters from the Barkor pilgrimage route. Sanctuary is a cave where Songtsen Gampo meditated in the 15th century. The nuns grow plants and sell them, and they also cater for pilgrims in a small tea house. There is a souvenir shop attached to the monastery, a little more expensive but more stylish than the shops at the nearby market.

Ramoche Temple
The temple is one of the oldest in the city. It is just north of the Jokhang.

Lukhang Temple
North of the Potala at the foot of Marpori Hill is Lukhang Temple on a small island in the popular Lukhang Park (Chinese: Zhonggyablukhang).

pilgrimage routes
numerous Tibetans visit their most important shrines, especially during the Buddhist holidays, and they circle them clockwise on a kora while turning their prayer wheels, slipping their prayer beads through their fingers, or prostrating themselves on the ground. They usually have their bodies protected by leather aprons or rubber pads. The main ritual ways in Lhasa are:

The Lingkor. It begins on the western hills of the former old town at the Chakpori, goes north past the Barmari and the Marpori to behind the Jokhang Monastery and back to the Chakpori. This route roughly corresponds to the former city limits of Lhasa. Most pilgrims use a slightly different route because of a changed route.
The Tsekor. This pilgrimage route begins at the stupas southwest of the Potala on the Beijing Dong lu main thoroughfare and circles this palace once. It goes north along the foot of Marpori to Lukhang Park and along the palace perimeter wall back to the starting point.
The Barkhor. The approximately 800 m long conversion path goes from Barkhor Square once around the Jokhang, the oldest temple in the city, past countless small shops and market stalls.

Tibet Museum
Tibet Museum, not far from Norbulingka. The exhibition focuses on handicrafts and everyday life of the population.



Overall, shopping in Lhasa is very good. You have to be careful and search a little longer, however, if you wants to buy from real Tibetans or authentic craftsmen.

Barkhor Market. In front of the Jokhang and along the Barkhor circumambulation route, there are numerous shops specializing in the needs of pilgrims and especially Chinese tourists. Everything that can be used as a souvenir is sold. On offer are typical striped clothing fabrics, there are singing bowls, vajras, Buddha figures.
The small market stalls of the past have been cleared and can now (2013) be found in a large market hall (Barkhor Supermarket) north of the Barkhor on Beijing Street (or, unfortunately, they are no longer found by many). Overall, the Barkhor is being "upgraded" and according to some reports it is to be expected that the other side streets will also house fewer 'mom and pop shops' and more and more tourist shops over the coming years.

Beijing street. Might be considered the main shopping street. Brand name fashion shops, souvenir shops, tailors and small kiosks are located next to each other. There are also some high-quality shopping arcades, such as the new Times Square with a cinema (upper floor) and a super market (lower floor).
Ramoche-Lam. The connecting road (more of a pedestrian street) from Beijing Street past the Ramoche Temple is worth a visit. Numerous market traders and small shops, more locals than tourists can be found among the shoppers here.



In the vicinity of Barkhor Square there are numerous Tibetan restaurants, mostly of a simpler kind and also frequented by pilgrims.
Good restaurants and cafes are along the main thoroughfare Beijing Road and in the pedestrian street between Potala Square and Barkhor Square.



Thangka Hotel (homepage only in Chinese, hotel is located directly on Barkhor Square in the old town), YuTuo Road 38, Lhasa China. Tel: +86-891-6308866, Fax: +86-891-6367299. The house is in walking distance to the Potala, it has (free) LAN connection. Friendly, affordable service.
Shangbala Hotel, Danjielin Rd, Lhasa (On a side street off Barkhor Square). Tel: +86 891 6323888, Fax: +86 891 632577. The establishment has an excellent restaurant on the ground floor. Right next door is the Summit Cafe if anyone is looking for a really good cappucino in Lhasa.



The police and military presence in Tibet is enormous: There are heavily armed security forces on almost every street corner, sometimes even armored vehicles. The Buddhist pilgrims are flanked every few yards by groups of three soldiers armed with batons, machine guns and "people catchers". In every temple there is a military post who, despite the holy places, deliberately wears his headgear. The cities are paved with police stations and surveillance cameras and sometimes consist largely of barracks.

As a foreigner, you should never take photos of facilities, vehicles or people associated with the military or police - this can lead to the immediate confiscation of the camera and even to deportation! You should also be prepared to have to pass security checks very often (when entering the city center, a public building or temple complex). As a tourist, you should avoid approaching locals about political issues or otherwise embarrassing them, as well as introducing yourself to scriptures associated with the Dalai Lama.



The main problem is adapting to the altitude, followed by burns from the sun's UV rays.
Tibetan food (tsampa, butter tea) tastes better than its reputation suggests, but not everyone can tolerate it.


Practical hints

The Lhasa Post Office is located across the south-east corner of the Potala.
Country Code China: 0086.
Lhasa area code: 0891



In the mid-7th century, Songtsen Gampo became the leader of the Tibetan Empire which rose to power in the Brahmaputra River valley (known locally as the Yarlung Tsangpo River). After conquering the kingdom of Zhangzhung in the west, he moved the capital from Chingwa Taktsé Castle in Chongye County (pinyin: Qióngjié Xiàn), southwest of Yarlung, to Rasa (Lhasa) where in 637 he erected the first structures on the site of what it is now the Potala Palace on Mount Marpori. In 639 and 641 CE, Songtsen Gampo, who by this time had conquered the entire Tibetan region, is said to have contracted two alliance marriages, first with Princess Bhrikuti of Nepal, and then, two years later, with Princess Wencheng of the court. Imperial of Tang. Bhrikuti is credited with converting him to Buddhism, which is also the faith attributed to his second wife, Wencheng. In 641 he built the temples of Jokhang (or Rasa Trülnang Tsulagkhang) and Ramoche in Lhasa to house two Buddha statues, the Akshobhya Vajra (representing the 8-year-old Buddha) and the Jowo Sakyamuni (representing the 12-year-old Buddha). age), respectively brought to her court by the princesses. Lhassa suffered great damage from the kingdom of Langdarma in the 9th century, when sacred sites were destroyed, desecrated and the empire fragmented.

A Tibetan tradition mentions that after the death of Songtsen Gampo in 649 AD, Chinese troops captured Lhasa and burned the Red Palace. Chinese and Tibetan scholars have noted that the event is not mentioned in either the Chinese annals or the Tibetan manuscripts from Dunhuang. Lǐ suggested that this tradition must derive from an insertion. Tsepon W. D. Shakabpa believes that "these stories relating the arrival of Chinese troops are not correct."

From the fall of the monarchy in the 9th century until the rise of the 5th Dalai Lama, the center of political power in the Tibetan region was not situated in Lhasa. However, Lhassa's importance as a religious site has grown significantly over the centuries. It was known as the center of Tibet where Padmasambhava magically defeated the earth demon and built the foundation of the Jokhang Temple over his heart. Islam has been present since the 11th century in what is considered to have always been a monolithic Buddhist culture. Two Tibetan Muslim communities lived in Lhasa with distinct homes, food and clothing, language, education, trade and traditional herbal medicine.

In the late 15th century the city of Lhasa rose to prominence following the founding of three great Gelugpa monasteries by Je Tsongkhapa and his disciples. The three monasteries are Ganden, Sera and Drepung which were built as part of the Puritan Buddhist revival in Tibet. The scholarly achievements and political savvy of this Gelugpa lineage eventually pushed Lhassa once again to the forefront.

The 5th Dalai Lama, Lobsang Gyatso (1617–1682), unified Tibet and moved the center of administration to Lhasa in 1642 with the help of Güshi Khan of Khoshut. With Güshi Khan as a largely uninvolved sovereign, the 5th Dalai Lama and his minions established a civil administration that is referred to by historians as the state of Lhasa. His central leadership of government is also referred to as Ganden Phodrang, and Lhasa subsequently became both the political and religious capital. In 1645, reconstruction of the Potala Palace began on the red hill. By 1648, Potrang Karpo (White Palace) of Potala was complete, and the Potala was used as a winter palace by the Dalai Lama thereafter. The Potrang Marpo (Potal Palace) was added between 1690 and 1694. The name Potala is derived from Mount Potalaka, the mythical vault of the divine prototype of the Dalai Lama, Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara. The Jokhang Temple was also greatly expanded at this time. Although some of the wooden carvings and lintels of the Jokhang temple date back to the 7th century, the oldest of Lhasa's extant buildings, such as those inside the Potala Palace, the Jokhang, and some of the monasteries and estates in the old quarter, date back to this second flowering in history. from Lhasa.

In the late 17th century the Barkhor area of Lhasa formed a bustling market for foreign goods. The Jesuit missionary Ippolito Desideri reported in 1716 that the city had a cosmopolitan community of Mongolian, Chinese, Muscovite, Armenian, Kashmiri, Nepali and North Indian traders. Tibet was exporting musk, gold, medicinal plants, yak hair and tails to distant markets, in exchange for sugar, tea, saffron, Persian turquoise, European amber, and Mediterranean coral. The Qing dynasty army entered Lhasa in 1720, and the Qing government sent commissioned residents, called Ambans, to Lhasa. On November 11, 1720, the assassination of the regent by the Ambans sparked a revolt in the city that left over a hundred people dead including the Ambans. After suppressing the rebels, the Qing Emperor Qianlong reorganized the Tibetan government and started the governing council called the Kashag in Lhasa in 1751.

In January 1904, a British expeditionary force invaded and captured Lhasa during the British expedition to Tibet. Expedition leader Sir Francis Younghusband negotiated at the United Kingdom-Tibet Convention with the remaining Tibetan officials after the Dalai Lama fled inland. The treaty was later repudiated and replaced by the Anglo-Chinese treaty of 1906. All Qing troops left Lhasa after the Xinhai Lhasa upheaval in 1912.

In the 20th century, Lhasa, long a beacon for both Tibetan and foreign Buddhists, had numerous religiously and ethnically distinct communities, among them Kashmiri Muslims, Ladakhi traders, Sikh converts to Islam, and Chinese traders and officials. Kashmiri (Khache) Muslims traced their arrival in Lhasa to the Islamic shrine of Patna, Khair ud-Din, a contemporary of the 5th Dalai Lama. Chinese Muslims lived one block south, and Newar merchants from Kathmandu north of Barkhor Market. Residents of neighboring Lubu were descended from Chinese vegetable farmers who stayed after accompanying an Amban to Sichuan in the mid-19th century; some later married Tibetan women and spoke Tibetan as their first language. The city's merchants catered to all tastes, even importing Australian butter and Scotch whisky. In the 1940s, according to Heinrich Harrer:

-'There is nothing that someone cannot buy, or at least ask for. Someone still finds Elizabeth Arden's spices, and there is a great demand for them. You can also borrow sewing machines, radio antennas and gramophones and hunt down Bing Crosby albums.'

After the establishment of the Communist People's Republic of China in China, "(...) the People's Liberation Army (PLA) invaded the country in 1950. In March 1959, a rebellion centered in the capital, Lhasa, proposed massive repression, during which the Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso (b. 1935), fled into exile." Such markets and consumerism came to an abrupt end after the arrival of Chinese government troops and administrative cadres in the 1950s. Poorly stocked food rations and government stores replaced the old markets, until the 1990s when trade in international goods returned to Lhasa. again, and malls and galleries with an abundance of goods flourished.

Of the 22 parks (lingkas) that surrounded the city of Lhasa, most of them more than half a mile long, where the people of Lhasa used to have picnics, only three survive to this day: the Norbulingka, Summer Palace Dalai Lama, built by the 7th Dalai Lama; a small part of the Shugtri Lingka, and the Lukhang. Blocks of dormitories, offices and army barracks are built on the remainder.

The Guāndì miào (關帝廟) or temple of Gesar Lhakhang was placed by the Amban in 1792 on top of Mount Bamare 3 km (2 mi) south of the Potala to celebrate the defeat of the invading Gurkha army.

The main gateway to the city of Lhasa used to run through the large Pargo Kalingand stupa and contained sacred replicas of Mindukpa Buddha.

Between 1987 and 1989, Lhasa experienced massive demonstrations, led by monks and disciples against the Chinese government. After Deng Xiaoping's southern tour in 1992, Lhasa was forced by the government to undergo economic liberalization. All government officials, their families and students were banned from practicing their religion, while monks and disciples were not allowed into government offices and the campus of Tibet University. Subsequent to economic development policies, the influx of immigrants dramatically altered the city's ethnic mix in Lhasa.

In 2000 the urban area covered 53 km2 (20 sq mi), with a population of around 170,000. Official metropolitan area statistics report that 70 percent are Tibetans, 34.3 are Han, and the remaining 2.7 are Hui, although observers suspect non-Tibetans make up between 50–70 percent. Among Han immigrants, Lhasa is known as 'Little Sichuan'.



Lhasa has an elevation of around 3600 m (11.81 ft) and lies in the center of the Tibetan Plateau with the surrounding mountains reaching 5500 m (18.04 ft). Air contains only 68 percent oxygen compared to sea level. The Lhasa River, also Kyi River or Kyi Chu, a tributary of the Yarlung Zangbo River (Brahmaputra River), flows through the southern part of the city. This river, known by local Tibetans as the "happy blue waves", flows through the snowy peaks and valleys of the Yainqêntanglha Mountains, extending for 315 km (196 mi), and flowing into the Yarlung Zangbo River at Qüxü, forming an area of great scenic beauty. The swamps, mostly uninhabited, are in the north. Incoming and outgoing roads run from east to west, while in the north, road infrastructure is less developed.

Chengguan District is located on the middle reaches of the Lhasa River, a tributary of the Brahmaputra River, with land running north to south of the river. It is 28 km (17 mi) east to west and 31 km (19 mi) north to south. Chengguan District is bordered by Doilungdêqên District to the west, Dagzê County to the east and Lhünzhub County to the north. Gonggar County of Lhoka Prefecture (Shannan) is located in the south.

Chengguan District has an elevation of 3,650 m (11.98 ft) and covers 525 km2 (203 sq mi). The built-up urban area covers 60 km2 (23 sq mi). The average annual temperature is 8 °C (46 °F). Annual rainfall is around 500 mm (20 in), mostly falling between July and September.

The term "Chengguan District" is the administrative term for the inner urban area or urban center within the prefecture, in this case the prefectural city of Lhasa. Outside the urban area, much of Chengguan District is mostly mountainous with an almost non-existent rural population. Chennguan District is at the same administrative level as a county. Lhasa Chengguan District was established on April 23, 1961. Currently, it has 12 fully urbanized sub-districts.



Due to its high elevation, Lhasa has a cold, semi-arid climate (Köppen: BSk) with freezing winters and mild summers, although the valley's location protects the city from intense heat and cold or strong winds. The monthly sunlight probability ranges from 53 percent in July to 84 percent in November, and the city receives approximately 3,000 hours of sunlight annually. It is because of this that it is sometimes called the "enlightened city" by Tibetans. The coldest month is January with an average temperature of -0.3°C and the hottest is June with an average of 16.7°C, although nights are generally warmer in July.

The average annual temperature is 8.8°₢ , with temperature extremes ranging from -16.5°C to 30.8°C . Lassa has an annual rainfall of 458mm with rain falling mainly in July, August and September. The driest month is December with 0.3 mm and the wettest month is August with 133.5 mm. Summer is widely considered to be the best season of the year as the rain mostly comes at night and Lhasa is still sunny during the day.



Demographics in the past
The 11th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica published between 1910 and 1911 put the total population of Lhasa, including llamas in the city and prefecture, at about 30,000; an 1854 census put the count at 42,000, but it is known to have declined greatly since then. Britannica indicated that within Lhasa, there were a total of approximately 1,500 lay male Tibetan residents and about 5,500 female laypeople. The permanent population also included Chinese families (about 2,000). The city's residents included traders from Nepal and Ladak (about 800), and a few from Bhutan, Mongolia, and elsewhere. Britannica noted that the Chinese had crowded cemeteries in Lhasa, treated carefully by their manners, and that the Nepalese supplied mechanics and metal workers at that time.

In the first half of the 20th century, several Western explorers made celebratory journeys to the city, including William Montgomery McGovern, Francis Younghusband, Alexandra David-Néel, and Heinrich Harrer. Lhasa was the center of Tibetan Buddhism as approximately half of the population were monks, although this count would include monks from nearby monasteries who traveled to Lhasa for various celebrations and were not permanent residents there.

Most of Lhasa's pre-1950 Chinese population were merchants and officials. In the Lubu section of Lhasa, the inhabitants were descendants of vegetable farmers, some of whom married Tibetan wives. They went to Lhasa between the 1840s and 1860s after a Chinese official was appointed to the Amban position.

According to one writer, the city's population was around 10,000, with around 10,000 monks in Drepung and Sera monasteries in 1959. Hugh Richardson, on the other hand, puts the population of Lhasa in 1952 at around 25,000– 30,000—about 45,000–50,000 if the population of surrounding monasteries is included."

Contemporary Demographics
The total population of the city-prefecture of Lhasa is 521,500 (including known migrant population but excluding military troops). Of these, 257,400 are in the urban area (including a migrant population of 100,700), while 264,100 are outside. Approximately half of Lhasa's city-prefecture lives in Chengguan District, which is the administrative division that contains Lhasa's urban area (i.e. present-day city).

The urban area is populated by Tibetan, Han, Hui and other ethnic groups. The official 2000 census gave a total population of 223,001, of whom 171,719 lived in areas administered by city street offices and city neighborhood committees. 133,603 had urban registrations and 86,395 had rural registrations, based on their place of origin. The census was taken in November, when many ethnic Han workers in seasonal industries like construction would be outside Tibet, and did not count the military. A 2011 book estimated that more than two-thirds of the city's residents are non-Tibetan, despite the government's claim that Chengguan District as a whole was ethnically 63% Tibetan. As of 2014, half of Tibet's Han population resided in the Chengguan District of Lhasa, where bilingual or entirely Chinese teaching was common in schools.



Competitive industry along with economic aspects play a central role in Lhasa's development. With a view to maintaining a balance between economic development and the environment, tourism and the service industry are emphasized as growth engines for the future. Many of Lhasa's rural residents practice agriculture and livestock. Lhasa is the traditional center of the Tibetan trade network. For many years chemical and car manufacturing plants operated in the area and this resulted in significant pollution, a factor that has changed in recent years. Copper. lead and zinc are mined nearby and there is an ongoing experiment into new methods of mining minerals and extracting geothermal heat.

Agriculture and livestock in Lasa are considered to be of a high standard. The people mostly plant highland barley and winter wheat. Resources from water conservancy, geothermal heat, solar energy and various ores are plentiful. There is electricity at will with uses both of machinery and traditional methods in the production of things such as cloth, leather, plastics, matches and embroidery. Handicraft production has made great progress.

With the growth of the tourism and service sectors, the sunset industries are expected to disappear in hopes of building a healthy ecological system. Environmental problems such as soil erosion, acidification, and loss of vegetation are being addressed. The tourism industry now brings significant business to the region, based on the attractiveness of the Potala Palace, the Jokang, Norbulingka Summer Palace and surrounding large monasteries as well as the spectacular scenery of the Himalayas along with the many native wild animals and plants. from the high altitudes of Central Asia. Tourism to Tibet declined precipitously following the crackdown on protests in 2008, but by 2009 the industry was recovering. Chinese officials plan an ambitious growth in tourism in the region targeting 10 million visitors by 2020; these visitors are expected to be domestic. With renovations around historic sites such as the Potala Palace, UNESCO has expressed "concerns about the deterioration of Lhasa's traditional landscape".

Lhasa has several hotels. Lhasa Hotel is a four star hotel located northeast of Norbulingka in the western suburbs of the city. Completed in September 1985, it is the flagship of the CIT'S facilities in Tibet. Accommodates around 1000 guests and visitors in Lhasa. There are more than 450 rooms (suites) in the hotel, and all are filled with air conditioning, minibar and other basic amenities. Some of the rooms are decorated in a traditional Tibetan style. The hotel was operated by Holiday Inn from 1986 until 1997 and is the subject of a book, The Hotel on the Roof of the World. Another hotel of note is the historic Hotel Banak Shöl, located at number 8 Beijing Road in the city. It is known for its distinctive wooden balconies. Nam-tso restaurant is located in the hotel's town hall and is frequented especially by Chinese tourists visiting Lhasa.

Lassa has several noteworthy trades. The Lassa Carpet Factory, a factory south of Yanhe Dong Lu near the University of Tibet, produces traditional Tibetan carpets that are exported worldwide. It is a modern factory, the biggest carpet manufacturer across Tibet, employing about 300 workers. Traditionally, Tibetan women were the weavers and men the spinners, but both work on carpets today.

The Lassa brewery was established in 1988 in the northern outskirts, south of Sera Monastery and is the highest commercial brewery in the world at 11,975 ft (3,650 m) and accounts for 85 percent of contemporary Tibet beer production. The brewery, consisting of five five-story buildings, costs approximately US$20–25 million, and in 1994, production reached 30,000 bottles a day employing around 200 workers at that time. Since 2000, the Carlsberg group has increased its stronghold in the Chinese market and has become increasingly influential in the country with investment and expertise. Carlsberg has invested in the Lassa brewery in recent years and has dramatically improved the brewery's facilities and working conditions by renovating and expanding the building which now covers 62,240 square meters (15.3 acres).


City architecture and landscape

Lhasa has many historical landmarks including the Potala Palace, Jokhang Temple, Sera Monastery and Norbulingka. Potala Palace, Jokhang Temple and Norbulingka are UNESCO World Heritage Sites. However, many important sites were damaged or destroyed mostly but not only during the Chinese Cultural Revolution of the 1960s. Many have been restored since the 1980s.

The Potala Palace, named after the Potala Hill, the abode of Chenresig or Avalokitesvara, was the main residence of the Dalai Lama. After the 14th Dalai Lama fled to India during the 1959 Tibetan uprising, the government converted the palace into a museum. The site was used as a meditation retreat by King Songtsen Gampo, who in 637 built the first palace there to greet his bride Princess Wen Cheng of Tang Dynasty China. Lozang Gyatso, the great Fifth Dalai Lama, began construction on the Potala Palace in 1645 after one of his spiritual advisers, Konchog Chophel (d. 1646), pointed out that the site was ideal for a seat of government, set among the monasteries Drepung and Sera and the old part of Lhasa. The palace underwent restoration work between 1989 and 1994, costing RMB55 million (US$6,875 million) and was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1994.

The Pillar of Lhasa Zhol, below the Potala, dates back as far back as around 764 CE. and is inscribed with what is perhaps the oldest example of Tibetan script. The pillar bears dedications to the Tibetan general and gives an account of his services to the king including campaigns against China that culminated in the brief capture of the Chinese capital Chang'an (present-day Xian) in 763 CE during which the Tibetans temporarily installed a relative of Princess Jincheng Gongzhu (Kim-sheng Kong co), the Chinese wife of Trisong Detsen's father, Me Agtsom.

Chokpori, meaning 'Mountain of Metal', is a sacred hill, located south of Potala. It is considered one of the four sacred mountains of central Tibet and along with two other hills represent in Lhasa the "Three Protectors of Tibet.", Chokpori (Vajrapani), Pongwari (Manjushri), and Marpori (Chenresig or Avalokiteshvara). It was the SITE of the most famous medical school in Tibet, known as Mentsikhang, which was founded in 1413. It was conceived by Lobsang Gyatso, the great 5th Dalai Lama, and completed by Regent Sangye Gyatso (Sangs-rgyas rgya-mtsho) shortly after 1697 .

Lingkhor is a sacred path, most commonly used to name the road of pilgrimage in Lhasa meeting its inner twin, Barkhor. The Lingkhor in Lhasa was 8 km (5.0 mi) logically encircling Ancient Lhasa, the Potala and Chokpori Hill. In ancient times it was crowded with men and women covering its length with prostrations, begging and pilgrimages approaching the city for the first time. The road passed through willow-shaded parks where Tibetans used to picnic in summer and watch open operas on festival days. New Lassa has obliterated most of Lingkhor, but a stretch still remains west of Chokpori.

Norbulingka palace and surrounding park is situated in the western part of Lhasa, a short distance southwest of Potala Palace with an area of about 36 ha (89 acres), it is considered the largest man-made garden in Tibet. It was built in 1755 and served as the summer residence of successive Dalai Lamas until the 14th's self-imposed exile. Norbulingka was declared a 'Cultural Relic Unit of National Importance' in 1988 by the state council. In 2001, the central committee of the Chinese government at the 4th session of Tibet decided to restore the complex to its original glory. The Sho Dun Festival (popularly known as the "yogurt festival") is an annual festival that takes place in Norbulingka during the seventh Tibetan month in the first seven days of the full moon period, which corresponds to dates in July/August according to the Gregorian calendar.

The Barkhor is an area of narrow streets and a public square in the old part of the city located at the Jokhang temple and was the most popular devotional circumambulation for pilgrims and locals alike. The walk is about one kilometer (1 km (0.6 mi)) long and surrounds the entire Jokhang, the former seat of the State Oracle in Lhasa called Muru Nyingba Monastery, and a number of noble houses including Tromzikhang and Jamkhang. There are four large incense burners (sangkangs) in the four cardinal directions, with incense constantly burning, to please the gods protecting Jokhang. Most of the old buildings and streets have been demolished in recent years and replaced with wider streets and newer buildings. Some buildings on Barkhor were damaged in the 2008 unrest.

The Jokhang is located at Barkhor Square in the old city section of Lhasa. For many Tibetans it is the most sacred and important temple in Tibet. It is in some ways pan-sectarian, but is currently controlled by the Gelug school. Along with the Potala Palace, it is probably the most popular tourist attraction in Lhasa. It is part of the UNESCO Cultural Heritage Sites "Historical Synchronization of the Potala Palace," and a spiritual center of Lhasa. This temple remained a key point of Buddhist pilgrimage for centuries. The circumambulation route is known as the "kora" in Tibetan and is marked by four large stone incense burners at the corners. Jokhang Temple is a four-story building, with roofs covered with gold-plated bronze tiles. The architectural style is based on Indian viara design, and was later expanded resulting in a blend of Nepali and Tang dynasty styles. It features the statues of Chenresig, Padmasambhava and King Songtsan Gampo and his two foreign brides Princess Wen Cheng (niece of Emperor Taizong of Tang) and Princess Bhrikuti of Nepal and other important items.

Ramoche Temple is considered the most important temple in Lhasa after Jokhang Temple. Situated in the northwest of the city, it is east of the Potala and north of Jokhang, covering a total area of 4,000 square meters (almost an acre). The temple was emptied and partially destroyed in the 1960s and its famous bronze statue disappeared. In 1983 the lower part of it was said to have been found in a Lhasa dump, and the upper part in Beijing. They have now been joined together and the statue is housed in the Ramoche temple, which was partially restored in 1986, and still showed severe damage in 1993. Following the major restoration in 1986, the main building of the temple now has three stories.

The Tibet Museum in Lhasa is the official museum of the Tibet Autonomous Region and was opened on October 5, 1999. It is the first large and modern museum in the Tibet Autonomous Region and has a permanent collection of 1000 artifacts, from examples of art Tibetan to architectural design through history such as Tibetan doors and building beams. It is located in an L - shaped building to the west of the Potala Palace on the corner of Norbulingkha Road . The museum is organized into three main sections: a main exhibition hall, a folk cultural garden and administrative offices.

The Monument for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet was unveiled in Potala Square to celebrate the 51st anniversary of the Seventeen Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet, and work on the development of the autonomous region since then. The 37-metre-high concentration monument is shaped like an abstract Mount Everest and its name is engraved in the calligraphy of former CCP General Secretary and PRC President Jiang Zemin, while an inscription describes the socio-economic development experienced in Tibet in recent years. 50 years.



Music and dance
There are some nightly cabaret acts where performers sing in Chinese, Tibetan, and English. Dancers wear traditional Tibetan costumes with long flowing fabrics flowing down their arms. There are numerous small bars that feature live music, although they have a limited drink menu and cater more to foreign tourists.



Tibet University
The University of Tibet (Tibetan: བོད་ལྗོངས་སློབ་གྲྭ་ཆེན་མོ་) is the premier university in the Atonoma Region of Tibet. Its campus is located in Chengguan District, Lhasa, east of the city centre. A precursor was created in 1952 and the university was officially established in 1985, founded by the Chinese government. About 8000 students are enrolled at the university.

Tibet University is an inclusive university with the highest academic level in the Tibet Autonomous Region. It is a member of the prestigious Projeto 211, and is sponsored by the First Classes of Dual Disciplines initiative.



Lhasa has been served by trains since 2006, when the Qinghai–Tibet Railway opened for passenger operations. Reaching an elevation of 5,072 feet above sea level, the Qinghai-Tibet Railway is the highest railway in the world by elevation. It connects Lhasa with Xining, the capital of Qinghai Province, about 2,000 km (1,200 mi) distant, and ultimately connects Lhasa with other major cities with China's extensive railway network. Five trains arrive and depart from Lhasa train station every day. Train number Z21 takes 40 hours and 53 minutes from West Beijing, arriving in Lhasa at 13:03 each day. The Z22 train from Lhasa to West Beijing departs at 3:30 pm and arrives in Beijing at 8:20 am on the third day, taking 40 hours and 50 minutes. Trains also arrive in Lassa from Chengdu, Chongqing, Lanzhou, Xining, Guangzhou, Shanghai and other cities. To get around the problems of high altitude giving passengers mountain sickness, extra oxygen is pumped into the ventilation system and available directly into each berth with open control via a nearby flap for passenger convenience, and personal oxygen masks are available on request. . Inside the sleeper cabins there are 64 seats per train that have an electrical outlet for electronics. Lhasa is also connected to the second largest city in Tibet, Shigaze, by train service, since 2014. A third railway, the Sichuan-Tibet Railway, which connects Lhasa with Nyingchi C County and within the interior ultimately ending in Chengdu, has started construction in June 2015.

For further train travel in South Asia, the nearest major station in India is New Jalpaiguri, Siliguri in West Bengal. However, the extension of the Indian railway system to Sikkim will facilitate further connections in the South Asian railway network. There are preliminary plans to link Lhasa by rail with Kathmandu.

According to a Chinese-Tibetan spokesperson, extension of this train line to Kathmandu with a tunnel under Mount Everest is expected to open in 2020.

Lassa Gonghar Airport (IATA: LXA), built in 1965, is Tibet's aviation hub. It is located south of the city proper. It takes about half an hour to get there by car via the Lhasa Airport Expressway; before the expressway opened in 2011, the trip to the airport took over an hour. As of 2014, there are daily flights serving major Chinese cities including Beijing, Chengdu, Guangzhou, and Shanghai, and there are also occasionally scheduled services to Kathmandu in Nepal. Lhasa Airport is the hub for Tibet Airlines, which offers regional services to other destinations in Tibet such as Nyingchi, Ngari Prefecture, Shigatse, and Qamdo.

The Qinghai–Tibet Highway (part of the G109) runs northeast towards Xining and eventually Beijing and is the most used highway in Tibet. The Sichuan–Tibet Highway (part of the G318) runs east towards Chengdu and eventually to Shanghai. G318 also runs to Zhangmu on the border with Nepal. The Xinjiang-Tibet Highway (G219) runs north from Lhasa to Yecheng, and then on to Xinjiang. This road is rarely used due to the lack of amenities and gas stations. A new 37.68 km (23.41 mi) four-lane highway between Lhasa and Gonghar Airport was built by the Tibetan Department of Transport at a cost of RMB 1.5 billion. This road is part of National Highway 318 and starts at Lhasa Railway Station, passes through Caina Town in Qushui County, ends at the north entrance of the Gala Mountain Tunnel and the south bridge head of the Lhasa River Bridge, and on route goes beyond the first elevated walkway in Lassa to the Liuwu walkway.

The nearest ports are Kolkata and Haldia in West Bengal, India. The Nathu La pass gives Chinese companies access to the port of Kolkata (Calcutta), situated about 1,100 km (680 mi) from Lhasa, for trans-vessels to and from Tibet.