China Destinations Travel Guide

Flag of China

Language: Chinese Mandarin

Currency: Chinese Yuan (CNY)

Calling Code: +86


The People's Republic of China is a country in East Asia. With more than 1.4 billion inhabitants (2020), China is the second most populous country in the world and the third largest in terms of its total area. According to its socialist constitution, the People's Republic of China is "under the democratic dictatorship of the people", but is continuous right from the start ruled by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in an authoritarian to totalitarian manner. To this day, she is accused of serious human rights violations.

The People's Republic was proclaimed by Mao Zedong on October 1, 1949 after the fall of the Republic of China in the Chinese Civil War. It is estimated that 45 million people died in the famine triggered by Mao's "Great Leap Forward" (1958-1961), and up to 20 million more died in the subsequent Cultural Revolution from 1966. Only after Mao's death and the onset of the end of Maoism in China did the country develop into an economic and technological superpower on the basis of a cautious reform and opening policy from 1978 onwards. Since 2016, the World Bank has included the country among the countries with an income level in the upper midfield. On average, the Chinese economy grew by 8.9% annually from 2000 up to and including 2019. In addition to doubling China's share of world trade, gross domestic product increased sixfold during this period, so that by the end of that period China had grown to become the world's second largest economy. According to observers, however, since the takeover of power by the “outstanding leader” Xi Jinping in 2012, the People’s Republic has been backsliding again in terms of social and economic freedom and is becoming increasingly ideological and internationally aggressive.

The People's Republic of China is one of the official nuclear powers, is a permanent member of the World Security Council and a member of the World Trade Organization, World Bank, APEC, BRICS, UNESCO, Interpol, G20.



Here is a selection of the most important and well-known cities.

1 Chengdu – The capital of Sichuan is also called the city without a sky because the sun is rarely seen there. The climate is humid and warm. The city lures with its traditional Sichuanese cuisine and its special charm - but you should bring some knowledge of Mandarin with you, as only a few people speak English there.
2 Chongqing - The largest city in the world - Chongqing (pronounced "dschong-dschin", approx. 32 million inhabitants) - has the flair of a French satellite town. If you arrive at night, it can happen that you find the city bearable, blinded by the neon signs that are everywhere. A stay in this city is only worthwhile by visiting the nearby Three Gorges, which have now also fallen victim to a dam and are more similar to the three great rivers. Even if the city's high-rise backdrop is impressive, the title "biggest city in the world" is a bit of misnomer. In fact, the 32 million inhabitants are spread over an area the size of Belgium. The core city has about 6 million inhabitants. Due to the river there is regularly a foggy haze over the city, in summer with temperatures above 40 degrees the city is also called the fire pot.
3 Guangzhou – The former canton has developed into an important trading metropolis as part of the boom in the Pearl River Delta. In terms of tourism, it mainly offers a contrast to the nearby special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
4 Nanjing – Nanjing (often Nanking in German) - which literally means "southern capital" - was the country's capital during the times of the Chinese Republic and is certainly one of the most beautiful cities in China. Beautiful temples and parks attract visitors to the metropolis on the Yangtse. However, you should refrain from visiting in the summer months - Nanjing is one of the four hottest cities in China.
5 Beijing – The capital of the People's Republic of China attracts with the Imperial Palace, also known as the Forbidden City, Tiananmen Square, countless street markets, an active nightlife and a short distance from the Great Wall.
6 Qingdao – The former German colony has blossomed into a popular tourist destination in recent years. In addition to holidays on the sandy beach, mountain trips to the adjacent Laoshan Mountains, where Taoism is at home, are also possible. Here you can visit a 2400 year old Taoist temple.
7 Shanghai – Along with Beijing and Xi'an, Shanghai is the tourist must-see in China. Compared to Beijing, there are no major tourist attractions (important destinations include the river promenade "The Bund", the Yu Garden and the Jin An Temple), but the city's high-rise landscape is extremely impressive. The future being built in Shanghai 24 hours a day turns the megalopolis into a single attraction. In addition, Shanghai is the shopping city par excellence in China. Xujiahui and Nanjing Road are just a few of the shopping spots in this metropolis of millions. If you want to holiday in Shanghai, you can also travel to some interesting suburbs, out of the high-rise landscape and into the idyll.
8 Shenzhen – Shenzhen was created as a special economic zone around the former colony of Hong Kong and has experienced a huge economic boom over the past 20 years, with no end in sight.
9 Suzhou – A smaller metropolis about 100km west of Shanghai is Suzhou (pronounced Su-dscho). The listing of the entire downtown of Suzhou as a Unesco World Heritage Site should speak for itself. Suzhou was and is the center of silk production in China. Located at the intersection between the Imperial Canal and the Yangtze River, it owes its economic upswing not only to its convenient location, but above all to the Chinese government's silk monopoly up until the 19th century.
10 Wenzhou – Wenzhou is a small, sleepy metropolis in the south of Zhejiang. Anyone who misses narrow shopping streets and Chinese smells in Beijing and Shanghai will get their money's worth here. The parks of the city are also very beautiful and invite the residents to make music and the tourists to linger. Since Wenzhou has a subtropical climate, a visit is advisable, especially in the winter months.
11 Wuhan – Wuhan is the capital of Hubei Province. Wuhan is considered a smoldering oven, and it gets quite hot in the summer months. On the other hand, in the cloudy winter months, the temperatures only reach values around the freezing point. A well-known attraction is the Yellow Crane Pagoda, which should not be visited around the New Year festival.
12 Lhasa – Lhasa is the capital of the autonomous province of Tibet. It is famous for the Potala, the residence of the Dalai Lama. In addition to the Potala, the Jokhang Monastery and the Norbulingka Palace (the traditional summer residence of the Dalai Lama) are also UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

13 Hong Kong

14 Macao


Travel Destination in China

Summer Palace contains spacious park, residential buildings, temples and many pavilions that lie on the shores of the artificial lake.


North China

Ancient Great Wall is probably the most famous site China was constructed the country from the Northern nomadic tribes.

Hanging Temple is a religious complex perched on a side of a mountain in Shanxi province of China.

Qin I mausoleum is famous for a huge Terracotta Army buried with the Emperor Quin I.

Ming Dynasty Tombs Thirteen Tombs of the Ming Dynasty are located 30 mi (45 km) Northwest of Bejing in China.

 Putuo Zongcheng Temple is a Buddhist religious complex situated in a Hebei Province in China. Its construction began during Qing Dynasty.

Yungang Grottoes is a massive religious complex carved from a side of a mountain.


Central China

Huangshan Mountains are located in Anhui province these mountains started their unique formation 100 million years ago.

Wulingyuan Mountains are located in Hunan Province has some of the most amazing geological formations.


Southwest China

Guilin Hills are picturesque geological formations on a shores of beautiful rivers.

Picturesque Jiuzhaigou Valley lies in Sichuan Province of China.


Gansu and Quinghai

Medieval Jiayuguan Castle is a beatiful fort with its unique Chinese architecture.



Gyantse Castle is a medieval citadel situated in Gyantse, Xigazê Prefecture in China. It was constructed in 1390.


How to get here

Entry requirements

A tourist visa for a single entry and 30 days stay costs over 100€ including the non-avoidable service fee (as of Nov 2019). In Austria and Switzerland, contact the embassy or consulate. Visas are not issued at airports or borders. For a tourist visa, a passport that is still valid for at least six months is required and for children a child ID card or children's passport is required. You must also present flight tickets and confirmation of booked accommodation. Anyone who has visited a number of African countries must also present a health certificate from their doctor. It is advisable to apply for the visa at least one month before departure. Most visas are only valid for 3 months, so do not apply too early. All arriving foreigners are fingerprinted.

Those who intend to visit Hong Kong or Macau on their itinerary and then continue to the PRC will need a multiple-entry visa. A single-entry visa is no longer valid when crossing the border into Hong Kong or Macau SAR. Alternatively, you have the option of applying for a new visa in Hong Kong or Macau.

Under no circumstances should you exceed the length of stay permitted in the visa. This entails a hefty fine, the amount of which is calculated based on the number of days overrun. Departure is only possible after payment and issue of a new visa.

Entry into the Tibet Autonomous Region is only possible with a special permit.

Foreigners who stay in one place for more than 24 hours are required to report to the local police. If you stay in a hotel, the hotel automatically accepts this message, for which you have to have your passport copied at the hotel. If you are accommodated privately, the respective host must make the report. If you are studying abroad, you have to report to the police yourself. It is best to take a Chinese friend with you. For international students who live on campus but not in an official dormitory, the police may require you to present a Chinese rental agreement. However, the Chinese rental contract only has to contain the rent amount, names of the tenant and landlord, the duration, the location of the apartment and a signature of the tenant and landlord. The help of a Chinese friend or his Chinese buddy from the university is worth its weight in gold.

Visa-free short-term stays in transit: Citizens of 51 nations, including all Schengen countries, can enter China for 72 hours without a visa when entering certain airports, provided they present a confirmed onward flight. Except on arrival in Beijing (Beijing Shoudu Guoji Jichang, PEK), where the permit can be obtained locally, an application must be submitted through the airline. Departures via locations other than the airport of entry are not permitted. Except for Beijing, this regulation applies to flights via Shanghai* (all airports), Guangzhou, Chengdu, Chongqing, Shenyang, Dalian, Harbin, Xian, Guilin, Kunming, Hangzhou* (HGH), Wuhan, Tianjin, Qingdao, Nanjing* (NKG ), Changsha and Xiamen (For places marked with *, the length of stay has been extended to a maximum of 144 hours since Jan. 30, 2016). The aforementioned registration obligation also applies to these stays. Any, even short-term overdrafts must be discussed with the authorities.



Most Europeans visiting China arrive by plane. A number of Chinese cities are served by direct flights from Europe, including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Nanjing, Xi'an, Chengdu, Qingdao, Shenyang and Hong Kong. Apart from that, every major Chinese city can be reached via a transfer connection. If you plan ahead and look for something, you can get tickets for less than €600 (as of Nov 2015). The difference in quality between European and Chinese airlines is now negligible.

Anyone departing from Europe and changing to a domestic flight at a Chinese airport must make sure that their luggage has been checked through to the destination airport or whether they have to take it through customs at the transfer airport and check it in again. Until recently, check-through to the final airport was not possible. Outward flight from Germany to Bangkok, Thailand with Eurowings costs between 200 and 300 €, depending on how early you book. There are often very cheap flights from Bangkok to various countries in East Asia, for example China, as well as Southeast Asia, for example Singapore (as of Feb 2017).

The internationally applicable safety regulations also apply in China, and this also applies to domestic flights.



Beijing is a terminus of the Trans-Siberian Railway. You can also enter the territory of the People's Republic of China by train from Hong Kong, Vietnam and North Korea. The border control takes place either at the destination station, or you have to leave the train for the formalities.



There are international bus connections to Chinese cities from some of China's neighboring countries, especially in Southeast Asia. You can also travel directly to selected cities on the Chinese side by bus from Hong Kong and Macau. For the border controls you usually have to leave the vehicle. Some connections are not open to foreigners.

Entering China with your own car or motorcycle is difficult and sometimes involves considerable costs. Chinese license plates and a Chinese driver's license are required. Furthermore, a guide (watchdog) is necessary. For motorcycles, this means that an additional vehicle must be included. As a result, the cost of a stay can quickly amount to several thousand euros (e.g. 3100€ for 4 motorcycles in the province of Xinjiang for a 5-day stay, entry Torugart Pass via Kashgar, Aksu to Chorgas for exit to Kazakhstan).

The Beijing Traffic Management Bureau offers relatively good information. Here you can find detailed information in English and Chinese.

Entering the country by bicycle as your own means of transport is relatively uncomplicated. The former main means of transport in China is increasingly being replaced by motor vehicles, but it is still widespread.



There are several ferry connections to coastal cities in the People's Republic of China from Hong Kong and Macau. Information and tickets are available at the respective ferry terminals. The exit formalities take place before boarding the ship, the entry formalities after leaving the ship on the Chinese side.


Local transport

By plane
Flying has been booming in China for about ten years. Almost every major Chinese city has an airport, which in many cases is newly built and generously dimensioned. The number of flight connections is also increasing rapidly. The numerous Chinese airlines mostly own aircraft recently procured from western countries. Flying is therefore no less safe in China than in Europe.

Domestic flight tickets cost the same regardless of the airline. However, it is common for discounts to be granted depending on the booking situation. For this reason, it is advisable to book flight tickets locally or through a Chinese booking portal - the largest of these portals is Abroad, prices for Chinese domestic flights are usually significantly more expensive.

The airports in Chinese cities are often located very far outside of the cities and are not always optimally connected in terms of transport. Delays and flight cancellations are not uncommon. For this reason, when planning your trip, you should always check whether the same route could not be covered more comfortably by high-speed train.

Those wishing to fly from China to Hong Kong or Macau by plane must note that these flights are considered international flights. It is usually much cheaper to fly to Shenzhen or Zhuhai and cross the border overland from there. International flights with China as the starting point are usually significantly more expensive than abroad.

By train
China has been building a high-speed network since 2006, which is already by far the longest in the world and is being expanded rapidly. The vehicles that run on the high-speed lines are made in China but incorporate European and/or Japanese technology. With the new routes, new stations with huge dimensions have also emerged, so that a journey with the high-speed train is a very relaxed form of travel. On many routes, the train is the better and cheaper alternative to the plane.

Away from the high-speed network, there is a conventional rail network on which trains of various categories and equipment run. These either connect regions where high-speed has not yet penetrated or cater to an audience for whom high-speed is not affordable.

The category of a train can be recognized by its number. The following categories exist:
Bullet trains are numbered G (高速 gāosù) or C (城际 chéngjì). They drive between the major cities at up to 300km/h and, depending on the number, stop at a few or very few stations.
Trains numbered D (动车 dòngchē) travel up to 200km/h and offer comfort similar to G or C trains. They are also available in a night train version with sleeping cars.
Trains numbered Z (直达 zhídá) connect major cities with direct services without many intermediate stops. These are often night trains with a higher level of comfort and the latest rolling stock. They are a very comfortable and usually cheaper alternative to a longer journey on the high-speed train.
Until a few years ago, the express trains T (特快 tèkuài) were the best that the Chinese railways had to offer. Many of these trains have given way to high speed trains and are now found as a cheaper alternative to high speed trains and on secondary routes. They are slower than the Z trains, stop more often and have older carriages.
Trains beginning with K (快速 kuàisù) are slower and older than those beginning with T.
Trains without letters are the slowest and oldest. They are the cheapest way to travel and are preferred by migrant workers. Many of these trains run off the main traffic routes, but tourists rarely see them.

There are few trains that start with other letters (regional or special trains).

There are two to three compartment classes in the high-speed trains:
Hard sitting (硬座) or second class means 2:3 seating on seats that cannot be adjusted. They are slightly narrower than in European second class.
Soft seating (软座) or first class means 2:2 seating and seat adjustability. It roughly corresponds to European first class. Recommended for overweight foreigners. More cultured fellow travelers. Some trains still offer business class (商务座).

No standing room tickets will be sold.

The conventional trains offer:
Soft lie (软卧) in four-man compartments, comparable to the European sleeper
Hard couchettes (硬卧) in six-man compartments, like European couchette cars, but without a compartment door
Soft seat (软座), comparable to European first class
Hard sitting (硬座), comparable to European second class, depending on the age of the carriage. However, on trains that cater to migrant workers, one can also come across bench seats with 3:3 seating, the backs of which are built at a 90-degree angle and the seat surface is of minimal size and padding.
Unreserved (无座) usually means standing room. Such tickets are sold unlimited and also for long distances. The price is identical to that of the hard sitting card. Around public holidays, visitors can also be embarrassed to have to travel a longer distance without a seat.

Longer rides in hard-pack compartments are a good way to get in touch with the average Chinese. If you have enough time, you can definitely try it out. Fellow travelers will turn out to be loud, cordial and outgoing, soon you'll be sharing food, looking at photos on your cell phone and playing cards - even if you speak little Chinese.

You can buy tickets at the train stations or at one of the ticket offices scattered around the towns. All tickets are personalized, so you have to show your passport when you buy a ticket. Ticket sales usually start 20 days before the train departs. When demand is low, you can just go to the train station and get a ticket for the next train; in the summer holidays or around public holidays, this procedure involves the risk of only traveling after a long waiting time or in a standing room. All tickets are only valid for a specific train on a specific date, so it is highly recommended to find out the number of the train you want and to insist on that train when making your purchase. Otherwise you risk arriving at your destination at an impossible time. The sales staff usually only speaks Chinese; those who do not speak Chinese must either get help from a native speaker or write down the necessary data. Don't expect great advice at the counter, if you need help you should go to a travel agent or a helpful citizen.

China Railways Internet Ticket Sales ( is reserved for Chinese ID card holders. However, as a foreigner you can use it to look up departure and arrival times, train numbers, ticket prices and availability. In the future, China Railways plans to abolish printed tickets.

Most Chinese cities have multiple train stations. The correct station is on the ticket, under no circumstances should you go to another station. You can only enter the main hall of Chinese train stations with a valid ticket. At the station entrance, the luggage is x-rayed and the ticket and the corresponding ID are checked. You wait for the train in your own waiting room, and you can only step onto the platform shortly before the train departs. Because of these procedures and the size of the buildings, it is advisable to be at the station at least 20 minutes before the train departs. The ticket can be checked during the journey, in any case you need it at the destination station to get out of the station. During the journey you can buy food and drinks according to Chinese taste, tea water is available free of charge in every carriage. The punctuality of the trains is surprisingly high given the sometimes long distances. The hygienic condition of the toilets depends on the train category and deteriorates over the course of a long journey. You should bring your own paper and soap.

Cost examples (as of January 2019): If you want to travel from Beijing to Xi'an, you can choose between a high-speed train for the 1212km (4.5 to 6 hours, 515¥ hard seat, 825¥ soft seat, 1627¥ business, 12 trains per day) or a night train (11.5 to 14.5 hours, ¥156 sit hard, ¥268 lie hard, ¥422 lie soft, 8 trains per day). If you simply ask for a Beijing-Xi'an ticket at the counter, you risk being booked on Z151: arrival Xi'an 03:23. So you should insist on Z19 (Beijing - Xi'an non-stop, arrival 8am). Those who enjoy long journeys by train can take the night train from Beijing to Kunming (4 trains per day, 34 to 44 hours, 302¥ sit hard, 513¥ lie hard, 814¥ lie soft). You can get from Shanghai to Beijing by Chinese railways' racehorse - train G2 or G4 - in 4:24 hours (hard seated 554¥, 290km/h average speed). If you want to mingle with the common people in a sustainable way, you can also choose train 1462 and cover the distance in 22 hours at ¥156 - average speed 59 km/h.

Departure time and delay: In contrast to the more common delays in Germany, these are very rare in China. In China you have to reckon with the fact that the train sometimes even leaves too early. In practice, this means that it is quite possible that if you arrive at the platform 3 minutes before departure and therefore still 3 minutes before departure, the railway staff will not let you onto the train in order to avoid a delay. In part, however, you can still convince the railway staff to let you board.


With the long-distance bus

Intercity buses are a popular means of transport in China and are an alternative to air and rail connections. They also enable almost every connection between larger cities. In some areas there are only bus connections. The prices for bus trips are low, especially in remote areas, but the vehicles can be in questionable technical condition, and the travel comfort is correspondingly poor. Sleeper buses are also available on longer routes. In most cases, the tickets can be obtained directly before departure, as there are enough places; usually you have to show your passport here as well. Buses are therefore an alternative if the trains are fully booked. Every city has several bus stations, you usually have to ask for the correct station. English is also not spoken at the bus station; it is necessary to be able to say the destination in Chinese or have it written down. The vehicles usually drive back and forth between two cities, these two cities are written in huge signs on the front window of the bus in question.

For longer distances, the bus is the least safe means of transport. Although armed robberies on intercity buses have become very rare, Chinese television shows terrible traffic accidents with fatalities every day. In the event of accidents, traffic jams or road closures, the travel time may significantly exceed the allotted time. If in doubt, train or even plane are preferable.



In recent years, subway lines have been put into operation in several cities; the subways in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou are among the largest in the world. The systems work the same way across China: You buy your ticket (plastic chip or card) from a machine, which can also be operated in English. With this ticket you pass the barriers to the platform. When leaving the subway area, you pass the barriers with the same ticket. Subway tickets are very cheap, starting at 2¥ and for 10¥ you can go all over Shanghai. If you plan to stay longer in a city, you can get a value card to save yourself the frequent ticket purchases. In some cities it is also possible to cross the barriers using a mobile app.

Especially during rush hour you have to be prepared for large crowds on the platforms and the vehicles, especially at transfer stations. Since passengers' luggage is scanned at all subway stations, there are often crowds and delays here as well. It is important to plan enough time and to take care of your valuables.


With the taxi

Taxis are very popular and widespread as a means of transportation in China. They are considerably cheaper than in Europe and even a longer journey usually only costs a few euros. Taxis in all major cities are metered. Most drivers are honest and turn on the taximeter without any special request. Sometimes a fuel surcharge of 1¥ or 2¥ is added to the taxometer price. As in all travel countries, it makes sense to find out about the taxi prices on the Internet beforehand so that you don't get ripped off. In China, however, this is often not a problem. As a rule, you stop an empty taxi with a hand signal. At certain times - e.g. B. when the driver is the shift changer, when it rains suddenly or at a major event, it can be difficult or impossible to get a taxi. In this case one must either reserve one in advance (negotiate!) or use subway, bus or private vehicle. You can also hire a taxi for a whole day, for example to visit sights outside of the cities, in which case you have to negotiate with the driver. In smaller provincial towns, expect to pay ¥500-600 per day.

Taxi drivers hardly ever speak English, and supposedly international words like “airport” are often not understood. It can happen that drivers refuse boarding because communication with the foreigner is too difficult, the distance is too short, there is a shift change or there is a traffic jam. In any case, you should be able to say your destination in Chinese or have written it down in Chinese. Under certain circumstances (e.g. high prices or fuel shortages) all drivers consistently refuse to use the taximeter, and then you are forced to negotiate. Many cities also have drivers without a license (“black cabs”). Only those who speak Chinese well and know the way to their destination can board a black taxi with a clear conscience. Otherwise, as a foreigner, you should avoid this if possible, as there is a risk of fraud or even robbery. The taxi drivers do not expect a tip, but round up or down to the full yuan and usually give change without hesitation.

The taxi industry is also going digital in China. The currently most popular taxi app is called DiDi, which took over Uber China in 2016. As a rule, after ordering a taxi service, the driver calls you to agree on the exact starting point of the journey. Nevertheless, it is worthwhile to install this app before traveling to China, because you have to expect that the number of conventional taxis will continue to decrease. Various taxi app providers Didi Dache (滴滴打车), Kuaidi Dache (快的打车) and Co. can also be easily paid with payment apps such as Wechat. These are even cheaper than regular taxis and often have significantly better cars with more comfort. You can often pay directly via the taxi apps. A good knowledge of Chinese or the help of a Chinese friend is required to set up and order taxis. However, you should use these apps especially for longer stays.


With the city bus

All Chinese cities have an extensive urban bus system. However, the line maps, stops and destination displays are usually only available in Chinese, which is why they are usually of little use to the visitor. City buses are also the slowest mode of transportation in the city. Nevertheless, as a visitor you are sometimes dependent on buses, especially when no taxi is available.

The fares are very cheap (1¥ to 2¥ for a trip in the city), the fare is usually thrown into a designated box with the driver. If you pay with a prepaid card, you get a discount.


By bike and on foot

Cyclists shaped the image of Chinese cities up until the 1980s, having almost completely disappeared and slowly reappearing on the streets. Any visitor will be struck by the huge numbers of fellow bikers lining the roadsides. The Chinese use their bikes as sports equipment in parks or as a means of transport to the nearest subway station. The sometimes satanic air pollution, the recklessness of other road users and the bike paths and side streets that are often blocked with cars make cycling unattractive. This also applies to visitors, and there are only a few exceptions.

Few places in China are suitable for exploring on foot. Walking in a Chinese city means slaloming around vehicles parked on the sidewalk, lampposts, broken manhole covers, etc. This and the environmental noise, air pollution, long distances and possible summer heat make walking very tiring.

Users of GPS devices should note that in China the displayed values generally deviate from the actual situation due to government manipulation. In sensitive border areas, the margin of error can be 200-600 meters!



The standard Chinese language is Mandarin. Cantonese is spoken in Hong Kong and the adjacent province of Guangdong. Macau also has its own dialect, and almost every province south of Shanghai has its own dialect. However, the spelling is the same everywhere except in Taiwan and partly in Hong Kong. In Taiwan and partly in Hong Kong "Traditional Chinese" is written, on the mainland "Simplified Chinese". Because of the strong dialects, it actually happens that northern and southern Chinese have to communicate in a foreign language.

Chinese consists of numerous so-called homonyms, words that can have several meanings when pronounced the same way. The Chinese know from the context what is meant. The Chinese script consists of tens of thousands of characters in pictogram form, but many are names. Pupils leave school with a knowledge of around 3,500 characters, students end up with maybe 5,000 characters. In order to be able to read a newspaper to some extent, 3,000 characters should be enough. But the grammar is much simpler. There are no cases or articles. Conversely, the Chinese regularly despair of why the girl is called, even though she is female. Translated into Chinese it means "I beat you" and "You beat me". There are many foreigners who after a few years in China speak quite well but cannot read. The Chinese, on the other hand, actually have a lot of trouble pronouncing the R. The trick is to teach yourself the R over weeks of gargling.

Those who do not speak Chinese will face major problems in some parts of the country. While acceptable English is usually spoken in hotels and restaurants along the classic tourist paths and you can also get help buying train tickets or excursions, you have to be very patient in other parts of the country. Chinese learn English at school, but the exams are written. This leads to the phenomenon that it is hard to find anyone who can speak English, but even away from the major tourist centers, almost all shops have their trade written not only in Chinese but also in English characters above the entrance.

English is usually not a problem at hotel receptions, but other hotel employees can often only understand important phrases, e.g. B. Name prices. Ticket machines in public subway stations can also be operated in English and are easy to use. In tourist towns there are also ticket offices almost everywhere, English is spoken quite well here. Anyone who takes the bus should know how to do it, nobody speaks English here. This also applies expressly to all taxi drivers, who do not need to be addressed with their own names or keywords such as “Airport” or “Railway Station”, which are known worldwide. Street vendors at tourist attractions usually speak enough English to negotiate prices. Most English is best for traffickers who want to take tourists to an overpriced bar (see security).

It is definitely worth bringing important words in Chinese characters with you or, for example, having the hotel or tour guide write them down. However, there is no guarantee that if you show people the sign for the bus station, they will also show you the way there. However, China is also a country undergoing major changes and so things could get much easier in the coming years. A clear Westernization can be seen throughout the country.

Western travelers have one advantage: in China, too, only the Arabic numerals that are customary here are now used. The Chinese script has its own numbers, but the system is so complicated that it is only used in bookkeeping. Otherwise all numbers like e.g. B. Prices in the numbers 0-9 known to us.

The standard greeting in China, which can be used at any time of the day or night, is Ni Hao, which corresponds to the German Guten Tag, but literally means you well. However, it should be pronounced separately as Ni-hau, since niau means urine. When ordering food in restaurants, it is advisable to write down the characters and the meaning of different foods and animals. Examples are meat, soup, water, cola, or animals such as duck, pig, beef, etc. It is easy to form characters from the two characters pig and meat, which then mean pork.

In today's modern times, it is also recommended to use apps such as the partly free Pleco software.



China's currency is Renminbi (RMB), which is usually abbreviated to Yuan (= meter for RMB) or colloquially Kuai. All three names mean the same thing. The next smallest unit is jiao. 10 jiao equals one RMB. A jiao is worth 10 fen, the next smaller unit, but there are no coins or bills for it.

For 1 € you currently get about 7.34¥. In Europe, cash can be exchanged at a very poor rate. You should only take a minimum amount with you and only have cash with you in case of an absolute emergency. With credit cards, you hardly need this emergency money anymore. Many hotels exchange at the official exchange rate without any problems. There is an additional fee for withdrawals by EC card. You can import a maximum of 20,000 yuan to China, but in view of the poor exchange rates, that would be pointless for normal tourists anyway.

Sometimes the exchange rates for German credit cards are worse than those in exchange offices and hotels. Here it depends very much on the region and the place in China and you should inform yourself beforehand.

If you are in China for a longer period of time, it is a good idea to let Chinese friends show you how payment apps such as B. Wechat (like Whatsapp but with a payment function and other functions) and can thus pay by scanning a QR code. This payment method is very widespread in China.

Groceries are considerably cheaper than in Europe. Beverage bottles such as 0.5 ℓ Cola cost about 3¥uan, even at large attractions no more than 5 ¥. A can of Coke (0.33 ℓ) can often be had for ¥1 in restaurants in Xiamen. Water is even cheaper. Pastries in a bakery also only cost a few ¥uan, with a few euros you can feed a whole family in a bakery. Smaller food markets are ubiquitous, prices are low here too.

Basically, China is a country with drastic, sometimes unbelievable price differences. Especially the big shopping streets in Beijing and Shanghai have a price level that takes your breath away. You can get everything for that here. The goods there are most likely genuine. As urban dwellers become more prosperous, it becomes important to the Chinese to be seen with genuine branded goods. Buying fakes is now considered embarrassing by many in China. You also have to be careful at insect markets or other places with exotic food. The price is often displayed at the top of the stand and these prices are often disproportionately high. So you should check the prices or ask before you buy.

The prices in China are sometimes surprisingly high, especially for electronics. The following should be bought with caution as the prices are hardly cheaper or the quality is not right:
Accessories for printers, ink cartridges etc.
Any computer material
DVD player, television
Photo equipment is sometimes drastically more expensive (factor 2 to 3)

Some of the following things can be purchased at a much lower price:
DVDs, VideoCDs are also available in legal shops from about 7 RMB each. Ask for a discount for larger purchases.
Books, here are discounts of up to 80% on German prices. English literature can be found in the larger bookshops.
Clothes (clothes, if branded, can be more expensive than here, which still doesn't protect the buyer from fakes. Also, the Chinese market still specializes in smaller sizes, 3XL or shoe size 47 are hard to come by there.)

Attention: There are numerous illegal copies of branded goods of all kinds in circulation. Caution is required, especially with electronic media, in order not to be liable to prosecution in Germany. At the typical tourist markets at sights, nothing is guaranteed to be real. The Chinese themselves don't shop there because it's too expensive. However, one can find certain services there, such as calligraphy and have personal souvenirs made.

Bars in hotels or on cruise ships can take European prices or even be higher. 5 euros for a cup of coffee is possible.

European tourism companies often have their trips carried out by a local partner. Package tourists are forcibly dragged to sales events, which is common in China. The tour guides must get proof that they have taken the group there. A large package travel provider once formulated in its catalog that it was trying to ensure that there would be no more than one a day. Sometimes you can definitely learn something in real companies, sometimes only pseudo-workers are presented for show purposes, who only work for the seconds in which the tourists are in sight. These shops are very expensive, you can spend thousands of euros there. The only reason to buy there at all is that the tour operators guarantee to refund the money if the goods are counterfeit.

Sellers in China are very aggressive. Sales staff, even if they are obviously only employees, run after the tourist and it is difficult to fend them off.

Typical travel souvenirs:
Chinese tea
Stamps with Chinese and Latin characters, e.g. B. with your own name or that of loved ones. The best place to buy them is at the Great Wall at Badaling.
Tsingtao Beer Named after the brewery that was once founded as Germania Brewery by German settlers.

It is important in China that you negotiate the price before buying. You point to the item you want and take it. After that, you can negotiate the price verbally if you speak Chinese, or alternatively have the sales price shown to you on your cell phone or the seller's calculator and then type in the price you are willing to pay in yuan on your cell phone. You can always at least halve the original price. If you negotiate well and hard, discounts of 90% and more can be achieved. In normal food supermarkets, fixed restaurants and in public facilities such as train stations, etc., it is admittedly not customary to bargain.



Food is central to Chinese culture and food is very important to the Chinese. It's not for nothing that people like to say chi fan le ma (Have you eaten yet?) instead of Ni Hao as a greeting. In recent years, however, the Chinese have become quite alienated from their favorite topic of food. The many food scandals, which also cost human lives, have left too deep a mark. The greed for profit promoted by the government has also made many food producers lose their inhibitions and prudence.

The dishes that are served in China differ significantly from the Chinese cuisine that we get in Germany at the Chinese restaurant on the corner. The food can also be significantly hotter in China. The Chinese eat warm food three times a day. So hotel with Chinese breakfast means fried noodles, egg rice, soup and the like. You can also get warm or hot orange juice at the Chinese breakfast in Chinese hotels. Warm or hot water is also very common. The Chinese also like to drink non-chilled beer, as it is believed that it is better for the stomach and therefore healthier.

The Chinese kitchen is basically an all-recycling kitchen. Pig noses, chicken feet, even scorpions are eaten. However, no pets. Cats not at all, dogs only if they are specially bred meat dogs. However, many Chinese do not eat dogs, scorpions or other exotic foods for the rest of their lives. The package tourist does not have to be afraid that such bizarre foods will be foisted under some breading. The food that you get served as an average tourist essentially corresponds to what is known from Chinese restaurants. For image reasons, the Chinese government wants to significantly limit the consumption of animals that are considered pets elsewhere. The majority of Chinese eat pork, beef, poultry, fish and other seafood. Fish and sea creatures are particularly common in coastal towns. There is often a very varied and very good cuisine in this area with special regional dishes. If you still want exotic dishes such as dogs, snakes, etc., you have to search specifically for them, as only very few restaurants offer them and often only at special times. Of course, Chinese friends are very helpful in finding such restaurants and often wonder what people from the West want to try. The prices for these exotic dishes are often particularly high.

Contrary to popular belief in the West, rice is rarely used in many dishes. It is only served if you are not full. You can often order it separately. The large selection of dishes that are often eaten with others at the same time at a round turntable makes rice completely unnecessary. These round revolving tables are more likely to be found in expensive restaurants and you usually only sit at such tables if you are eating with a larger group.

Street food stalls abound in China. One often hears from people who live longer in China that they are a good supply option if you know the right ones. The turnover is so high that nothing can get old there. They are less suitable for short-term travelers because they quickly have to reckon with diarrhea due to the unfamiliar diet. Here, as everywhere else in the world, it is important to ensure that the food is fresh and well-cooked. At street stalls you can often find vegetables and especially good fruit at reasonable prices. Here you should make sure that these are freshly peeled and cut in front of your eyes. In Xiamen, a whole mango freshly peeled and cut costs about ¥12 to 15 (depending on the size of the mango) (as of Jan 2017) Unpeeled and uncut mangoes are of course also cheaper. Of course, the regionally occurring fruit such as mangoes, dragon fruit, etc. also tastes much better because it is not harvested unripe and transported for a long time.

Especially compared to Germany, Chinese dishes are much fresher. This shows up e.g. B. in restaurants where there are often aquariums where you can choose the still living fish, lobster, etc. These are then killed in the kitchen and prepared and served absolutely fresh. Flavor enhancers and other additives are often used depending on the price range of the restaurants. Allergy sufferers should also make sure that there is nothing in it that they are allergic to. For example nuts etc.

For brave tourists, it is recommended to just go to a restaurant and order whatever is on the menu. In the vast majority of cases you get outstanding tasting dishes that you would not expect. Of course, you can also use vocabulary to limit the dishes to e.g. B. Soup with pork or soup with noodles.

Vegetarian and vegan restaurants are rather unusual. But here, too, there is more and more demand from tourists as well as locals and the offer is constantly expanding. Especially in the big cities.

The Peking duck (Chinese: 北京烤鴨 / 北京烤鸭, běijīng kǎoyā) is one of the most famous dishes in Chinese cuisine and is mostly served in specialized restaurants. The duck is shown to guests, then the skin is cut into even diamonds, the fat scraped off and served in rolled-up pancakes with a sauce and spring onions as a starter. The meat is then cut into bite-sized, thin slices and served as a main course with various side dishes.
Dim Sum (Chinese: 點心 / 点心) are small filled dumplings that are usually served steamed or fried in bamboo baskets. We also know this dough as Dampfnudel. It is found in innumerable variants, especially in the south and east of China. When eating, you should be careful because the filling is often very hot. This filling - if available - can be hearty or sweet, e.g. B. minced meat or date sauce. Beans or fibrous, dried pork (which then looks like fluff) are also popular. In practice you have to be surprised.

Françoise Hauser: China en Wok. In: In Asia, Vol.6 (November/December) (2007). - culinary excursion to China


Special restaurants and grocery stores

In this section, special restaurants and grocery stores, such as bakeries and co. presented.

Xiamen City, Fujian Province
Paulaner Brauhaus, Kempinski Hotel Xiamen, No. 98 Hubin Middle Road, Siming District, 361004 Xiamen, Fujian Province, China. Tel: +86 (0) 592 235-1613, Fax: +86 (0) 592 235-1999, Email: A large German restaurant on the ground floor of the "Kempinski Hotel Xiamen" in Xiamen. There is German beer, German sausages and other German specialties. In 2016/2017 there was a German chef. This restaurant was also known as a monthly meeting point for all Germans, Austrians and Swiss (as of Feb 2017). I personally do not know whether this is still the case and whether there is still a German chef. The music is quite good. Compared to Chinese restaurants, the prices are significantly more expensive and range in the middle to upper price range. Instead of about 15-25¥ as in cheap and good Chinese restaurants, you have to be prepared for about 230-250¥. Unfortunately, like many western restaurants, this restaurant has the bad habit of adding a flat tip to the bill of 10 to 20% (as of Feb 2017). The quality of the food was very close to German sausages and the dishes (made according to a German recipe) were good to very good. Open: Sun-Sat 17:30-23:30. Accepted payment methods: Unionpay, Visa, Master, American Express, JCB, Diners Club, Cash, WeChat pay, Ali pay.

Changsha City, Hunan Province
Bach's Bakery, Xiang Chun Xiang #8, Kai Fu Qu, Changsha, Hunan, China (The address is an alleyway, not a street, so it's not easy to find.). Tel: +86 731 8862 6264. The German bakery (Chinese name for "Bach" is "Ba He") specifically recruits deaf people. It is based in Changsha City, Hunan Province. It has been managed by the German Uwe Brutzer (Chinese name: Wu Zhengrong) and his wife Dorothee Brutzer (Chinese name: Du Xuehui) since it was founded in 2011. Open: Mon-Sat 8am-8pm, Sun closed.

Xihulou (西湖楼, English West Lake Chamber), HongShan Tourism District JinMa Food City, Changsha, China (Chinese: 长沙市开福区马栏山西湖楼酒家). Tel: +86 731 8425 8188, Email: The restaurant in Changsha, the capital of the central Chinese province of Hunan, is one of the largest restaurants in the world. With its 4,000 seats it is considered the largest restaurant in Asia; after being entered in the Guinness Book of World Records as the largest Chinese restaurant in the world. Xihulou was founded in 2000 at the foot of West Lake Mountain in the medieval city of Liuyang by Ms. Qin Lingzhi. At the beginning of 2003, the construction of the new catering facility of unprecedented scale began in the Kaifu district of the city of Changsha. After more than a year of construction, the new West Lake Chamber was opened in October 2004. Located 20 minutes from Huanghua International Airport, the restaurant complex covers an area of 88 mu (about 5.8 hectares) in the developing Jinma Restaurant City. Opposite is Changsha's largest park, Yuehu Park. The numerous buildings and parks were built in the traditional architectural style. The whole complex includes four different areas. Area A includes 70 larger and smaller rooms, including the performance hall, where performances take place daily. Area B includes ten luxury private rooms in the style of imperial palaces. Area C includes nine luxury Cantonese-style booths, and Area D is a snack food street. Priority is given to traditional Chinese dishes of Hunan cuisine and Cantonese cuisine, which are prepared in five large kitchens. The restaurant employs 1,000 people, including 300 chefs. Approximately 700 chickens and 2,600 pounds of pork are processed each week. The restaurant complex offers large parking lots for buses and cars in front of its door. There will also be a hotel on the site. In October 2004, the Guinness Record Center Shanghai confirmed Xihulou as the largest restaurant in China. In May 2006, it received the "First 5-Star Tourism Restaurant" award from the Changsha City Tourism Bureau. Feature: Hunan cuisine.



In fact, even the biggest nightlife areas in Shanghai and other major cities are mostly "dead" around 11pm, nightlife takes place in most major cities like Shanghai, Beijing and Qingdao only in a small part of the city. After midnight this is mostly in "red light districts" where bars are still open. The Chinese don't really know nightlife, and in some cities there is no public transport at night, you have to rely on taxis. The prices in the bars can vary greatly, from €1 per beer to €10 and more, all variations are available. Don't be afraid to go to bars with locals; an interesting discussion can develop.

China is probably one of the few countries where you can get into the best clubs in the city for free. The tables in such clubs usually cost 1000 to 2000€ per night. There are also drinks like whiskey, beer, vodka, rum, cola etc. and snacks like nuts, watermelon very often free of charge. The only thing you have to do is write to the club manager/customer advisor via Wechat and tell them when and with many people you are coming. You can get the contact details from German or other foreign students in China. There can be no question of a dead nightlife at all. Partying until 5 a.m. is the norm among foreign students. In the past (approx. before 2012) foreign students even got money (approx. 80€ per night) for partying. This was and is of course illegal as a student visa does not allow you to work and you risked being expelled from the country. The background to this probably unique rule is that foreign students are primarily attracted to "white" Chinese visitors to the respective nightclubs. Chinese people often even ask you to come to their table and invite you to drinks and food. The "whites" are considered a status symbol. Here, however, caution is advised that one should not bear part of the costs later, although this occurs very rarely. For tourists who like to party and stay longer in China, it is therefore advisable to visit the local universities and ask the foreign students for the Wechat contact of the respective club manager. Especially at the end of the semester, the foreign students can tell you very well which clubs are the best and what kind of music is played. It should also be mentioned that this free regulation could not be established for bars.

Caution for weak drinkers: the Chinese like to drink to “Ex”, such a “competition” cannot harm a normal European man, you can also gain prestige with your Chinese friends in this way. Favorite beer is usually Tsingtao This on ex-drinking is introduced with the word Gānbēi (干杯), which means "Cheers" in German. Gānbēi doesn't always mean that you drink to "Ex".

Peking Opera is the representation of well-known Chinese fairy tales and myths. The performances are highly stylized, and understanding everything requires insider knowledge. The Beijing Opera has been suffering from a decline in audiences for years because the young Chinese are staying away.



Accommodation is available in all possible categories and price ranges. Since the Chinese also prefer to book via Internet portals and also rate the hotels there, the price level has also become a good indicator of the quality level. The hotel prices are higher in the metropolises than in the smaller towns. In the low season, hotel prices are significantly lower than in the high season.

In principle, hotels need a license in order to be able to accommodate foreigners. This rule is not always strictly followed: those who have the opportunity to go to the country, which is untouched by tourism, will also find accommodation there in hostels that do not have such a license. In places where the situation is tense (e.g. Xinjiang), this is impossible.

China's four and five-star hotels have a performance and price level that can be compared to European luxury hotels, especially in the metropolises. Those who can do without luxury will find numerous chains in China that offer cleanliness and decent comfort for prices around ¥300. Through booking sites like and others, you can find good and clean rooms with a good breakfast for less than 300 yuan (approx. 39 euros - as of March 31, 2020). If the sparse breakfast is laid out and you don't like it, it is advisable to book a room without breakfast and go to the nearby restaurants. If available, of course.

Due to the size of Chinese cities, it makes sense to choose accommodation that is convenient to places to visit and transportation. For example, five-star hotels in industrial parks often offer very cheap weekend rates, but they are far from tourist attractions and difficult to reach without a taxi. Due to the cheap taxi prices, a restaurant located a little further out is not a problem. The only important thing is to have the name and address in Chinese characters (if you don't speak Chinese) for the journey to and from the hotel, hostel etc. and to make sure that you use regular taxis - theirs Have taxi meters turned on too. In principle, it is advisable to book or reserve a room via the booking portal you trust. If you go to a hotel without booking, you ignore the posted room prices and ask in Chinese for the discounted price.

In general, the hotel room is paid for when you check in. Most hotels also require a deposit, which can be paid by credit card or cash. Checking in is usually a longer procedure, as the police registration has to be done at the same time. In the room there is usually free bottled water and numerous items that are to be paid for when used. Occasionally these items have fancy prices. Disposable toothbrushes, toothpaste and other hygiene items of dubious quality are usually available in the bathroom, and there are also breathing masks in the closet in case of fire. The mattresses in China are usually much harder than in Central Europe. Chinese hotels usually do not have non-smoking rooms, which is why the rooms smell more or less subtly of stale cigarette smoke. It's accepted practice to fuss at the front desk and ask for another room if it smells too strong or is otherwise not okay.

When checking out, the front desk staff will typically call the maid, who will check the room for consumption of chargeable items and theft. Only then will you get your deposit back. You definitely have to plan for these extra minutes. With a bit of luck, you can get items that you left in your room back straight away.



China is safe. There is crime and as a tourist you are a preferred destination like almost everywhere else in the world. Purses and valuables should therefore always be protected and the safe in the hotel should be used. Despite the generally low crime rate, depending on the city, there may be areas that are not recommended to visit at night.

Cash payment is preferred, but avoid carrying large amounts: 1,000 to 1,500 RMB should be the upper limit, except when paying at the hotel or similar. EC cards and credit cards work without any problems at most automatic teller machines (ATM). Danger! Some credit cards have to be activated for use abroad.

In the cities, the police are omnipresent, but you shouldn't get into overly dark alleys or red-light districts, since crime there, like everywhere else in the world, is massively higher. By the way, not everyone who looks like that is a cop. Most of the uniformed men standing to attention belong to private security services, even in public institutions. That doesn't stop these private security services from marching in a military goose-step that most military units in the world couldn't pull off.

Above all, the trick with the knockout drops is repeatedly reported. The supposedly nice companion, who you met in the disco or the hotel bar, mixes knockout drops into your drink when you go to the toilet. This can still happen in the disco or the hotel bar, but usually only in the hotel room. If you come to after 1-2 days you will find yourself robbed and your credit card plundered. It is advisable to never go "on tour" alone here.

The same applies to nocturnal walks in pub districts. Usually there are still a few deserted corners between the bases of the pub crawl - and these can be fatal. Usually two people come up to you - one holds out a knife or pistol, the other takes your wallet - and they're gone. A second person protects immensely here. If you get into such a situation, you should not play the hero, but hand out the money. An armed robbery and a murder differ only marginally in Chinese criminal law.

However, the following smuggler trick is much more common than the knockout drop scam: You are approached by young men or women who speak English or even German very well and have a lively conversation for a few minutes. A change of location to a nearby bar or tea room is then suggested. The bill that you get served there can reach four-digit sums in euros. Talking is safe, but definitely don't call. As a tourist, you can hardly escape this scam, especially in Beijing.

You also have to be careful of street vendors. First, negotiations or short rejection talks are often used for pickpocketing. Secondly, traders in Beijing in particular know that they are mostly dealing with newcomers to China. Counterfeit money is often given as change, because the dealer assumes that the tourist does not know the money that well.

Criticism of the government can create problems. The uprising on Tiananmen Square in particular is a taboo topic locally. The Chinese leadership is not stupid and they know that the Chinese are talking about it. But at least in the square itself, you don't want to hear that. There have been cases where tourist guides told their groups at Tiananmen Square about the student revolt in a foreign language, but plainclothes secret police understood that language. The tour guides were immediately arrested and the tour group was left without a guide.

Road traffic is a very significant source of danger. Traffic rules are almost completely ignored. Here you can see the sudden wealth of China. While it was still possible to ride bicycles or mopeds like singed pigs without major consequences, this led to dramatic accident figures with many fatalities within a few years as cars became more widespread. Although only one in ten Chinese owns a car, according to official figures, around 100,000 people lost their lives on the roads. However, anyone who has ever experienced Chinese traffic is more surprised that there are not many more. The attitude is certainly helpful: the Chinese take grotesque risks, but not aggressively. The other road user is not the enemy that you insult, but rather you think it will be all right. Almost "harmonious chaos". On the autobahn, people overtake on the left and right, maneuvering at intervals of one meter at speeds of 80 to 100 km/h. On country roads you share the lane with everything that has wheels or legs. The horn is honked regularly, which certainly prevents many accidents. The horn should make the other person aware that you are behind them. The law of the strongest or larger applies, according to which it is regulated who should withdraw and give way. The order is roughly truck, bus, car (taxis sometimes have priority), motorcycles, scooters, bicycles and only then pedestrians.

As in Vietnam, cross the road at traffic lights or zebra crossings whenever possible, although traffic in China is less congested and therefore easier to cross. Under no circumstances should you rely on a zebra crossing. Hardly anyone stops at a zebra crossing because of a pedestrian. Taxis also often run red lights, and they always do when they want to make a right turn. No motorist obeys any traffic rules because of a pedestrian. If you don't think about it, you'll have your first accident at the arrival airport. Before crossing, make sure that the vehicles still have enough distance to the zebra crossing and that you do not run directly into a vehicle. After that, you should walk briskly but at a steady pace in order to be predictable for drivers. Avoid fast sprints unless necessary. From the corner of your eye you should observe the speed and distance of the vehicles. You should avoid looking directly at the driver. This is usually interpreted in such a way that the pedestrian is careful and the driver no longer has to be careful. On the other hand, if you don't look directly, the drivers usually take care not to run over the pedestrian.



Traveling to China is stressful for your health: the long journey, the time change, the suddenly changed daily rhythm, the air pollution and, last but not least, the Chinese food mean that many tourists fall ill on the way. Diarrhoea, vomiting and coughing are particularly common. It is therefore advisable to consult your family doctor before you travel and to put together a small first-aid kit. Medicines are also available in China, but not the brands and/or compositions known in Europe. Anyone who has to take medication regularly should therefore take sufficient quantities with them. You should also talk to your family doctor about vaccinations. Most doctors recommend at least being vaccinated against hepatitis. You should also inquire about the vaccinations required by the Chinese government.

On site you have to follow certain rules to stay healthy. This includes not drinking tap water, not eating food from dodgy street stalls, eating lots of rice and avoiding overly oily or spicy foods at the beginning of the trip. With tap water, you shouldn't rely on boiling it in the hotel's own kettle. Although this kills bacteria, some of the water is contaminated with oils or other substances that cannot be removed in this way. Also, these substances are not always visible. But water bottles are very cheap and therefore also recommended for the preparation of tea. When it comes to water bottles, you should make sure that they are still sealed in their original condition. Bottled water is also recommended for brushing teeth. You should only eat well-cooked food that is still hot and peel fruit. Meat should be avoided on the street and in small snack bars without refrigeration. It is best to only eat fish that is absolutely fresh, i.e. only in restaurants that show you the live fish beforehand. Particular attention should be paid to personal hygiene. Of course, unprotected sexual contact should be avoided.

If you get sick in China and need medical help, it is best to have a doctor recommended who speaks English (or even German). In the metropolises there are international hospitals that cater to foreign patients. The Chinese healthcare system is also efficient outside of the major cities, although you will probably have to take a translator with you. In China, there are hardly any doctors in private practice like there are in Central Europe; you go to a hospital or a clinic, even for outpatient treatment. In any case, you have to pay a fee when registering, and treatment and medication are also to be paid for on the spot. Little attention is paid to privacy - several patients can be in the doctor's office at the same time. Those who are treated as inpatients usually come to a multi-bed room in which there are other patients and their relatives. As a foreigner you will feel slightly stared at. In China you will be prescribed many infusions and few oral medications, Chinese and Western medicine will be administered in combination. Large halls are available for the infusions, where nurses take care of the patients and TVs blare in every corner.

Many Chinese have a certain distrust in their health care system. Doctors are suspected of prescribing more expensive treatments and medicines than necessary, prescribing too long hospital stays and generally only thinking about their own earnings. There is also a fear of counterfeit medicines. Further information can be found under Practical information in the chapters on tropical diseases and traveling healthy.

Chinese toilets are unfamiliar to many western tourists. For more information and tips see Toilets in China.

According to the World Bank, 16 of the 20 cities with the greatest environmental pollution in the world are in China alone. Smog must be expected. This applies above all to the particularly affected cities such as Beijing, even more so in the winter months. The English Wikipedia article on smog in China gives a good overview of the problem and the cities affected. It is therefore advisable to buy certified FFP2 or FFP3 masks in Germany for the trip. Air filters for your own apartment are worthwhile for longer stays. The Chinese government publishes the exposure values via app and internet. These values are not always correct. For some cities such as Beijing you can therefore fall back on the readings of the American embassy and consulates. Xiamen, for example, is a very clean city in terms of air and roads and at the same time green.



China is a paradise for smokers. Most Chinese men and a growing minority of Chinese women smoke. Cigarettes are cheap, even western brands. With a few exceptions, smoking is everywhere, with no-smoking signs being mostly ignored. The government's half-hearted efforts to reduce tobacco abuse among the population seem to be having little effect.

Smoking is really taboo on planes, high-speed trains and better hospitals. The staff there ensure that the smoking ban is observed. Not permitted but mostly tolerated by staff, it is also in air-conditioned trains and buses, taxis, elevators and other enclosed spaces. If you are a foreigner in these places and ask the Chinese smoker to stop smoking, you can hope for support from the non-smoking Chinese.

Smoking is common practice in restaurants, in nightlife or in hotel rooms, and as a foreigner you will not be able to do anything about it. But there are also many restaurants where you don't smoke. There are also many hotels that offer non-smoking rooms.


Climate and travel time

In the south around Hong Kong, the climate corresponds roughly to a warmer, North African character, the central region around Shanghai & Nanjing has roughly the same weather as in southern Spain or Cyprus, i.e. about 1-2 colder months with temperatures around 0 degrees, rarely snow and in summer for about three months from June to August almost every day over 30 degrees, mostly 32-36 degrees.

The further north you go, the colder the climate gets. Beijing probably has a weather comparable to that in Poland, i.e. three to four really cold months, but still a warm summer, while the more inland provinces of Outer Mongolia can have -30°C in winter, but a quite pleasant climate in summer offer.

As a travel recommendation, if you like pleasantly warm but not hot weather, it can be said in general:
Winter: South China, incl. HK, Macao, Taiwan.
Late Autumn/Early Spring: South China, depending on the weather to Shanghai.
Autumn/Spring: Central China, areas around Shanghai and Nanjing.
Early Fall/Late Spring: Beijing, Inner Mongolia, south to Shanghai, weather permitting
Summer: northern provinces, it is warm almost all over China with temperatures above 40 degrees, i. H. summer is the least suitable for vacationing there.

The city of Xiamen is particularly worth visiting in summer and autumn. Autumn (September to October) is particularly suitable. Approximately May to October. The background is that November to around April the temperatures drop sensitively to around 13 to 17°C. From February to April there is sometimes heavy rainfall. In summer it is pretty hot (over 30 °C) and muggy. September to October temperatures range between 23 and 28°C and are very pleasant. Often there is also a light pleasant wind. Xiamen is also characterized by its very clean air, lots of greenery and beaches.


Rules and respect

One should never publicly discredit anyone; if someone has made a mistake, you can address the person, but it must be done politely and always with a solution that both sides can see. Also, you shouldn't criticize your Chinese interlocutor directly, but if possible through the flower. Also, this criticism should only be expressed in a one-to-one conversation and not in front of others.

While blowing your nose in public is completely normal in Germany, it is better not to do so in China. If you have to, you should turn away from the other person or table with your handkerchief. It is more tolerated in tourist areas, but at least you should not put the handkerchief in your pocket, but throw it away.

The Chinese, on the other hand, spit on the street floor with maximum glee and volume, or step just outside the shop or office where they work. Even if this spitting on the ground is not popular even among the Chinese, it persists.

Burping is also considered completely normal. It can often happen that the food that was ordered is not served in restaurants, especially when it comes to non-Chinese specialties. If the waiter speaks English or you speak Mandarin, you are welcome to ask. Naked criticism is not appropriate.

Children: China is a very child-friendly country. When you travel with children, you find that the Chinese are suddenly much more sociable than expected. Children are considered a status symbol and when they are blond they attract attention, even in the most touristy places. Souvenir photos with Europeans are very popular with Chinese from the western provinces, with (small) children the interest is even greater. Everyone wants to touch the beautiful blond hair and will incessantly explain that your child is beautiful. Of course, all this only happens with the consent of the parents and always with the utmost respect. In any case, you don't feel like you're on display, but on the contrary, as if everyone couldn't wish for anything better than getting to know you. The children themselves usually cope surprisingly well with the hustle and bustle.

Public nudity is frowned upon. Even going topless on the beach is not appropriate.

After several wars between China and Japan and a very cruel occupation of China by the Japanese, the historical relationship is strained to this day. This should be taken into account in discussions. In any case, the Chinese are of the opinion that the Japanese copied their culture from the Chinese.

Tipping was completely unknown until a few years ago. Thanks to foreign visitors, Chinese in the commercial and tourist centers now know what a tip is and accept it even when they don't expect it. In the provinces, it is still the case today that you should save on tips, where it can definitely be taken as an insult. Especially in larger western hotels and restaurants, a flat tip of 10 to 20% of the price is calculated. Unfortunately, this bad habit is increasing.


Post and telecommunications

It is always helpful to speak a few words of Mandarin, especially if you are planning longer trips to the western provinces. In the northern regions, Russian is helpful (the official, first foreign language in school) and in the south, French can sometimes also score points.

Internet is available practically everywhere in hotels via cable or WLAN, usually free of charge. The connections are quite fast, at least when they are accessed for the first time. However, once you have tried to open a page that could possibly be system-critical, the network becomes excruciatingly slow. The online appearances of ARD and ZDF are partially blocked, the portals of newspapers, however, are mostly accessible. Google and Facebook don't work at all. There are no problems with Wikivoyage. In particular, social networks such as Facebook, Twitter, search engines and porn sites are blocked. To circumvent this, paid VPNs are recommended. Free VPNs should be avoided for a variety of reasons. However, China's measures to control the Internet are becoming increasingly strict and VPN providers are also being partially or completely blocked. Of course, this should be checked before departure in order to be able to benefit from promotional campaigns.

If you don't take your own laptop with you: Hotels from mid-range upwards usually have a so-called business center, in which there are also Internet PCs. However, the prices are high (usually 1 yuan per minute) and the connection is slow. This is not good for more than short mails. On the other hand, if you bring your own device and want to type Chinese characters, you can often find free programs (so-called IME) on the Internet or in the operating system that can be installed afterwards.

Keyboards still have Latin letters in the QWERTY layout. But as soon as you open a program interface, everything is in Chinese. Of course, you can simply enter your desired website in the address line and it will be displayed in the desired language. Problems arise when the computer reports a question, which is then only in Chinese and you can only tell from the letters Y and N that it is a yes/no question. This is often used to confirm that passwords should be saved. If you want to delete your passwords and browser history at the end of a session, you have to work your way through Chinese-language menus. For security reasons, you should therefore redirect your e-mails to an e-mail account set up especially for the trip, which you can delete after the trip. And under no circumstances should you do online banking in hotels or internet cafes. Not least because the outdated Internet Explorer 6 is very widespread there.

Incidentally, the Chinese themselves type the pronunciation of the Chinese character into computers and mobile phones using Latin letters and receive a suggested list of possible Chinese characters as they type. That sounds cumbersome, but since the Chinese are practiced and you can directly select entire syllables or words, you can write with it quite quickly.

As already described in the area of food, transport, etc., it is advisable to use various apps such as Pleco (Pleco Software), Taxisapps, Wechat, etc. There are also many great map apps that also work in offline mode.

Mobile phone: In the past, it was not possible to use your own mobile phone in China because China uses its own mobile phone standards that are incompatible with western mobile phones. This has improved since models from Chinese manufacturers are also sold in Europe, and these mobile phones then also work in China. However, models from western manufacturers still do not work in China (exception: iPhone). You should refrain from buying a SIM card in China, even if it is possible without any problems, because then you will "enjoy" the Chinese censorship. If you surf exclusively in roaming via your home provider, you don't have the problem.

Postcard postage to Europe costs 4.50 yuan. The best place to hand in your postcards is at the hotel, sometimes a few yuan fees are added. The postage time to Europe is about one week.

There are numerous television stations in China, mostly from the state CCTV. CCTV News, also known as CCTV 9, broadcasts in English and provides minimum information about world events. As far as non-Chinese issues are concerned, the information is useful, otherwise it can become one-sided. German football results are also reported there or games are sometimes broadcast live on other channels, but then at night due to the time difference. Depending on the hotel, there are also the news channels BBC and CNN, and occasionally Deutsche Welle TV. The Chinese TV stations are full of military and historical films. Occasionally there are also German TV series, then of course dubbed by Chinese state television.



Today's People's Republic of China is the result of a two-hundred-year process in which the Chinese Empire was replaced and China was transformed into a modern state. The dramatic events that accompanied this process still shape the country's political actors today.


End of the empire (1911), republic (until 1914), beginning of the dictatorship of Yuan Shikai

Around 1800, China had reached its greatest expansion and economic power and produced about a third of all goods in the world. In terms of domestic and foreign policy, however, the Chinese empire was comparatively unstable and weak at the beginning of the 19th century. As in Europe, the population had grown rapidly, but industrialization only started with a great delay due to China's isolation from the outside world. The available arable land per capita had fallen. Hundreds of riots broke out; the Taiping Rebellion (1851-1864) is considered the most devastating war of the 19th century, the great Muslim rebellions were no less cruel wars. The trade balance developed negatively after the forced opening of China. The Qing Empire had little to oppose the increasingly aggressive foreign powers, neither in the first or second Opium War nor in the Sino-French War of 1885/86 and the Sino-Japanese War of 1895. Large areas in northern Manchuria and in East Turkestan were lost to the Russian Tsardom in the treaties of Aigun in 1858 and Beijing in 1860. In addition to these humiliating defeats came the Unequal Treaties, which in the course of the 19th century led to increasing heteronomy, loss of territory and high compensation payments to foreign states.

Foreign pressure on China led to the self-empowerment movement, to modernization in the education system and in the military, and the first Chinese began studying abroad. There were beginnings of industrialization, which in turn was largely driven by foreigners. However, the Hundred Days Reform initiated by Emperor Guangxu failed. The "Boxer Rebellion," which was not an anti-government uprising but a movement directed against the imperialist powers and which the Chinese government sought to prop up, brought forces together with the aim of expelling all foreigners ; this fight of the "boxers" (the first of them were trained in traditional martial arts), misleadingly called "uprising", led to the war between China and the United Eight States, i.e. the German Empire, France, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, Austria-Hungary , Russia and the USA. After the suppression, the victors forced further concessions from the imperial family in the so-called “Boxer Protocol” of 1901. It was in this environment that Sun Yat-sen founded the Chinese Revolutionary League in Tokyo in 1905, which was to become the forerunner of the Kuomintang. He called for the establishment of a republic, the end of the Qing dynasty, a nation-state and land reforms. In 1911, the Wuchang Uprising broke out and the Xinhai Revolution that followed resulted in Emperor Puyi's abdication. This ended the succession of several dynasties that ended in 221 BC. by Emperor Qin Shihuangdi. At the end of 1911, Sun was elected interim president of the Republic of China in Nanjing. The proclamation of the republic met with approval, especially in the big cities. It was short-lived, however, as Yuan Shikai dissolved parliament in 1914 and ruled as a dictator.


Republic of China era (until 1949)

Yuan Shikai had enough military under his command to avoid China's disintegration. However, he was unable to stop the advance of foreign powers; He had attempts at civil society suppressed, and the Kuomintang was banned in 1913. The country's elites therefore turned their backs on the state during this phase and pursued their own interests. Yuan had himself proclaimed emperor on January 1, 1916, while Japan deliberately weakened him by issuing the Twenty-One Demands. The central government lost control of China's politics, the country fragmented, the provincial military governors and hundreds of warlords fought for influence in shifting alliances. Chaos and misery reigned, the population suffered under oppression. Mongolia and Tibet declared their independence. However, the phase of fragmentation was also a creative time in which the intellectual climate changed through confrontation with Western ideas. The May Fourth Movement became the starting point for numerous political and intellectual currents, and schools and universities were founded. Capital and knowledge from abroad flowed into the treaty ports, and the basis for developing the economy was laid.

After the October Revolution in Russia, there was also a fascination with socialist and communist ideas in China; In 1921 the Chinese Communist Party was founded. Lacking industry as a basis for a proletarian movement in China, the Comintern supported both the Kuomintang and the Communist Party (CP). As part of the First United Front, the two parties cooperated against the warlords and Japanese expansionism. With Soviet help, the Whampoa Military Academy was founded in 1924, from which numerous officers emerged who were important in later Chinese history, such as Chiang Kai-shek and Zhou Enlai. After Sun Yat-sen's death in 1925, tensions arose in the united front that delayed progress in the Northern Campaign. After securing Shanghai in March 1927, Chiang Kai-shek had thousands of (supposed) communists killed and a strike put down on April 12, 1927, which broke up the united front. Chiang, who controlled the army within the Kuomintang, outmaneuvered the party's left wing and set up a counter-government in Nanjing. In June 1928 his troops succeeded in taking Beijing, which initially reunited China.

The communists, who had been pushed out into the countryside, tried to carry out uprisings in some cities and set up Soviet areas. However, the uprisings in Nanchang in August 1927, Canton in December 1927 and Changsha in 1930 were crushed. On the other hand, after the autumn harvest uprising, Mao Zedong managed to hold on to a larger area in the mountains of Hunan and Jiangxi and set up a Soviet republic using a strategy adapted to rural conditions. Due to the encirclement by Kuomintang troops, it had to be evacuated in 1934, the leaders of the CP withdrew to the north of Shaanxi with the Long March, where they arrived a year later ideologically consolidated and united. During this march, Mao won the internal party struggles and was elected chairman of the Central Committee.

Japan, whose troops had been in northeast China since 1901 after the Boxer Rebellion, seized Manchuria from the warlord Zhang Xueliang in 1931 and established the vassal state of Manchukuo there. In 1933, the Japanese troops took Jehol. In view of the threat from Japan, the communists demanded an alliance of all parties and armed forces. However, Chiang preferred to first consolidate Kuomintang rule over the CP. In December 1936, Chiang was forced to agree to a second united front, which was only formed after the Marco Polo Bridge Incident and the open outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War. Despite the united front, Chiang deployed his most powerful troops against the CP. The united front remained correspondingly weak, and Chiang's troops, despite support from the USA and the USSR, were poorly organized and had poor morale. This enabled the Japanese troops to occupy the great plains and coastal areas of China; in Nanjing they committed a mass murder that lasted several weeks. However, they could not permanently control the conquered areas. Chiang's government had to withdraw to Chongqing.

Shortly after Japan's surrender, Mao held fruitless negotiations with Chiang in Chongqing to settle their differences. The Kuomintang then tried to get the whole country under their control, but their troops were undisciplined and lacked a clear mandate, their representatives were corrupt and feared by the population. However, the Kuomintang won parliamentary elections held in 1947. The People's Liberation Army, on the other hand, had enough supporters in the population. They conquered Manchuria in 1948, Nanjing in April 1949 and Shanghai in May 1949. The Kuomintang government fled to the island of Taiwan, occupied in 1945, wiped out the local elite and established a dictatorship.


Mao Zedong Glory (1949–1976)

On October 1, 1949, the People's Republic of China was proclaimed. This spelled the end of national government on the mainland. The takeover of power by the CP was not a coup brought about from outside, but an upheaval supported by a broad majority. In a first phase after the proclamation of the People's Republic, a land reform was carried out from 1949 to 1952, in which almost half of the agricultural land was distributed to around 120 million farmers. "Large landowners" were expropriated. In 1950, the Communist Party passed a marriage law that, in addition to the constitution, specified equality between men and women. In particular, the woman's right to decide whether to marry herself, the ban on demanding a dowry for the bride or the cohabitant, the introduction of a minimum age for women, which led to the abolition of child and forced marriages, or the legalization of the termination of a marriage Divorce, with corresponding regulations on the division of property between spouses, permanently improved the situation of Chinese women. But breaking through traditional rural cultural practices or educating rural women about the law came up against insurmountable hurdles. Active and passive women's suffrage was introduced in 1949.

In February 1950, Beijing signed a treaty of friendship and assistance with the Soviet Union. Priority was given to the development of the urban economy after the CP concentrated its activities in rural areas during the civil war. For this purpose, a “coalition of four” made up of workers, peasants, petty bourgeoisie and national bourgeoisie was formed under the slogan “New Democracy”. At the 8th Party Congress, Mao did not find a majority with values such as activism, altruism, unity with the masses and renunciation of consumption, the path of imitation of the Soviet development model with the priority development of heavy industry was confirmed.

Mao Zedong initiated the turning away from the Soviet model with his speech on the "Ten Great Relations" in April 1956. He initiated the Hundred Flowers Movement in May 1957 to mobilize the intelligentsia. When the call for healthy criticism also led to criticism of the party and individual party leaders, the party responded with the "campaign against right-wing dissidents", during which 400 critics were executed and half a million people sent to labor camps. The departure from the Soviet Union became final in 1958 when the Great Leap Forward was announced. As part of this campaign, almost the entire rural population was gathered into 26,000 people's communes and organized on military principles. They should advance agriculture and heavy industry as a "production battle" at the same time. However, planning errors, chaos and natural disasters meant that about 30 million people starved to death in the three bitter years from 1960 to 1962. Liu Shaoqi took over the task of consolidating the economy from 1963 to 1964; he was criticized for his actions as a "revisionist".

In the early summer of 1966, under the pretext of revising undesirable developments and cleaning up the bureaucracy, Mao began the Cultural Revolution. The youth were organized into Red Guards, a wave of terror began against representatives and decision-makers of the state and the intelligentsia; Schools and universities were sometimes closed for several years. The individual should be destroyed, the revolution should be permanent. China became even more closed to foreign countries. In 1968, the “to the country movement” began, with which 15 million young city dwellers were assigned to work in agriculture. President Liu Shaoqi and numerous other high party officials were criticized as "revisionists" and removed from their posts. However, the growing fear of a Soviet attack after the Sino-Soviet rift also occurred during the Cultural Revolution phase, which made it necessary to normalize relations with the USA. After a visit by President Nixon in 1972, Beijing established diplomatic relations with Washington; Beijing also took over Taiwan's seat at the United Nations. The Cultural Revolution ended after Mao's death in September 1976 and the arrest of the "Gang of Four" in October 1976.


Reform and opening up (1976/1980 to 1999)

By the time Mao died, his designated successors were already dead: Lin Biao died in 1971 after an alleged coup attempt, Deng Xiaoping was associated with the 1976 Tiananmen Square protests after the death of Prime Minister Zhou Enlai and was demoted. Thus, the hitherto little-known Hua Guofeng was chosen as Mao's successor. Hua and his supporters, who stood for the continuation of Mao Zedong's policies, were outmaneuvered and deposed by Deng by 1980. In December 1978, the "Four Modernizations" course, which is closely associated with Deng's name, was confirmed by the party leadership. Victims of the Cultural Revolution and other excesses were rehabilitated and economic freedoms expanded. Market economy gradually replaced the centrally planned economy adopted from the Soviet Union in order to increase the economic efficiency of the system. A peace and friendship treaty was signed with the former enemy Japan, and foreign investments were gradually allowed. Deng visited the United States, which subsequently became an important foreign policy partner. With the special economic zones, areas were identified where it was possible to experiment with market economy mechanisms, and in 1984 another 14 coastal towns were opened.

However, the expansion of economic freedoms was not matched by an expansion of personal freedoms. Already parallel to the party congress of December 1978, the public articulated at the Democracy Wall that they were dissatisfied with the restrictions on freedom, which was closed after demands for democracy arose. The “campaign against intellectual pollution” was used against intellectuals who had gradually taken greater liberties. The negative side effects of the economic reforms, such as growing inequality, corruption, inflation and the lack of social security, increased the potential for protest. It erupted when mourning rallies for General Secretary Hu Yaobang, who had been deposed in 1987 and died in spring 1989, led to renewed demonstrations on Tiananmen Square. They radicalized themselves parallel to a visit by Mikhail Gorbachev to normalization talks in Beijing, which ended violently in early June. From the Chinese perspective, the return of the colonies of Hong Kong and Macau under the “one country, two systems” principle represents a further step towards ending the colonization of China. In addition, relations with Russia have been revived.

Although the undesired side effects of economic reforms have been the subject of controversy within the party leadership, the Deng era was a period of comparatively great unanimity. Rapid economic growth, which drastically reduced the number of people living below the poverty line from 250 million in 1979 to 45 million in 1999, legitimized the measures. Deng was succeeded by Jiang Zemin; under him and his successors, the CP endeavored to defuse the still existing potential for protest by settling conflicts and applying the law. Among the challenges that the party and state leadership has had to face since then are the social conditions of migrant and factory workers, the rapid aging of society caused by the "one-child policy", and demands for the rule of law, the fight against corruption and state Arbitrariness.


Development into a world power (21st century)

In the first twenty years of the 21st century, China experienced unprecedented economic growth. On average, the Chinese economy grew by 8.9% annually from 2000 up to and including 2019. In addition to doubling China's share of world trade, gross domestic product increased sixfold during this period, so that by the end of that period China had grown to become the world's second largest economy. This has had a positive impact on the quality of life of more than 200 million Chinese, who have been lifted out of absolute poverty.

Against the background of its foreign policy geared towards economic expansion, China also began to underpin its claim to power in the world with massive development financing for Africa and the One Belt, One Road project.

During the 2010s, China began attempting systematic re-education of Uyghurs in Xinjiang. From a Chinese perspective, the decade was also marked by the confrontation with the Hong Kong protest movement in 2014, which revived with the protests starting in 2019.

In 2020, an epidemic broke out in the Chinese city of Wuhan with a wave of disease, which developed into a global pandemic. While the West was increasingly hit by the pandemic, China was spared the second wave in autumn 2020 and was able to return to normal everyday life.

With the 14th five-year plan from 2021 to 2025 adopted in March 2021 and the associated long-term goals up to 2035, the KPC is shifting the economic focus towards the development of the domestic market. The two main developments are the expansion of research and development, especially basic research, and the strengthening of the supply of manufactured goods and services for national consumption. It is noteworthy that for the first time all key figures are only target values and deviations caused by market forces are expressly recognized. In addition, goals for the development of energy supply and climate policy are set.