Bali Island

Bali Island


Description of  Bali Island

Bali is an island in the Malay archipelago, in the group of the Lesser Sunda Islands, as part of the province of the same name in Indonesia. It is washed from the south by the Indian Ocean, from the north by the sea of ​​Bali of the Pacific Ocean. It is separated from the west by the Strait of the same name from Java Island, from the east by the Lombok Strait from Lombok Island.

The area of ​​the island is 5780 km², its length is 145 km from east to west and 80 km from north to south. The so-called Wallace line, stretching east from Bali and Lombok Island, serves as the boundary between the flora and fauna of tropical Asia and the natural areas of Australia and New Guinea.

Bali is the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands. A mountain range stretches from west to east of Bali - a zone of high volcanic activity. Two large active volcanoes Agung (3142 m) and Gunung Batur (1717 m) are located in the north-eastern part of the island. Volcanic activity determines the high fertility of soils and affects the development of culture. The major eruptions of the Gunung Batura and Agung volcanoes that occurred in 1963 led to numerous casualties, devastated the eastern regions of the island, forcing many Balinese to emigrate.

Among other mountain peaks are the highest Batukau (2278 m) and Abang (2152 m). This mountain range with a limestone plateau located in the south, which is called "bukit" - hills, divides the island into two completely different regions. Northern quite rises from a narrow coastline to the mountain slopes. The climate here is relatively dry, conducive to breeding a coffee culture. In this part of Bali there are two rivers irrigating rice fields around Singaraja and Seririta. The southern region is a terrace stretching from north to south on which rice is grown. Numerous rivers flow along gorges with lush vegetation. Southwest are small, well-irrigated areas of land and arid lands of coconut plantations.

The climate in Bali is equatorial-monsoon, instead of the usual dividing into 4 seasons, only two are distinguished here: dry (June – October) and humid (November – March); the greatest amount of precipitation falls in January – February. In some areas of Bali, the difference between them is almost imperceptible. During the wet season, precipitation occurs locally, usually at night in the form of short-term (1-2 hours) thunderstorms.

The average annual temperatures fluctuate slightly around 26 ° C. In the lowlands and resort areas it is warm day and night; the mountains are pretty cool nights, and generally fresher than the rest of the territory. The water temperature in the ocean is 26–28 ° C.


Flora and fauna
In Bali, 4 types of forests grow: tropical moist evergreen in the west, deciduous in the northwest in hard-to-reach areas, savannah forests and mountain forests. Wet evergreen forests are represented in the Bali-Barat park (translated as “western Bali”). Here you can find rare species of plants, huge century-old trees, which are under protection. Many plants of the ficus family, fig and banana groves. Deciduous forests grow in the northwestern part of Bali. They change their foliage depending on the season, among this flora sapot trees predominate. Mountain vegetation is rarely located above 1500 m above sea level; these are mainly casuarins and phylaos. Banana plants in Bali are sacred, they grow very well, propagated by the roots, and feed many animals: monkeys, squirrels, bats. A rare cave crab Karstama balicum is listed in the IUCN International Red Book. Palm trees are especially well represented in Bali. The leaves of borassic palms, dried and pressed, go to the manufacture of "lontars" on which they write sacred texts. From the leaves of sugar palm trees make bouquets that are brought to the temples as ritual offerings. There are other types of trees, for example, ebony, or ebony, as well as balsa, extremely lightweight - a convenient material for traditional masks. There are many bamboo trees, some species of which reach 30-40 cm in diameter. They can be found almost throughout the island, bamboo is also a universal building material for the Balinese.

Garden architecture has become a real industry. An abundance of labor and fertile soil, on which everything that is planted easily takes root, contributes to the development of gardening, especially in the south of the island and in the Bedugul area. Red, pink and white hibiscus, jasmine, bougainvillea, white and pink laurels, water lilies, lotuses and quite exotic plants such as angsoca, champaka (yellow magnolia), manori and orchids.



After the recognition of independence, tourism was rather poorly developed, and the infrastructure was in its infancy. Even during the hippies that flocked here from around the world, there were only small bungalows without electricity on the beaches of Kuta, cheap rooms without amenities and seafood for a few cents. Nevertheless, in Sanur, tour operators have already mastered tourism for the rich. The Indonesian government, whose economy was very dependent on oil exports, needed to find other sources of income, and it greatly contributed to the development of the tourism industry.

At first, these efforts were aimed at changing in the eyes of the entire world community the unsightly image that had strengthened behind the ruling elite of Indonesia after the military coup.

A professional analysis of the situation in Bali and a tourism development plan was made in 1969. The project was funded by the UN under the guarantee of the World Bank. Particular emphasis was placed on the Bukit Badung area. In 1978, the Balinese governor Ida Bagus Mantra invited interested parties to pay attention to the island’s rich culture. Since that time, music, dancing, religious holidays, sculpture and painting play the same role in the tourism business as the continuous improvement of infrastructure. The airport was reconstructed, luxury hotels and modest inexpensive hotels are being built to cover the entire social spectrum of travel lovers. Rice fields are being drained and water pipelines are being built in the driest regions. Replaced inexpensive came elite tourism. Now, world-famous stars come to Sanur at a wedding ceremony, and European ministers spend their holidays at the Mediterranean Club in Nusa Dua.

The development of surfing, diving, environmental and beach tourism.

The number of tourists visiting Bali is growing rapidly. In 2015, 4,001,835 foreign tourists visited Bali. In 2018, the number of tourists increased to 6 511 610 people. Each year, the flow increases by about 10%.