Flag of Indonesia

Official language: Indonesian

Currency: Rupiah (IDR)

Calling Code: +62


Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Republik Indonesia), is an island country located between Southeast Asia and Oceania. The Republic of Indonesia comprises about 17 508 islands and according to statistics for 2015 it has more than 255 million people, making it the fourth most populous country in the world. In addition, Indonesia is the country with the most Muslims on the planet. Indonesia is a republic with a legislative power and a president elected by suffrage, the government has its headquarters in the capital of Jakarta. Being mostly an archipelago, the country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor and Malaysia. Other countries near Indonesia include Singapore, Thailand, Brunei, the Philippines, Palau, Australia and the Indian Territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

The Indonesian archipelago has been an important region for world trade since the seventh century, when the kingdom of Srivijaya began trade with China and India. Gradually, local rulers adopted the culture, religion and political model of the Indians and in the first century AD. Several Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms began to flourish in the region. Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers that sought to exploit their natural resources. After Muslim merchants brought Islam and during the Age of Discovery, European powers began to dispute the monopoly of the spice trade in the Moluccan Islands. After three and a half centuries of Dutch colonialism, Indonesia gained its independence shortly after the Second World War. Since then, the history of Indonesia has been turbulent, having confronted the country with the great challenges posed by natural disasters, corruption, separatism, the process of democratization and periods of economic change.

Through its many islands, the Indonesian people are made up of different ethnic, linguistic and religious groups. The Javanese are the largest and most politically dominant ethnic group. It has developed a shared identity defined by a national language, by ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a majority Muslim population and a history of constant colonialism and its struggle against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" ("Unity in Diversity"), articulates the diversity that makes up the nation. However, sectarian tensions and separatism have led to violent confrontations that have undermined the country's political and economic stability. Despite its large population, Indonesia has vast uninhabited areas that make it one of the most biodiverse countries in the world, so it belongs to the list of mega-diverse countries.


Travel Destination in Indonesia

Information guide for traveling to Bali Island a small paradise famous for its nature and traditions.

Komodo National Park covers an area of 1,733 km² designated to protect largest lizard in the World known as Komodo dragon.



Alas Purwo National Park is a biosphere reserve situated in East Java island in Indonesia. It covers an area of 434.20 km².

Baluran National Park is a nature reserve in East Java island in Indonesia. It covers an total area of 250 km².

Borobudur is ancient religious complex situated in Magelang, Central Java island. It was constructed in 9th- 14th century.

Bromo Tengger Semeru is nature reserve in the East Java Island in Indonesia. It covers an area of 503 sq km.

Gunung Ciremai National Park is a biosphere reserve situated in the West Java Island in Indonesia.

Karimunjawa National Park is famous for its picturesque beaches and diverse underwater ecosystem.

Ujung Kulon National Park is a natural reserve on the Java island in Indonesia. It covers an area of 1,206 km².




Kelimutu National Park is a nature reserve in East Nusa Tenggara, Flora Island in Indonesia. It covers a total area of 50 km².



Danau Sentarum National Park is a protected biosphere in West Kalimantanin Indonesia. It encompasses an area of 1,320 km².

Gunung Palung National Park is a nature reserve in West Kalimantan in Indonesia. It covers an area of 900 km².

Kutai National Park is a protected biosphere in East Kalimantan. It covers an area of 1,986 km².

Tanjung Puting National Park situated in Central Kalimantan is famous for its population of primates.



Gunung Rinjani National Park is a nature reserve in West Nusa Tenggara. It covers several volcanoes and surrounding biosphere.



The name "Indonesia" is compound and comes from the toponym "India" (lat. Indus) in combination with a derivative of the Greek word "nesos" (Greek νῆσος - island), meaning literally "Insular India". The first cases of its use date back to the end of the 18th century. However, the documented introduction of this concept into scientific circulation did not occur until 1850, when the British ethnographer George Windsor Earl (English) Russian. as one of the options for the generalizing name of the inhabitants of the Malay Archipelago, he proposed the ethnonym "Indunesians" (English Indunesians). Later, Earl's student James Richardson Logan in his works first used the toponym "Indonesia" as a synonym for the then used toponym "Indian Archipelago", and the German ethnographer and philosopher Adolf Bastian (German: Adolf Bastian) published a monograph entitled "Indonesia or the islands of the Malay Archipelago" ( German Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels).



On the territory of Indonesia are some of the earliest areas of settlement of ancient people. The fossils of one of the subspecies of Homo erectus, the Pithecanthropus, also known as the Javanese ape man, discovered in Java by the Dutch anthropologist Eugene Dubois, belong to the Lower Paleolithic period, their approximate dating is from 1 million to 700 thousand years ago.

Until recently, the prevailing opinion in science was that the settlement of Indonesia with reasonable people began about 45,000 years ago. However, the latest paleoanthropological discoveries suggest a much earlier beginning of this process: for example, the remains of people of a modern type, found by the same Dubois in Sumatra, in accordance with recent studies date back to the age of 63,000 to 73,000 years ago. Since that time, there have been several migration waves during which representatives of various ethnic groups moved from the continental part of Southeast Asia, the earliest of which belonged to the australoid race. The penetration of the Mongoloid peoples, who brought with them a high Neolithic culture, began in the 2nd millennium BC. The first large wave of the Mongoloids was formed by the so-called Protomalai, the second, related to the middle of the 1st millennium BC. The latter, who were carriers of a highly developed culture of bronze and spread farming on the settled territory, became the ancestors of most of the modern Indonesians. The transition to bronze in the main territory of the country was completed by the beginning of our era, then in the coastal areas began the transition to a culture of iron.

The formation of states, the pre-colonial period (I — XV centuries)
The formation of state formations on the territory of Indonesia was already in the I-III centuries BC, however, the existence of the first states, the names of which are known to science for certain - Kutai in eastern Kalimantan and Taruma in western Java, refers only to the 4th century. The first state, the territory of which spread to several islands, was Srivijaya, based on southern Sumatra at the end of the 7th century: having existed until the end of the 14th century, it controlled the entire territory of Sumatra, most of Java and the Malay Peninsula, during periods of its maximum power. These and other states that existed on the territory of Indonesia in the 4th-13th centuries were strongly influenced by India, and Hinduism was the dominant religion in most of them. At the same time, Buddhism also received significant development: in particular, it was the state religion of the East Javanese principality of Mataram.

The largest, powerful and socio-economic state of the pre-colonial period was the Majapahit empire, founded in 1293 in the eastern part of Java. By the end of the XIV century, the territory or vassal possessions of Majapahit included most of the territory of present-day Indonesia.

In the XIII century, the active spread of Islam began, penetrating mainly from the Malacca Peninsula and from the east coast of India. Towards the end of the sixteenth century, Islam became the dominant religion in most of Indonesia, although in many regions foci of Buddhism and Hinduism, as well as traditional local beliefs, the carriers of which, as a rule, coexisted quite non-conflict with Muslims.

Colonial period (XVI century - 1942)
The penetration of Europeans, the colonization of the NOIC (1512-1798)
The penetration of European colonizers into Indonesia, which began in the sixteenth century, was caused by high demand for spices and spices that grew in the eastern part of the Malay archipelago - the Moluccas and the Lesser Sunda Islands, Sulawesi - this region was of main interest to Europeans. The Portuguese were the first to settle here: in 1512, the explorer Francisco Serran managed to arrange the supply of spices from Molucc and stay with a part of the crew on the island of Ternate.

In the 17th century, other European powers joined the struggle to control the trade in local spices, the Netherlands being the most active. For several decades, the Dutch managed to oust competitors from the archipelago - the Portuguese managed to keep only the eastern part of the island of Timor. In 1602, the Netherlands East India Company (NOIC) was founded, which began the development of not only the eastern, but also the western part of present-day Indonesia. The company had its own armed forces and established in the territory of its possessions, called the Netherlands East Indies, a developed system of colonial administration, headed by the Governor General. In 1619, in the north-west of Java, the Dutch, on the site of the destroyed Jayakert founded by the Demak Sultanate, founded the capital of the colony - Batavia (Dutch Batavia).


In the XVII-XVIII centuries, the NOIK gradually expanded its possessions. In addition to the territories directly belonging to it, the zone of its influence was many formally independent states of the archipelago, with which unequal agreements were concluded in one form or another. As a rule, colonial officials, the so-called residents, who controlled their foreign relations and economic activity, were seconded to dependent rulers. The main methods of operating the colony during this period were the forced production of various agricultural products (after the fall in Europe, the demand for spices and spices its main types were coffee, sugar, tobacco, indigo, valuable wood species) and various forms of taxation.

At the end of the 18th century, under the influence of the consequences of the Anglo-Dutch war of 1780–84 and changes in the international economic situation, the NOIC found itself in a deep crisis, which became fatal for it: in 1796 the management of the bankrupt bankruptcy company was transferred to the Dutch government, in 1798 the Batavian Republic adopted assumed all agreements and obligations of the NOIC, and in 1800 the latter was liquidated.

Dependence on the Dutch crown (1798-1942)
Dependence on the NOIC was replaced by similar colony relations directly with the Netherlands, which did not entail any significant changes in the system of colonial administration - the administration of the East Indies was still led by the Governor General, who was no longer the NOIC, but the Dutch government. At the same time, taking into account the subordination of the Netherlands to Napoleonic France during this period, the next governor-general, Herman Willem Dundels, received this appointment in 1808 from Louis Bonaparte and pursued a course towards securing French colonial interests.

In 1811, the colony came under British control, occupying the Dutch East Indies, to prevent their final capture by France. The British governor Thomas Stamford Ruffles carried out a number of significant administrative transformations in a short time, and the new methods of management and management, as a rule, significantly outperformed the Netherlands. In addition, during the period of British occupation, the administrative center of the colony was moved from Batavia to Beitensorg.

The East Indies were returned to the Netherlands freed from Napoleon under the terms of the London Convention of 1814. During the restoration of the Dutch administration, a significant part of the British reforms was canceled. The Dutch continued to expand their holdings and limit the autonomy of formally independent local states. Along with the export of products manufactured in the colony, it was transformed into a market for Dutch goods. At the same time, the Dutch still had to overcome the active resistance of the local population: the Padri war of 1821–37 years was the most large-scale anti-colonial demonstrations. in western Sumatra, the Javan war of 1825-1830 and the Aceh war of 1873-1913. After joining the Dutch East Indies in 1906, Aceh, and in 1920 the western part of the island of New Guinea, it united the entire territory of present-day Indonesia.

The methods of economic exploitation of the colony changed with the economic development of the Netherlands themselves: the system of forced crops was replaced by a plantation economy in the second half of the 19th century, and the sale of Dutch goods became increasingly important. From the beginning of the 20th century, monopolies of other European countries and the USA were allowed to participate in the development of the Netherlands East Indies by The Hague.

The origin of the institutionalized national liberation movement in the colony dates back to the same period: in the 1900s - 1910s, a number of organizations were created that proclaimed their goal to achieve state independence. Under the influence of the processes taking place in Europe, a very active left wing of the movement was formed: in 1914 the first Social Democratic unit was formed, in 1920 - the Communist Party of Indonesia. In 1927, the National Party was created, headed by Sukarno, the future president of the country, who formulated the principles of Marhaenism - a doctrine providing for the independent development of Indonesia along the socialist path with national characteristics, which became the ideology of the most powerful movement within the framework of the national liberation movement.

At the beginning of World War II, due to the neutrality of the Netherlands, Indonesia was not involved in hostilities or preparations. However, after the German occupation of the Netherlands in May 1940, the Dutch government, having moved to London, announced the participation of its armed forces remaining in the colonies in the war on the side of the Anti-Hitler coalition.

The period of Japanese occupation (1942-1945)

In February - March 1942, after a short resistance from the US-British-Dutch-Australian forces stationed there, the Dutch East Indies were occupied by Japanese forces. The occupation administration was decentralized and carried out through the appropriate structures of various formations of the Japanese armed forces: Java and Madura were assigned to the occupation zone of the 16th army, Sumatra and a number of adjacent islands to the occupation zone of the 25th army, the rest of the territory to the occupation zone of the 2nd fleet.

As in other conquered territories of Southeast Asia, the Japanese administration, seeking to enlist the support of the local population, pursued a policy in Indonesia to promote anti-European sentiments, emphasizing the ethnocultural affinity between the Indonesians and the Japanese. The leaders of the national liberation movement were involved in cooperation: under the control of the occupation authorities, they were allowed to create socio-political organizations of a nationalist nature.

At the final stage of the war, amid major defeats by the Japanese armed forces inflicted by the Allied forces, the Japanese occupation authorities decided to enlist the support of the Indonesians and take steps to meet their desires to create an independent state. In 1945, the Japanese administration announced the beginning of practical preparations for granting Indonesia independence. To this end, in March, a Research Committee for the Preparation of Indonesian Independence was formed (indone. Badan Penyelidik Usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia, BPUPKI), uniting activists of the local national liberation movement (including Sukarno and future vice president Mohammad Hatta), which prepared a draft of the Indonesian constitution. At its June meeting, Soekarno proclaimed the principles of Pancha Sila, which later became Indonesia's state ideology. In August 1945, the Commission for the Preparation of the Independence of Indonesia (indonesian Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia, PPKI) was formed under the chairmanship of Sukarno to consider the work of the Research Committee.

Formally, the Japanese occupation of Indonesia ended on August 15, 1945, after the official announcement by Emperor Hirohito of acceptance of the terms of surrender. However, Japanese troops continued to remain on Indonesian territory for some time before they were disarmed and evacuated by Allied forces.

During the Japanese occupation, about four million Indonesians died.

The period of state independence (1945 - present)
The period of the struggle for independence (1945-1950)
On August 17, 1945, Sukarno and Hatta declared the independence of the country. As a temporary representative body of the state, on the basis of the Commission for the Preparation of Independence, the Central National Committee of Indonesia (Indon. Komite Nasional Indonesia Pusat, KNIP) was formed, which elected Sukarno and Hatta, respectively, as president and vice president of the country and approved a constitution providing for the construction of a unitary presidential republics.

In August-September 1945, the Sukarno government managed to form the main state institutions. However, in October, the armed formations of the Republic came into conflict with the British troops who landed in Java to disarm the Japanese, and in January 1946 they began hostilities against the Dutch who returned to the former colony - The Hague refused to recognize the country's independence. From Jakarta occupied by the Dutch, the capital of the Republic was moved to Yogyakarta.

After ten months of hostilities, in November 1946, the Lingajat Agreement was signed, under which the Netherlands de facto recognized the sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia within Java, Sumatra and Madura. However, in July 1947, their troops again invaded Java and Sumatra. After large-scale hostilities, during which the Dutch occupied most of the territory of the Republic, the intervention of the UN followed, which led to the signing of the Renville Peace Agreement in January 1948, which restored the main provisions of the Lingadzhat agreement. However, the implementation of this agreement was also disrupted - in December 1948, the Dutch resumed hostilities, capturing Yogyakarta (the capital of the Republic was moved to Bukittinggi).

After a new intervention by the UN, the parties returned to negotiations. Following the results of the Hague Round Table Conference in November 1949, the creation of the United States of Indonesia, USI, was proclaimed - a federal entity, which, along with the Republic of Indonesia, whose territory was cut to most of Sumatra and about half of Java, included a group of quasi-independent states created under patronage of the Dutch in the East Indian territories held by them.

The existence of the SHI turned out to be short-lived: from February to May 1950, almost all states voluntarily or after short military clashes became part of the Republic of Indonesia. On August 17, 1950, in Jakarta, the Republic of Indonesia was again proclaimed as a unitary state, including the main part of the former Netherlands East Indies (the accession of the southern part of the Moluccas to the Republic was completed in October, the western part of New Guinea remained under Dutch control).

Periods of "Liberal Democracy" and "Guided Democracy" (1950-1965)
The reconstituted Republic of Indonesia inherited the multi-party system formed during the years of the struggle for independence, which determined the high role of the legislative authorities. Simultaneously with the proclamation of a unitary republic, Sukarno, under pressure from the largest parties, agreed to the adoption of a new interim constitution, which provided for the transformation of Indonesia into a parliamentary republic. The powers of the president were significantly narrowed, and the role of the prime minister increased. In view of such political transformations, the ensuing seven-year period of Indonesia's development was called "Liberal Democracy".

This period was characterized by a low level of political stability, due to both the acuteness of socio-economic problems and conflict relations between various political parties. The active and independent activity of the parliament often came into conflict with the interests of the executive branch. From the mid-1950s, Sukarno increasingly leaned towards the introduction of socialist methods of economic management and political rapprochement with the Soviet Union, which caused rejection by right-wing and Muslim parties. At the same time, a foreign policy course was pursued aimed at consolidating Indonesia's leadership among developing countries - the most important step in this direction was the holding of the Conference of Asian and African Nations in Bandung in April 1955.


In February 1957, in the context of another political crisis caused by the confrontation between the president and parliament, Sukarno, with the support of the military, promulgated the Nasakom doctrine, which provided for the virtual rejection of parliamentarism, and announced the country's transition to the so-called "Guided Democracy", which expressed primarily in the expansion of presidential powers while significantly limiting the role of legislative bodies. Within a year, the 1945 constitution was restored declaring Indonesia a presidential republic, the post of prime minister was abolished, and parliament was dissolved. The new composition of the parliament, approved personally by Sukarno, was attended only by representatives of parties loyal to the president.

As Sukarno's personal power strengthened, Indonesia's foreign policy tilt towards the socialist camp intensified while its relations with the West cooled. In 1960, with military-technical assistance and political support from the USSR, Indonesia entered into a military confrontation with the Netherlands, which held the western part of New Guinea, which ended in 1962 with the transfer of this territory under UN control (in 1963 it was officially included in the Republic of ). Another manifestation of Sukarno's anti-imperialist policy was the confrontation with Malaysia initiated by him in 1963 - Jakarta was categorically opposed to the formation of this country by uniting the liberated British colonies on the Malay Peninsula and Kalimantan, fearing that it would become a conductor of Western influence in the region.

Such a bias in Sukarno's domestic and foreign policy was actively supported by the Communist Party, which significantly increased its influence during this period, but caused a sharp rejection from the right-wing parties and a significant part of the military elite. This situation culminated in September 1965 in an acute political crisis, culminating in the September 30 Movement and the ensuing military counter-coup.

"New Order" period (1965-1998)
After the suppression of the September 30 coup attempt, the military group under the leadership of Major General Suharto began to gradually usurp power and suppress their political opponents. The military obtained from Sukarno a ban on the activities of the Communist Party and launched a large-scale campaign of terror against its supporters, during which, according to various sources, from 500 thousand to 2 million people died.

The removal of President Sukarno from power was gradual: in March 1966, under pressure from the military, he granted Suharto the right to take any measures necessary to maintain security and order in the country, and in March 1967, an emergency session of the People's Consultative Congress dismissed him, appointing Suharto acting duties of the president. In March 1968, another extraordinary session of the GCC elected Suharto as President of Indonesia. The government he formed launched large-scale transformations in all spheres of the country's life: the era that began after the suppression of the coup on September 30, 1965, was officially called the "New Order".

In a short time, a rigid vertical of executive power was built in the country, in which the army, officially endowed with a "socio-political function", played a key role. At the same time, the role of the legislature was significantly reduced. In the economy, a course was taken for the accelerated development of market mechanisms while ensuring the active role of the state. A sharp turn also took place in foreign policy: even before Suharto formally came to power, Indonesia began an all-round rapprochement with the United States and the West as a whole, while relations with the USSR, China and most of the socialist countries cooled. At the same time, the new authorities achieved the normalization of relations with Malaysia and other neighboring states, the active involvement of the country in the processes of regional integration - in August 1967, with the initiative role of Jakarta, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations was created.

As part of the liberalization of the domestic political life of the country, the Suharto government tightened control over the activities of political parties. As their own “political superstructure”, the military and right-wing civil forces close to them used the Golkar organization, which since 1964 has united a significant part of public organizations loyal to the executive branch - it was significantly enlarged and transformed into a political bloc, which subsequently received an absolute majority of votes in all parliamentary elections. elections held since 1971 every five years. A faction of the armed forces was introduced into the parliament, whose members were appointed by the president.


In December 1975, Indonesian troops captured East Timor, which had recently declared independence from Portugal. In July 1976, this territory was officially incorporated into Indonesia as a province.

The economic policy of the "New Order" turned out to be very effective: by the mid-1980s, the country managed to attract large flows of foreign investment, develop many modern industries, and achieve a qualitative increase in the average standard of living of the population. In the context of growing social prosperity, the infringement of political freedoms did not cause any large-scale discontent: manifestations of civil protest were, as a rule, local in nature and were quickly suppressed. Greater efforts were required from the authorities in the fight against separatist movements in a number of regions - Aceh, East Timor, West Irian - however, even there the situation was generally managed to be kept under control.

The Asian financial and economic crisis of 1997-1998 led to fundamental changes, which had an extremely painful effect on the Indonesian economy. The collapse of entire industries, a sharp decline in the incomes of the population led to an aggravation of social tension, mass discontent, and an escalation of ethno-confessional extremism. In a short time, an active anti-government movement was formed, the backbone of which was student and youth organizations. After a series of mass protests and riots on May 21, 1998, President Suharto resigned, handing over the presidency to Vice President B. Y. Habibie.

Post-Sukhart period (1998 - present)
The government formed by Habibie launched a program of broad political reforms, a key element of which was the liberalization of the party system and electoral legislation. At the same time, under strong international pressure, Jakarta was forced to agree to a referendum on the self-determination of East Timor in August 1999, during which the majority of the inhabitants of this territory spoke in favor of independence. The process of sovereignization of East Timor, which took place under the control of the UN, was completed in May 2002.

Following the results of the parliamentary elections held in June 1999, the largest faction in the People's Representative Council was formed by the opposition Democratic Party of Struggle of Indonesia, headed by Sukarno's daughter Megawati Sukarnoputri. In October 1999, during the session of the NCC, the leader of the moderate Muslim National Awakening Party, Abdurrahman Wahid, was elected president of the country, and Megawati Sukarnoputri was elected vice president.

During the presidency of Wahid, some of the socio-economic problems were solved. However, the political situation in the country remained quite complicated: almost immediately there was a tendency for confrontation between the head of state, who strove for maximum confidentiality in making important state decisions, and the parliament. This confrontation ended in an acute political crisis in June-July 2001. On July 22, Wahid declared a state of emergency in the country and ordered the armed forces to prevent an extraordinary session of the NCC, initiated by parliamentarians, to consider a vote of no confidence in the president. The presidential order was ignored by the military, who sided with the parliamentarians, as a result of which, on July 23, the NCC decided to resign Wahid and transfer the powers of the head of state to Megawati Sukarnoputri.

The government of Megawati Sukarnoputri continued the course aimed at improving the socio-economic situation and the systematic liberalization of the political system. Direct presidential elections were introduced, and the process of phased dismantling of the "socio-political function" of the armed forces was completed. At the same time, ethno-confessional contradictions remained acute in various regions of the country, and Islamist terrorist groups were active.

Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, leader of the Democratic Party, a retired army general who held various positions in the governments of Wahid and Megawati Sukarnoputri, won the first direct presidential elections in Indonesia in two rounds in July and September 2004. His government managed to achieve significant success in resolving ethno-confessional problems: in particular, in August 2005, through the mediation of the European Union, a peace agreement was concluded with the most powerful of the separatist structures - the Free Aceh Movement. In the second half of the 2000s, significant progress was made in the economic direction: the country's investment attractiveness was largely restored, and economic growth rates in most sectors approached the pre-crisis level.


In July 2009, Yudhoyono was re-elected as head of state. On the whole, his new government continued the policy typical of the period of Yudhoyono's first presidency, with an emphasis on settling ethno-confessional conflicts and improving the economy.

During the presidential elections held in July 2014, the victory was won by the tandem Joko Widodo-Yusuf Kalla, representing the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle and Golkar, respectively. Their inauguration took place on October 20, 2014.

Following the results of the regular presidential elections held on April 17, 2019, Joko Widodo was re-elected to the post of head of state. His second presidential term began on October 20, 2019. Maaruf Amin, a non-partisan Islamic theologian, took over as Vice President for the upcoming five years on the same day.

In 2019, the Indonesian leadership launched a plan to move the country's capital to a new city, which was decided to be built in the province of East Kalimantan. This move is motivated by overcrowding in Jakarta, as well as serious environmental and infrastructural problems of this metropolis. In January 2022, the capital under construction was named Nusantara. The transfer of central government bodies to a new location is expected to be completed in 2024.


State structure

Fundamentals of the state system
Indonesia is a unitary republic of the presidential type. The basic law of the state is the constitution adopted in 1945. The 1945 constitution was abolished in 1950, restored in 1959 and is currently in force with a number of amendments, the main ones being adopted in 1998, 1999 and 2001. These amendments, which were of a liberal-democratic nature, received significant international resonance. In particular, they gave grounds to the international human rights organization "Freedom House" to classify Indonesia as a "free country".

The main institutions of Indonesian statehood were formed in the first years of the country's independent development. At the same time, the legal norms for their functioning have undergone significant changes in the course of the liberal democratic reforms of the late 1990s and early 2000s. These changes were carried out both by introducing the mentioned amendments to the constitution, and through the adoption of a package of legal acts, known in Indonesia as "Political Laws" (Indon. Undang-Undang Politik). The main results of the reforms were the withdrawal of the armed forces from political activity, the introduction of a real multi-party system and direct presidential elections in the country, and an increase in the role of the legislative authorities.

executive branch
The head of state and head of the executive branch of government is the president, currently Joko Widodo. In the performance of the duties of the head of state, the president is assisted by the vice president, currently Maaruf Amin. The vice-president assumes the office of president in the event of the death or resignation of the latter.

The president and vice president are elected for a term of five years by secret ballot in direct universal suffrage, the same person cannot hold the presidency for more than two consecutive terms. Constitutional norms providing for the direct popular election of the president and limiting his term of office were introduced in 2001; previously, the head of state was elected every five years during the session of the People's Consultative Congress and could be re-elected to this post an unlimited number of times.

The president forms and leads the government. The government consists of coordinating ministers (supervise several ministries and departments), ministers (head ministries), state ministers (head various departments, or supervise various government programs, or perform special assignments), the secretary of state (head of the presidential administration) and heads of departments who do not have a ministerial position, but are officially equated to ministers in status. The quantitative composition and structure of the government are not regulated by law and are determined by the president.

The supreme legislative body is the People's Consultative Congress, NCC. The NCC, which is not a permanent structure, convenes at a session at least once every five years, and consists of two chambers: the Council of People's Representatives, SNP and the Council of Representatives of the Regions, SPR.

At its regular sessions, the ICC inaugurates the elected President and Vice President and approves the President's proposed public policy guidelines for a five-year term. The President is accountable to the GCC, and Congress can impeach him by meeting for this in an extraordinary session.

The quantitative composition of the NCC is not formally regulated and is determined by the composition of its SNP and SPR. The NCC of the last convocation, sworn in in October 2014, has 692 deputies. The chairman of the NCC is Zulkifli Hassan, a representative of the National Mandate Party.

Between sessions of the NCC, the current legislative functions are performed by the Council of People's Representatives, which in fact is a permanent unicameral parliament. The competence of the SNP includes the development, adoption and control over the implementation of laws, approval of the state budget, ratification of part of international agreements. Deputies of the SPC are elected for a five-year term in the course of direct general parliamentary elections held under the proportional system in multi-member constituencies. The quantitative composition of the Council, regulated by the current legislation, has varied many times over the years of the existence of this body. The current composition of the SNP, formed following the results of the 2014 parliamentary elections and sworn in in October 2014, consists of 560 people. The deputies of the 10 parties that entered the parliament formed 10 factions. Chairman of the SNP - Novanto Network.


The Council of Representatives of the Regions is a new formation in the political system of Indonesia that has existed since 2004. Prior to this, in addition to the deputies of the SNP, the NCC included representatives of local legislative bodies, various public organizations, as well as political parties and the armed forces in proportion to the presence of the deputies of the latter in the SNP, while the totality of the deputies of the NCC, not included in the SNP, was not an independent political Institute and did not have any name.

In terms of the scope of powers, the SPR is significantly inferior to the SNP. Its competence includes the development of draft laws concerning the issues of the administrative-territorial structure of the country, regional self-government, economic, social and cultural development of the regions for their subsequent transfer to the SNP.

The SWP is formed from representatives of the provinces and administrative-territorial units of Indonesia equal to the provinces - 4 delegates from each territory. Members of the SNP are elected on a non-partisan basis at the same time as the deputies of the SNP. The current composition of the Council, formed following the parliamentary elections of 2014 and sworn in in October 2014, consists of 132 deputies representing 31 provinces and 2 special districts.

Judicial branch
The supreme judicial power belongs to the Supreme Court (Indon. Mahkamah Agung). It administers the criminal, civil, administrative, commercial and tax justice systems and is the highest court of appeal for relevant cases.

The maximum number of judges of the Supreme Court is 60 people. Judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President on the basis of proposals from the Council of People's Representatives. The chairman is elected by the judges, but is confirmed in office by the president. The current Chief Justice of Indonesia is Hatta Ali, who took up the position in February 2012.

In 2003, the Constitutional Court (Indon. Mahkamah Konstitusi) was established in Indonesia, to which matters related to the interpretation of the constitution and determining the conformity of legislative acts with constitutional norms were transferred from the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. It consists of 9 judges appointed by the President. At the same time, 3 judges are appointed on the proposal of the Council of People's Representatives, 3 - on the proposal of the Supreme Court and 3 - on the proposal of the president himself. The President of the Constitutional Court is elected by the judges and confirmed in office by the President. The current President of the Constitutional Court of Indonesia is Arif Hidayat, who took up this position in January 2015.

Political parties
Indonesia's modern party system took shape in the late 1990s. Then, as a result of liberal-democratic transformations, instead of a nominal multi-party system (in 1973-99, in addition to the ruling Golkar bloc, there were two political parties in the country, formally oppositional, but in fact completely dependent on state power), a real multi-party system was introduced.

The activities of political parties are regulated by the current legislation: as of July 2011, the law on political parties, adopted in January 2008, as amended in January 2011, is in force. In accordance with it, any 30 citizens of the country have the right to create a party, and the proportion of women among the founders of the party must be at least 30%. The party is subject to registration with the Ministry of Justice and must present a certificate of membership in all provinces of the country in order to start political activity. An exception is made for the province of Aceh: political parties registered there are not required to have members in other regions of the country, while they have the right to compete for seats in the SNP, but only Acehnese voters can vote for them. All parties are required to recognize the principles of "Pancha Sila" as the state ideology of Indonesia. The creation of a communist party remains under the ban.

As of 2012, there were over 70 officially registered political parties in Indonesia. 12 of them took part in the last parliamentary elections held on April 9, 2014.


Legal system

Гeneral characteristics
The Indonesian legal system is mixed. Most of the legal norms are established according to classical European models, inherited mainly from the Dutch colonizers, and belong to the Romano-Germanic legal family. At the same time, in some areas, the norms of customary law (mainly adat) and / or Islamic law apply everywhere or in certain regions. Adat and Islamic regulation are practiced to the greatest extent, in particular, in relation to issues of family and marriage, inheritance, and land ownership. The region of wide, but, nevertheless, limited application of Sharia is the special province of Aceh. Adat law is not unified; at the beginning of the 2000s, there were 19 historical regions with its own variants.


After the collapse of the Suharto regime, in the context of the process of democratic transformation, a large-scale reform of the legal system takes place, the main goal of which is proclaimed to ensure the rule of law and the independence of the judiciary. At the same time, against the background of the general liberalization of legislation, there has been a tendency towards some expansion of the scope of application of Islamic norms, despite the fact that the period from the moment of gaining independence to the second half of the 1990s was characterized by a gradual strengthening of the dominance of European-style law. So, in 1998, polygamy was officially allowed for Muslims (subject to the fulfillment of a significant number of conditions by the spouses). At the same time, measures are being taken to establish clearer boundaries for the application of the norms of European, customary and Islamic law.

Ensuring human rights
Provisions for ensuring fundamental human rights and freedoms were originally laid down in the Indonesian constitution. At the same time, in the 1960s-1990s, various legislative acts were adopted in the country that officially restricted the rights and freedoms of certain groups of citizens: in particular, members of the Communist Party and other left-wing organizations, their family members, and representatives of the Chinese community. In addition, there were systematic illegitimate infringements of the rights and freedoms of citizens, taking on the largest scale in the fight against political dissent and ensuring control over problem areas - Ache, the western part of the island of New Guinea, East Timor. In 1993, by order of President Suharto, the National Human Rights Commission (Indon. Komisi Nasional Hak Asasi Manusia) was established, formally independent of state authorities, but in fact tightly controlled by the government.

Measures to improve the human rights situation have become one of the main directions of liberal reforms carried out since the late 1990s. Relevant legislation was adopted (Law No. 39 of 1999 on fundamental human rights), the work of the National Human Rights Commission was activated, this direction in the work of the Ministry of Justice was strengthened, while the department itself was officially renamed the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights (Indon. Kementerian Hukum dan Hak Azasi Manusia). A number of investigations have been carried out into cases of human rights violations committed in the past.

Such efforts generally have a positive resonance both in the country and abroad. At the same time, according to the assessments of such international non-governmental organizations as Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International, they are insufficient: they blame the Indonesian authorities, in particular, for the continued arbitrariness on the part of representatives of law enforcement agencies and the armed forces in conflict areas, failure to adequately ensure freedom of religion and freedom of speech, the exploitation of child labor, as well as the inhibition of investigations of committed offenses. In a more restrained way, the lack of human rights measures is pointed out, in particular, in the corresponding report of the US State Department - while acknowledging the significant progress made by Indonesia in this area.


State symbols

The state symbols of Indonesia are regulated by the constitution and current legislation (Law on the State Flag, State Language, State Emblem and National Anthem, the latest version of which was adopted in 2009).

The flag of Indonesia is a rectangular panel with 3:2 proportions, divided into two horizontal stripes of equal size - red at the top and white at the bottom. Legislatively approved different sizes of the flag for various government agencies, vehicles, political and public events, while the proportion of 3:2 remains unchanged.

The red and white flag was first used by the activists of the national liberation movement. The history of the creation of the flag and the meaning of its colors are not documented. According to the most common version, he inherited the colors of the flag of the medieval state of Majapahit, red symbolizes courage, white - purity of intentions. There is also a version of the origin of the Indonesian flag from the Dutch, from which two of the three colors were taken.

The national emblem of Indonesia is the golden mythical bird Garuda with a heraldic shield on its chest. Garuda plumage symbolizes August 17, 1945 - the date of the proclamation of the Republic of Indonesia: 19 feathers in the lower body and 45 on the neck - 1945, 8 feathers in the tail - the month of August, 17 feathers in each of the wings - the 17th. In its claws, Garuda holds a silver ribbon with the national motto, written in black capital letters in Old Javanese, "Unity in diversity" (Jav. Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, literally "diversity is one").

The shield on the chest of Garuda is four-part, with a small shield in the heart. The five elements of the coat of arms symbolize the five principles of the state ideology of Pancha Sil: a golden five-pointed star in a black field in the heart of the coat of arms - faith in one God; the head of a banteng in the first part in a scarlet field - a nationality led by representative bodies; banyan tree in the second in silver - national unity; a rice shoot and a sprig of cotton in the third, also in silver - universal social justice, a chain of round and rectangular links in the fourth in scarlet - fair and civilized humanism (all figures are natural in color). The upper and lower parts of the shield are separated by a black narrow belt, symbolizing the equator, passing through the territory of Indonesia.

The coat of arms was designed by the Sultan of Pontianak Hamid II during his tenure in the government of the United States of Indonesia and adopted as the national emblem of the Republic of Indonesia on February 11, 1950.

The anthem of the Republic of Indonesia "Greater Indonesia" (Indon. Indonesia Raya) was written by the composer Wage Rudolf Supratman in 1924 and was first publicly performed during the congress of youth organizations on October 28, 1928. It was adopted as the national anthem on the day of the country's independence on August 17, 1945.


Foreign policy

Since the first years of statehood, independence and activity, as well as equidistance from confrontational blocs, have been declared as the main principles of Indonesia's foreign policy. In the 1950s, Jakarta was among the main initiators of the creation of the Non-Aligned Movement and to this day remains one of its most active participants (in 1991-1995 she chaired the Movement). However, if the period of Sukarno's presidency was characterized by the country's rapprochement with the USSR and other countries of the socialist bloc, then after 1965 a course was set for a close political and economic partnership with the West. At the same time, full-fledged diplomatic relations were maintained with the USSR even after 1965 and systematic contacts were made in various fields, albeit at a less intensive level than before, while ties with China were completely frozen: accusing the PRC of complicity in the attempted coup d'état on September 30, 1965 year, the Suharto government severed diplomatic relations with her (restored in 1990) and interrupted contacts in the political, economic and cultural fields.

In addition, since the mid-1960s, regional cooperation has occupied the most important place in the scale of Indonesia's foreign policy priorities. In 1967, with the initiative role of Indonesia, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was created - since then it has always remained the informal leader of this organization, advocating the intensification of integration processes, the development of new forms of intra-ASEAN cooperation and interaction of the Association with partners outside the Southeast Asia. East Asia - in particular, within the framework of the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) and various dialogue mechanisms. The role of Jakarta in other multilateral structures of the Asia-Pacific region is also noticeable, including APEC, CICA, and the Asia Cooperation Dialogue.

The main goal of Jakarta's international activity at present is to create favorable external conditions for the socio-economic development of Indonesia, its formation as a democratic moderate Muslim country, as well as to promote the construction of a multipolar world order. Traditionally, its active position is in favor of nuclear disarmament and the peaceful settlement of regional conflicts: Jakarta, in particular, provided active mediation services in the process of intra-Cambodian settlement (1989-1991), came up with peacekeeping initiatives in the context of the settlement of the border dispute between Cambodia and Thailand (2011 year), has been actively involved in UN peacekeeping since the 1960s. Since the end of the 20th century, the tasks of combating climate change and combating terrorism have become especially relevant for Indonesians.

Following these guidelines, Indonesia actively participates in the work of the United Nations, periodically raising the issue of granting it the status of a permanent member of the Security Council, as well as the G20, the Organization of the Islamic Conference, and other international organizations and forums. For several decades, Indonesia's key foreign partners have been the United States, Japan, ASEAN countries and the European Union. At the same time, since the late 1990s, a course has been taken to diversify external relations. In particular, serious efforts are being made to strengthen relations with Russia — Megawati Sukarnoputri visited Moscow in 2003, Yudhoyono visited Moscow in 2006, and Vladimir Putin visited Jakarta in 2007.


Homeland Security Issues

Intercommunal contradictions, extremism and terrorism
According to the assessments of the government and the leadership of the country's law enforcement agencies, the main threats to its national security are of an internal nature. The most important of these are inter-ethnic and inter-religious conflicts and related manifestations of terrorism and extremism.

Inter-communal contradictions, which were contained under the conditions of rigid state power and sustainable socio-economic growth of the 1970s-1990s, sharply escalated against the backdrop of a severe economic crisis and political instability that accompanied the collapse of the Suharto regime. One of their first large-scale manifestations was the bloody pogroms of ethnic Chinese in Jakarta in May 1998. Subsequently, the most conflict situation was in areas of mixed residence of large Muslim and Christian communities, in particular, in the north of Sumatra, in Sulawesi and the Moluccas: for several years there were clashes on religious grounds, murders and terrorist acts, leading to numerous victims.

In a short period, there has been a sharp increase in religious, primarily Islamic extremism and terrorism: several relevant organizations have formed or emerged from the deep underground, establishing ties with the structures of international terrorism. The largest and most influential of them was the Jemaah Islamiya, which established interaction with al-Qaeda and created its cells not only in various regions of Indonesia, but also in other countries of Southeast Asia. Among the most large-scale and high-profile terrorist attacks committed by Jemaah Islamiya and other extremist groups are the explosions on the island of Bali in October 2002 (202 killed) and in October 2005 (at least 19 killed), explosions near the Marriott hotel in August 2003 ( 12 killed) and at the Australian embassy in September 2004 (at least 9 killed) in Jakarta.

By the mid-2000s, the authorities managed to deal serious blows to the Islamist underground by eliminating or arresting a number of its leaders and activists (primarily from the Jemaah Islamiya), as well as minimizing manifestations of intercommunal violence. Nevertheless, the terrorist threat remains at a high level, the situation in a number of regions with a population of diverse ethno-confessional composition remains quite tense.



The criminal situation in Indonesia also escalated significantly after the economic crisis and the period of political instability in the late 1990s and early 2000s. At the same time, the growth was mainly due to non-violent crimes (theft, fraud, etc.), while the number of crimes against human life and dignity remains relatively small in the context of relevant international statistics. Thus, the number of annual murders per 100,000 people, according to Interpol, has remained low and fairly stable throughout the 2000s - 0.6-0.7 cases per year. This situation is largely due to the maintenance of tight control over firearms, ensuring their almost complete absence among the civilian population. At the same time, the factor of unregistered crimes can also play its role in such a statistical picture.

Piracy is among the violent crimes that are on the rise. In 2010, 40 ships were attacked in Indonesian territorial waters. The most dangerous area is the Strait of Malacca and the waters adjacent to it.

As of 2013, there were over 114,332 prisoners in the country - 59 prisoners per 100,000 inhabitants. The prison occupancy rate was 148.3%. The country has the death penalty by firing squad, used as capital punishment for a number of criminal articles (including murder, terrorism, drug trafficking). In 2010, 7 death sentences were carried out.


Armed forces

History and role in the life of the country
The armed forces, officially created on October 5, 1945, traditionally play an exceptionally large role in the life of Indonesia. The need to defend independence in a long war with the Netherlands initially predetermined a special place for the army in the scale of national development priorities. After the events of 1965, in the hands of the military, the state power, in fact, turned out to be: General Suharto, who took the presidential post, legislated for them the so-called dual function (Indon. Dwifungsi), which implied responsibility not only for defense, but also for the socio-political development of the country . Moreover, on a legal basis, commercial activities were established by the military, both on a private and institutional basis.

After the resignation of Suharto in 1998, the most important direction of the liberal transformations unfolded in Indonesia was the systematic withdrawal of the military from politics. At the same time, having lost the leverage of direct influence on government decision-making, the army remains an influential and authoritative force.

Structure, number, equipment and financing
The armed forces of the Republic of Indonesia are officially called the "Indonesian National Army". They are divided into ground forces, naval forces, and air forces. Until 1999, they also included the police as a separate type of armed forces, while the armed forces were officially called the Armed Forces of the Republic of Indonesia (Indon. Angkatan Bersenjata Republik Indonesia).

The Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces is the President, who leads them through the Minister of Defense (as of March 2018 - Ryamizard Ryakudu) and the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces (as of March 2018 - General Gatot Nurmantio). The total number of the Armed Forces for 2011 is about 428 thousand people. In addition, about 400 thousand people are in the reserve of the first stage.

The number of ground forces in 2011 is 326 thousand people. In addition to regular units and formations, they include strategic reserve forces (Indon. Komando Cadangan Strategis Angkatan Darat, KOSTRAD) - more than 26 thousand people, as well as special forces (Indon. Komando Pasukan Khusus, KOPASSUS) - more than 6 thousand people. The commander of the SV for March 2018 is General Mugliono (English) Russian .. The armament consists of 315 tanks, 691 armored personnel carriers and infantry fighting vehicles, 565 field artillery pieces, 730 mortars, 12 MLRS, 160 anti-tank and 370 anti-aircraft weapons, 17 aircraft and 64 helicopters army aviation.

The personnel of the naval forces for 2011 - 67 thousand people, including the Marine Corps (Indon. Korps Marinir) - about 20 thousand people. Commander of the Navy, as of March 2018 - Admiral Ade Supandi (English) Russian .. The fleet has 136 pennants, including 6 frigates, 2 submarines, 1 corvette, 4 missile boats, 12 patrol ships. There are 48 aircraft and 45 helicopters of naval aviation.

The personnel of the Air Force in 2011 is 34 thousand people. Commander of the Air Force, as of March 2018 - Marshal Agus Supriyatna. The Air Force is armed with 88 combat aircraft and 136 auxiliary aircraft, 44 auxiliary aviation helicopters.

The armed forces are recruited according to a mixed contract-draft principle. Military appropriations for 2010 amounted to about 4.7 billion US dollars (about 4.5% of GDP). In addition, part of the needs of the armed forces is covered by income from the entrepreneurial activities of the military.

Participation in hostilities and peacekeeping operations
The Indonesian armed forces began their history with confronting the aggression of the Netherlands, who were trying to regain control over the former colony in 1945-49. In the 1950s, they fought against various separatist and anti-government groups, in the 1960s they took part in a military confrontation with the Netherlands and Malaysia.

The largest military conflict was the capture in 1975 of East Timor and opposition to partisan activities in this territory, which continued until the restoration of its independence. The army was also involved in the fight against separatist movements in Aceh and West Irian in the 1970s-1990s and the suppression of serious sectarian riots that took place in the 1990s-2000s.

Indonesia takes an active part in UN peacekeeping: since the 1950s, its contingents of a total of more than 15,800 people have taken part in UN missions to establish or maintain peace in 18 countries. As of 2011, Indonesian Blue Helmets are stationed in Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Kuwait.


Administrative division

The administrative division of Indonesia is governed by the constitution and current legislation. The main legal act in this area is Law No. 32 of 2004 on local self-government. In addition, the status of each of the special districts and provinces with special status is regulated by separate laws.

Indonesia is subdivided into 37 first-level administrative divisions, including 35 provinces and two special administrative divisions equivalent in status to a province, Jakarta Special Capital Region and Yogyakarta Special Region. Each province and each special district is headed by a governor (Indon. gubernur), elected by the population for a term of 5 years (until 2005 he was elected by the local legislative body). The highest organs of legislative power in the provinces and special districts are local councils of people's representatives, also elected by the population for a term of five years.

The province of Indonesia in 1969 was declared the western part of the island of New Guinea, occupied as a result of the conflict with the Netherlands in 1961-1962 (names - "West Irian" in 1969-1973, "Irian Jaya" in 1973-2002). East Timor, occupied by Indonesia in 1975, also had the status of a province until the separation of this territory from Indonesia in 1999.

The sharp exacerbation of ethno-confessional contradictions and the growth of separatist sentiments in a number of regions in the context of the political and socio-economic crisis of the late 1990s prompted the Indonesian authorities to take a set of measures to decentralize state power and disaggregate the administrative-territorial division of the country. Between 1999 and 2007, five new provinces were created - Papua, West Papua, Banten, Riau Archipelago, Gorontalo. In addition, the status of a province was granted to Aceh, which had previously been a special district. In 2012, the province of North Kalimantan was created. In 2022, another step was taken to disaggregate the administrative units of the Indonesian part of New Guinea: at the expense of the territories of the two provinces that existed there, three more were created: Central Papua, Papua Pegunungan and South Papua.

All five provinces located on the territory of New Guinea, as well as Aceh, which occupies the northwestern tip of Sumatra, have a special status, which implies the empowerment of the authorities of these regions with some additional powers in the social, cultural, spiritual and other spheres. In Aceh, in particular, Sharia law operates (with restrictions) along with the national legislation of Indonesia.

Provinces and special districts are divided into districts (kabupaten, Indon. kabupaten) and municipalities equated to districts (koty, Indon. kota), into which large cities are allocated. As of early 2020, there were 416 districts and 98 municipalities in the country. Districts are governed by regents (bupati, Indon. bupati), municipalities - by mayors (valikota, Indon. walikota). The powers of regents and mayors are identical, and both are elected by the population for five years. The highest legislative bodies of the districts and municipalities are local councils of people's representatives, also elected by the population for five years. The Jakarta metropolitan area has a special administrative structure: it is subdivided into five urban administrative districts (Indon. kota administrasi) and one administrative district (Indon. kabupaten administrasi). These administrative divisions have a somewhat lesser degree of self-government than regular city municipalities and districts, their mayors and by extension the regent being appointed by the Governor of Jakarta.

Counties and municipalities are subdivided into districts (kecamatans, Indon. kecamatan), governed by leaders (chamats, Indon. camat), appointed by the regent or mayor. The districts also have bodies of legislative power - councils of people's representatives. In the provinces of Papua and West Papua, the district is called distrik (Indon. distrik), its head is the head of the district (kepala distrik, Indon. kepala distrik).

Districts are divided into the lowest administrative-territorial units of two types: villages (in most of the territory they are called desa (Indon. desa), in some regions local names are legally fixed) and settlements - kelurahans (Indon. kelurahan). Villages enjoy more self-government than settlements, their heads, in most places called kepala desa (Indon. kepala desa), are elected by the local population, in contrast to the heads of settlements - lurahs (Indon. lurah), appointed by the heads of districts.


Physical and geographical characteristics

The territory of Indonesia is 1,919,440 km² (14th largest in terms of area among the countries of the world and the first among the countries of Southeast Asia). Located on both sides of the equator on the islands of the Malay Archipelago and the western part of the island of New Guinea and washed by the waters of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, it is the largest island nation in the world. The country includes at least 17,508 islands, of which about 6,000 are inhabited, the area of ​​controlled sea area (inland sea, territorial and archipelagic waters, exclusive economic zone) is 7.9 million km A significant part of the islands belongs to the Sunda Islands, which in turn are subdivided into the Greater Sunda and Lesser Sunda Islands. The Greater Sunda Islands include the largest islands of Indonesia - Java, Sumatra, Sulawesi and Kalimantan (on the latter, in addition to Indonesian territory, there is part of the territory of Malaysia and the state of Brunei Darussalam).

Indonesia shares land borders with Malaysia (on the island of Kalimantan), Papua New Guinea (on the island of New Guinea), and East Timor (on the island of Timor). At the same time, there is a border with the latter in two different sections: with the main territory of this country in the central part of the island of Timor and with the East Timorese exclave of Ocusi-Ambeno, surrounded by the territory of the Indonesian province of East Lesser Sunda Islands. There are maritime borders with the mentioned countries, as well as with Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and India.

Geological structure
Most of the Indonesian territory is an area of ​​​​Cenozoic folding, only some regions are geologically older - the north of Sumatra and the southwest of Kalimantan belong to the area of ​​​​Mesozoic folding, the southwest of the island of New Guinea and some nearby islands - to the area of pre-Mesozoic folding. The structure is dominated by metamorphic rocks, Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Paleogene-Neogene effusive-sedimentary deposits of various compositions. Characteristic elements of the geological structure are extended island arcs and associated deep ocean trenches.

Almost the entire territory is part of the so-called "Pacific Ring of Fire", which leads to a high degree of tectonic activity. Earthquakes occur periodically in various regions of the country, often very strong. The most destructive for the historical period was the earthquake that occurred on December 26, 2004 off the western coast of Sumatra, when, according to various estimates, from 130 to 170 thousand people died as a result of tremors and, mainly, the tsunamis caused by them on various islands of Indonesia. In addition, there are about 150 active volcanoes in the country, the largest of which are Merapi, Bromo, Salak, Semeru (Java Island), Krakatau (Sonda Strait), Tambora (Sumbawa Island). The most powerful eruption in the historical period of Indonesia's development - and one of the most powerful in world history in general - was produced in 1883 by Krakatau: as a result of the eruption and the tsunami caused by it in Java, Sumatra and the small islands of the Java Sea, at least 36 thousand people died, almost 300 were destroyed. settlements.



The interior regions of all large islands are mountainous: Java and Sumatra are characterized by straight continuous mountain ranges along almost the entire length of the island, while Sulawesi and the Indonesian territories of Kalimantan and New Guinea have more complex configurations of mountain systems. The highest peak in Indonesia (it is also the highest peak in Oceania) is Mount Punchak Jaya (4884 m), located in the western part of New Guinea. The largest flat areas are in Kalimantan.

Inland waters
Rivers in most regions form a dense network and, as a rule, are full of water all year round, although seasonal fluctuations in debit are noticeable. The longest and deepest flow in Kalimantan: Kapuas (1143 km), Mahakam (920 km), Barito (900 km). These and other rivers in mountainous areas form rapids and waterfalls. The channels of lowland rivers in many areas have unstable outlines due to abundant sedimentation. The flow rate of rivers, as a rule, is subject to significant seasonal fluctuations: spills occur during the rainy season, often leading to large-scale floods. The largest lake is Toba in the northern part of the island of Sumatra (about 1145 km²), which is the largest volcanic lake on the planet and, with a depth of more than 500 m, is one of the deepest lakes in the world.



The country is rich in various minerals. Oil reserves have been explored in one volume or another in almost all regions, in particular, in Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Seram, as well as on the shelf of these islands. Natural gas fields are located in North Sumatra (Arun) and East Kalimantan (Badak), as well as on the coastal shelves of West Irian and Java - the latter include the largest gas field in Southeast Asia, Natuna D-Alpha, located in the Java Sea about 1000 km north of Jakarta. According to forecasts, explored reserves of natural gas should be enough for the country for 50 years. In addition, in various regions of the country there are significant reserves of coal methane, the total volume of which is about 13 trillion cubic meters.

On Kalimantan and Sulawesi there are deposits of iron ores, on the islands of Banka, Belitung, Singkep - tin, on the island of Bintan - bauxite and aluminum, on Sulawesi - nickel, on Java - manganese.

Approximately 80% of the territory of Indonesia is dominated by red-yellow lateritic and mountainous lateritic soils; tropical swamp soils are also common in the flat regions of Kalimantan and Sumatra; lateritic gley soils are also common in the western part of the island of New Guinea. On a number of islands in the southeastern part of the country, there are red lateritic soils.

The climate in most of Indonesia is equatorial, humid, in some regions it has signs of subequatorial. In the flat areas, the average monthly temperature is about 26 °C, while its seasonal fluctuations are very small - no more than 3 °C. In the mountains, with a natural decrease in temperature as the height above sea level increases (about 1 ° C per 100 m), an equally small amplitude of average monthly temperatures remains, and frosts occur at altitudes above 1500 m.

The humidity level is very high, on average about 80%. The annual precipitation varies from 1800 mm to 3200 mm in the plains, in some mountainous areas it reaches 6100 mm. At the same time, most of the territory is characterized by a more or less pronounced alternation of two seasons - rainy (from November - December to March - April) and dry (from April - May to October - November) - associated with the change of equatorial monsoons. During the dry period, there is either no precipitation or much less precipitation. The rains are often torrential in nature and are usually accompanied by thunderstorms.

Flora and fauna
General characteristics, zoning
The nature of Indonesia is exceptionally diverse: here, on an area that makes up no more than 1.3% of the world's land, about 17% of the planet's biological species are found. In terms of the number of biological species found on its territory, the country ranks second in the world after Brazil.

The most important feature of the Indonesian ecosystem is its biogeographic zoning, defined by the Wallace line, which runs from north to south between the islands of Kalimantan and Sulawesi and then between the islands of Bali and Lombok. Most of the islands to the west of it, being in prehistoric times connected with continental Southeast Asia and forming with it the biogeographic region of Sundaland, inherited mainly the flora and fauna of the Asian type. Located to the east of the Wallace line, New Guinea and a number of islands adjacent to it, which in the past constituted a single continent with Australia - Sahul, are inhabited by species predominantly close to those of Australia. At the same time, the most peculiar in natural terms are the areas adjacent on both sides to the Wallace line - the so-called Wallace region, which includes the Sulawesi, Mollukki and most of the Lesser Sunda Islands. Wallaceia, which is a biogeographical transition zone between the Sundaland and Sahul regions, has to varying degrees the features of both, as well as a number of unique features - it is here that most of the species that are endemic to Indonesia are found.

At the beginning of the 21st century, the number of plant species found in Indonesia was estimated at about 28,000. At least 60% of the country's area is covered with humid evergreen equatorial forests, with the most forested areas being the Indonesian territories of Kalimantan and New Guinea, and the smallest areas in relative terms of forests occupying Java.


Equatorial forests are characteristic of both flat and mountainous areas. Up to an altitude of about 1500 m above sea level, the main types of vegetation in them are ficuses, various dipterocarp, althingia, pandanus, palm, tree ferns, bamboo. At altitudes up to 2500-3000 m, mountain tropical forests are common, with a predominance of evergreen broad-leaved and coniferous species, and even higher - upland crooked forests, shrubs and various grasses. In low-lying coastal areas (in Kalimantan, New Guinea and, to a lesser extent, in Sumatra), mangroves are widespread. The islands in the southeastern part of the country also have deciduous rainforests and savannahs, which are often formed after deforestation. The area of ​​​​forests is decreasing under the influence of human economic activity - this process is going on at the highest rate in Java and Sumatra.

Animal world
Indonesia has the richest fauna of any country in the world. Almost all the main classes of animals living in Indonesia are distinguished by diversity. At the beginning of the 21st century, 515 species of mammals, 1531 species of birds, 122 species of butterflies, more than 600 species of reptiles and more than 270 species of amphibians were recorded here. At the same time, 39% of mammals and 36% of birds are endemic. Among the most famous endemics are the Komodo monitor lizard, the Kul deer, the babirussa, and the Tonka macaque.

Many animals are endangered, and the populations of some species are declining at a very rapid pace. Thus, only 140 species of mammals are classified as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), 15 of them are considered to be on the verge of extinction. Among the latter are such animals as the orangutan, Javan rhinoceros, Sumatran tiger.



Number, resettlement
According to the results of the national census conducted in 2020, the population of Indonesia was 270,203,917 people. Indonesia is thus the most populous country in Southeast Asia and the fourth largest in the world in terms of population.

The average population density for 2020 is about 141 people per km², while the population is extremely unevenly distributed: 56.1% of Indonesians live in Java, which makes up less than 7% of the territory, making this island one of the most densely populated places on the planet (more 1000 people per km²). Among the administrative-territorial units, the highest population density is registered in the Special Capital Region - 15,947 people per km², the lowest - in the province of North Kalimantan - less than 8 people per km².

To ensure a more even distribution of the population across the country, the Indonesian authorities have been implementing a large-scale transmigration program since the 1950s - the resettlement of residents of densely populated areas (Java, Madura, Bali) to sparsely populated islands (Kalimantan, New Guinea, Moluccas). As part of this program, by the beginning of the 2000s, at least 5.5 million people were resettled, of which almost half were resettled in the 1970s and 1980s.

The share of the urban population is 44%. As of 2010, 11 cities have a population of over 1 million people, the largest of which is the country's capital, Jakarta, with a population of 9,607,787.

Growth rates, age and gender structure
Over the entire period of independent development of Indonesia, it was characterized by a fairly high population growth, which has been somewhat declining since the 1980s as a result of the implementation of the state family planning program. The average annual population growth rate for the decade from 2010 to 2020 was 1.25%. According to the forecasts of UN subject matter experts, in the coming decades, the population growth rate in Indonesia will gradually decrease and, having reached its maximum in 2055 (295 million people), the population of Indonesia will begin to decrease.


Population growth dynamics in Indonesia

The age structure of the population is typical for developing countries: the main feature is the high proportion of young people - the average age of an Indonesian is 31 years old. 23.3% of Indonesians are under 15, 70.7% are aged 15-65, and 6% are over 65.

The gender composition of the population is quite even, the sex ratio is 1.02 in favor of men. Changes in this indicator in different age groups generally correspond to the global trend: 1.07 at birth, 1.06 for persons under 25 years of age, 1.02 - from 25 to 39 years old, 1.00 - from 40 to 54 years old, 0. 98 - from 55 to 54 years old, 1.03 - from 65 to 69 years old, 0.88 - from 70 to 74 years old and 0.79 - over 75 years old. At the same time, its fluctuations in different regions of the country are very noticeable: if in the province of Papua and West Papua it is 1.14, then in the special district of Yogyakarta it is 0.98.

National composition
About 300 peoples live in Indonesia, most of which belong to the Austronesian group. Austronesian, in particular, are the most numerous peoples of the country - the Javanese (as of the beginning of the 21st century they make up more than 40% of the population), the Sundanese (about 15%), the Madurese (about 4%), the Minangkabau (about 3%), the Bugis (about 2.5%. Along with this, in the eastern regions, in particular, in New Guinea and the islands adjacent to it, peoples belonging to the Melanesian group live, most of which belong to the Papuans. Most of the indigenous peoples of Indonesia live in the areas of their historical settlement, but as the migration dynamics increases, the proportion of people living in non-traditional areas increases. This process is most noticeable in relation to the Javanese: occupying, due to their large number, leading positions in most areas of the country's life and most actively participating in the transmigration program (for more details, see the subsection "Number, resettlement"), they live in significant numbers in all regions of the country .

Among the non-indigenous peoples of Indonesia, the most numerous are the Chinese, who live in almost all regions of the country, mainly in large cities: their number, according to various estimates, ranges from 2.5 to 7 million people. An accurate determination of the number of Indonesian Chinese is problematic due to the special position that they occupied for a long time in the life of the country: having begun to actively settle in Indonesia from the 16th century, they traditionally controlled a significant part of the economy, which affected relations with the indigenous population. Socio-cultural conflicts with the locals, combined with the severe discrimination that the Chinese were subjected to during the Suharto presidency (including a complete ban on the use of their native language), led many of them to abandon their original ethnic self-identification, at least on a public level.

In various regions of the country, mainly in large cities, there are also significant communities of immigrants from India and Arab countries, as well as a small number of people of European and mixed European-Indonesian origin.



The official language of Indonesia is Indonesian, which belongs to the Indonesian branch of the Austronesian language family. Its status is regulated by the constitution and current legislation. Writing is based on the Latin alphabet.

Indonesian is compulsory for studying in all secondary educational institutions of the country. In one way or another, almost the entire adult population of Indonesia owns it, the number of active carriers as of 2009 is at least 144 million people - about 60% of the country's inhabitants. At the same time, a small part of the population uses the state language in everyday life (according to various estimates, from 12% to 20%) - in the family circle, most Indonesians communicate in their native local languages. At the same time, a significant part of the inhabitants are bilingual - they are equally fluent in their native and state languages, many consider both languages ​​​​to be native.

The Indonesian language developed by the beginning of the 20th century on the basis of a supra-dialectal form of the Malay language, historically used as a lingua franca on the islands of the Malay Archipelago. Its popularization was significantly facilitated by the lack of an alternative means of interethnic communication - the language of the metropolis, Dutch, was not widely used among the local population during the colonization. Initially, the language continued to be called Malay, the concept of "Indonesian" came into wide use after the congress of youth organizations on October 27-28, 1928.

Like most other contact languages, Indonesian has a simplified morphology and phonetics. Prior to independence, the Indonesian language was predominantly written in Arabic and, alternatively, in Latin, but in 1945 Latin was legislated as the only script.

As of 2018, there are 707 living languages ​​in Indonesia. 12 languages ​​are considered extinct because their speakers were last seen in the 20th century. The most widely spoken local languages ​​are Javanese, Sundanese, and Madurese, with over 80 million, 30 million, and 13 million native speakers, respectively. The western part of the island of Irian and the nearby small islands are the most linguistically diverse - the locals speak at least 270 Papuan languages.


Religious composition

Indonesia is a secular state, the country's constitution guarantees freedom of religion[66]. At the same time, according to the legislation adopted in 1965, a special status, providing for the support and protection of the state, was granted to the main religions of the country - Islam, Protestantism, Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism and Confucianism - with a reservation about the permissibility of the existence of other religions. At the same time, from 1967 to 2000, there was an official ban on the public administration of Confucian services in the country - during this period, official Indonesian statistics operated with data on five religions: Islam, Protestantism, Catholicism, Hinduism and Buddhism, while Confucianism, along with other confessions, it appeared in population censuses and other official statistical studies in a number of “other beliefs”.

The vast majority of the population - more than 88% - profess Islam, which spread here mainly in the XIII-XVI centuries, which makes Indonesia the largest Muslim state in the world. Almost all Indonesian Muslims are Sunnis, a small number of Shiites (about 1 million people) live scattered, mainly in Java. Representatives of the Shiite minority, as a rule, coexist without conflict with the surrounding Sunnis. To strengthen mutual understanding and formalize dialogue between the followers of the two branches of Islam, in May 2011 in Jakarta, with the support of the Indonesian government, the Sunni-Shia Theological Council was established.

Christianity spread in the country during the colonial period as a result of the activities of European, mainly Dutch and Portuguese missionaries. As of the beginning of the 21st century, 8.7% of Indonesians profess it, 5.7% of which are Protestants and 3% are Catholics. Government data on the number of Christians and the data of the Christian churches themselves differ. Thus, according to the encyclopedia "Religions of the World" by J. G. Melton, Christians make up 12.1% of the country's population. The largest denominations are formed by Pentecostals (9.45 million), Reformed (6.8 million), Catholics (6.65 million) and Lutherans (5.8 million). Christians live in most parts of the country, the most significant communities - in Jakarta, Sulawesi, Moluccas, North Sumatra, West Timor and New Guinea.

About 2% of the population are Hindus, the majority of whom are Balinese, who at one time, unlike neighboring peoples, did not accept Islam. Approximately 1% are Buddhists and Confucians - these confessions belong mainly to ethnic Chinese. Some part of the indigenous population of the territories least affected by modern civilization - primarily in Kalimantan, New Guinea, Sulawesi, Moluccas - professes animism and other forms of paganism. Traditional local beliefs are preserved to varying degrees in other parts of the country.


Economics and finance

General condition, main indicators
Indonesia belongs to the category of agro-industrial countries. In terms of national competitiveness in 2017, it ranked 36th in the world. It belongs to the category of the most economically promising developing countries - the so-called group of eleven.

The volume of GDP at PPP for 2017 amounted to 3.243 trillion US dollars - 7th place in the world and the first - in Southeast Asia (about 12,400 US dollars per capita - 124th place in the world). The economic growth rate recorded in 2017 is about 5.2% (37th in the world). The revenue side of the state budget for 2017 was $130.6 billion, the expenditure side was $154.8 billion, and the budget deficit was 2.4% of GDP.

The monetary unit is the Indonesian rupiah, the average rate for 2016 is 13,240 rupiah per 1 US dollar. The unit of exchange is sen (Indon. sen), one hundredth of a rupee (out of circulation in the 1960s, but not officially abolished). The issue of money is carried out by the central bank of the country - the Bank of Indonesia.

The inflation rate at the end of 2017 is 4% (156th place in the world). The volume of national gold and foreign exchange reserves as of December 2015 amounted to $103.4 billion.

The economy, with its market nature, is characterized by the active role of the state: it owns about 140 large enterprises in various sectors of the national economy, and also controls the prices of a number of goods, including basic foodstuffs and fuels and lubricants. In the volume of GDP, the share of industrial production for 2015 is 42.8%, services - 43.6%, agriculture - 13.6%. At the same time, 13.2% are employed in industry, 38.9% in agriculture and 47.9% of the working population in the service sector. The total working-age population is 122.4 million people (4th place in the world), the unemployment rate is 5.5% (60th place in the world).

The population is characterized by a significant socio-economic stratification, the incomes of the richest 10% are almost 11 times higher than the incomes of the poorest 10% of Indonesians. Over 13% live below the poverty line.

Corruption is a serious problem in the economy - in the ratings compiled by the organization Transparency International, Indonesia has been ranked at the top of the second hundred for a long time.

On the whole, Indonesia survived the global financial and economic crisis of 2008-2009 quite well, its main macroeconomic indicators declined very slightly and quickly returned to pre-crisis levels, after which positive dynamics recovered. In December 2011, the international rating agency Fitch upgraded Indonesia's credit rating from "stable" to "investment" level; in January 2012, a similar upgrade of the country's rating was made by Moody's.

In Indonesia, there is no single minimum wage for the whole country, its calculation is within the competence of the authorities of the provinces and equivalent special districts. As of the beginning of 2021, the highest corresponding figure was set in the capital Jakarta - 4,416,186 rupees ($ 313.84), the lowest in Yogyakarta - 1,765,000 rupees ($ 125.34) per month.



In 2014, the share of industrial production in the structure of GDP was 45.5%, more than two thirds of this volume falls on the manufacturing industries. At the same time, the number of people employed in industry is relatively small - less than 13% of the able-bodied population. The growth rate is noticeably lower than in the economy as a whole - about 4.9% in 2014.

In the manufacturing sector in 2009, more than 25 thousand enterprises were registered with the status of large or medium and more than 3.2 million small enterprises and home producers. The most significant sectors are the food industry (about 19% of all non-primary production, almost 6000 large and medium-sized enterprises), the chemical industry (16%, about 900 enterprises), the textile industry (7%, about 2000 enterprises), the tobacco industry (7%, more than 1600 enterprises), production of machinery and equipment (7%, about 600 enterprises), automotive industry (6%, more than 270 enterprises), pulp and paper industry (6%, more than 530 enterprises), production of ready-made clothes (4%, more 2000 enterprises). Most small enterprises and home-based producers operate in various sectors of the light and food industries, including traditional crafts: the production of batik, ceramics, weaving of mats, the manufacture of carved wood and bone products, and other popular souvenirs.

In the extractive industry, there are mainly large national companies, a significant part of which are owned by the state, as well as Western raw material corporations. The largest of the national companies is the state monopoly "Pertamina", which controls the extraction and processing of oil.


Traditionally, hydrocarbon raw materials are produced on a large scale: oil production in 2009 was more than 1.02 million barrels per day (37th place in the world), natural gas - 85.7 billion cubic meters per year (8th place in the world). The extraction of hard coal is also very significant: in 2014, its volume amounted to 458 million tons (5th place in the world), and Indonesia ranked 2nd in the world in terms of the export of this raw material. Also, all the mineral resources listed in the section "Relief, inland waters, minerals, soils" are mined on an industrial scale.

Agriculture is historically the main branch of the local economy, giving no more than 14% of the national GDP, provides employment for a significant part of the population - about 32%. At the same time, its share both in the structure of GDP and in terms of employment is gradually decreasing.

The main agricultural industry is agriculture. Cultivated land makes up about 13% of the country's territory, and Indonesia ranks 7th in the world in terms of their area. About 1/3 of cultivated land is irrigated. The country occupies a leading position in the world in the production of many agricultural crops.

Main food crops: rice (collection in 2009 - 64.4 million tons, 3rd place in the world), cassava (22 million tons, 1st place in the world), coconuts (21.5 million tons, 1st place in the world), corn (16.9 million tons, 4th place in the world), bananas (6.3 million tons, 6th place in the world), sweet potato (2 million tons, 4th place in the world) . Oil palm (22.5 million tons of palm oil, 1st place in the world), sago palm (5.2 million tons of sago, 1st place in the world), sugar cane (26.5 million tons, 1st place in the world) are grown in large volumes. 10th place in the world), cocoa beans (800 thousand tons, 2nd place in the world), coffee (700 thousand tons of beans, 4th place in the world), tobacco (181 thousand tons, 6- th place in the world), tea (160 thousand tons, 7th place in the world), cloves (81 thousand tons, 1st place in the world), pepper (80 thousand tons, 2nd place in the world) . Of the industrial crops, rubber plants are the most important (2.8 million tons of natural rubber, 2nd place in the world).

Animal husbandry is less developed. The total number of cattle in 2010 is 15.23 million head, including 13.5 million beef cows, 0.53 million dairy cows and 1.2 million buffalo, used mainly as draft animals. According to 2008 data, the number of goats was 15.8 million heads, sheep - 10.3 million heads, pigs (raised mainly by non-Muslim population) - 5.5 million heads. The main poultry is chicken: in 2008 there were 68 million laying hens, more than 1.2 billion broiler chickens, more than 1 million tons of eggs were produced.

Fishing has historically been of great importance: in terms of catch of fish and seafood in 2009 - more than 5.1 million tons - Indonesia ranks third in the world, the main commercial species are tuna, mackerel, sardine, sea bass, grouper, shrimp. At the same time, intensively developing fish farming practically caught up with it in terms of production volumes: in terms of catch of artificially bred fish and seafood in 2009 - more than 4.7 million tons - the country ranks second in the world. The main cultivated species are: tilapia, carp, gourami, shrimps, pearl breeding is widely practiced.

The most important industry is forestry: in 2009, 98.7 million m³ of timber was harvested in Indonesia (8th in the world), of which 36.4 million m³ were industrial logs. A serious problem in this area is illegal logging and smuggling of valuable wood species.

Services sector
The service sector has traditionally occupied a fairly important place in the Indonesian economy (including the colonial period), but the beginning of its intensive purposeful development dates back to the period of economic modernization in the 1970s and 1980s. By 2010, the share of the service sector in GDP was 37.6%, it provided employment for almost half (48.9%) of the working population. At the same time, the efficiency and competitiveness of this sector in comparison with the Indonesian economy as a whole remains low, in particular, due to technological and infrastructural backwardness, and a lack of qualified personnel.

In 2010, the government adopted a program for the accelerated development of the service sector. The main tasks set within its framework are the systematic increase in its share in the economy to 55% of GDP by 2025, as well as the qualitative modernization of its main sectors: healthcare, transport and communications, banking, trade, tourism sectors, and energy.


Banking sector

The credit and financial system of Indonesia, having experienced severe upheavals during the crisis of 1997-98, generally stabilized in the first half of the 2000s. In 2005, the Bank of Indonesia (BI) launched a long-term program aimed at minimizing the number of private banking institutions operating in the country, in particular, by merging the smallest of them and absorbing the smaller ones by the larger ones. As of March 2011, there are 122 commercial banks in Indonesia, including 28 banks that are joint ventures with foreign partners and 10 that are majority-owned by foreign owners. It is noteworthy that the 10 largest of them control 63.4% of the banking sector, the total amount of funds of which is about 353 billion US dollars, while all the others - no more than 1% (the remaining 35.6% of the sector is accounted for by 4 state banks, including BI). A number of banks in private hands carry out Islamic banking, the total volume of operations for which in 2011 amounted to about 3.3% of the total volume of banking operations.

At the end of 2015, the refinancing rate of the Bank of Indonesia was 6.37% (58th place in the world), the base lending rate for commercial banks was 12.8% (59th place in the world).

Trade sector
The volume of domestic trade according to 2010 data is more than 50 billion US dollars (about 5% of GDP), the number of outlets exceeds 2.5 million (second place in the world after India). The intensity of the trading network in different regions of Indonesia is generally proportional to population density. Thus, 57% of outlets are located in Java, 22% - in Sumatra, 21% - in the rest of the country.

At the same time, the trade sector is characterized to a very large extent by infrastructural heterogeneity: if in large cities there are a large number of modern-type stores, then in small settlements, trade is provided mainly through small shops and traditional markets. In total, according to the classification adopted in Indonesia, 18,152 outlets belong to modern stores in 2010, 154 of them are categorized as hypermarkets, about 2,000 as specialty stores or supermarkets, and the rest as “mini-markets”. In the 1990s - 2000s, there was a significant increase in the number of modern trading enterprises and, at the same time, a decrease in the number of traditional ones. So, if in 2010 the total number of outlets in the country decreased by 1.3% compared to 2009, then the number of modern stores increased by 38% over the same period. However, in general, according to the assessments of the relevant Indonesian authorities, the infrastructure and technological support of the trade sector remains unsatisfactory.



The Indonesian authorities traditionally make active efforts to develop the tourism industry in the country. At the same time, the emphasis is placed primarily on maximizing the influx of foreign visitors, who are more promising from an economic point of view. Since the 1980s, significant funds have been invested in the modernization and expansion of the hotel stock and other related infrastructure, as well as in the promotion of national tourist sites. A positive role in this regard is played by the presence of a significant number of both historical, cultural and natural attractions, including those of world importance. In particular, in 2012, the country had 8 UNESCO World Heritage Sites (in terms of their number, Indonesia ranks first among the states of Southeast Asia).

At the same time, the socio-economic crisis, political upheavals, the escalation of tension on ethno-confessional grounds and the surge of terrorism that took place in the late 1990s and early 2000s significantly reduced the effectiveness of the measures taken. A stable growth in the number of foreign tourists visiting the country began only in 2007, while the dynamics of the corresponding budget revenues remains rather unstable. According to the results of 2011, their noticeable growth is predicted - from 7.7 to 8.3 billion dollars (about 8% of GDP).

Among the visitors, the majority are traditionally citizens of countries that are Indonesia's neighbors in the Asia-Pacific region: Singapore (in 2010 - about 1.37 million people), Malaysia (1.28 million people), Australia (0.77 million people). ), China (0.47 million people), Japan (0.42 million people).



About 65% of the country's population is provided with electricity. National needs for electricity are satisfied solely by their own capacities - electricity is neither imported nor exported. In 2009, electricity production amounted to more than 142.2 billion kWh (24th in the world) with consumption at the level of 127.2 billion kWh (26th in the world) - the difference between these indicators was only losses during transportation and distribution - more than 15 billion kWh. About 40.5% of electricity consumption falls on industry and construction, 39.3% - for domestic needs of the population, the rest - for agriculture and other sectors of the economy. The monopoly on electricity supply is held by the State Electricity Company.

Most of the electricity - 87.2% - is generated at thermal power plants, including 44.9% using coal, 26.5% - oil and 15.8% - natural gas. 7.9% of production falls on the share of hydroelectric power plants, 4.9% - on the share of stations using alternative energy sources (primarily geothermal, there are also biofuel stations, the share of others is insignificant). At the end of 2011 there were no nuclear power plants in the country. The issue of their creation has been actively studied by the Indonesian authorities since 1997, in 2006 a fundamental decision was made in favor of the development of nuclear energy. According to the government program, by 2025 it is planned to build four nuclear power plants with a total electrical capacity of at least 4 GW.

Foreign trade and foreign investment
The volume of foreign trade in 2017 amounted to 299 billion US dollars with a positive balance of 38.6 billion dollars. The volume of exports was 168.8 billion dollars, imports were 130.2 billion dollars (in both indicators - 30th place in the world).

The main export items are gas, oil, electrical equipment, textiles, timber, plywood, rubber. Imports are mainly machinery and equipment, oil, products of the chemical industry and oil refining, and certain types of food. At the same time, the volume of imported oil since the mid-2000s has increasingly exceeded the volume of exported oil - this was the reason for Indonesia's withdrawal in 2008 from OPEC, in which it has been a member since 1962.

The main consumers of Indonesian exports are, as of 2017, China - 13.6%, USA - 10.6%, Japan - 10.5%, India - 8.4%, Singapore - 7.6%, Malaysia - 5 .1%, Republic of Korea - 4.8%. Most imports come from China - 23.2%, Singapore - 10.9%, Japan - 10%, Thailand - 6%, Malaysia - 5.6%, Republic of Korea - 5.3%, USA - 5.2% .

The volume of foreign direct investment in the Indonesian economy in 2010 is about 85.6 billion dollars (38th place in the world). Indonesian investors have placed more than $33 billion abroad (37th in the world).


Transport, infrastructure, communications

Water transport
Taking into account the archipelagic position of the country, water transport historically plays a special role in its socio-economic life. In terms of the length of officially registered domestic sea routes - 21,579 km in 2011 - the country ranks 5th in the world.

There are 1,244 ocean class vessels afloat, 87 of which are registered in other countries and 65 belong to foreign owners. 17 ships are passenger, 47 are cargo-passenger, the rest belong to various types of cargo ships. The largest seaports are located in Jakarta, Surabaya, Banjarmasin, Palembang, Belawan.

River transport is used to some extent almost everywhere, but it is of great importance as a means of freight and passenger transportation, first of all, in Kalimantan: both due to the presence of the most full-flowing rivers there, and due to the insufficient development of other types of other types in the Indonesian territories of this island transport.

Automobile transport
By the length of roads - 437,759 km in 2008 - the country ranks 14th in the world. At the same time, 258,744 km of them have an asphalt or other road surface, and 179,015 are unpaved. The frequency and quality of the road network in different regions of the country is very uneven due to significant differences in the population and economic development of these regions: the highest corresponding indicators are in Java, the lowest in the Indonesian territories of Kalimantan and New Guinea. Traffic is on the left side of the road.

At the end of 2011, over 85.6 million vehicles were officially registered in Indonesia, of which over 68.8 million were motorcycles, scooters and mopeds, over 9.5 million were cars, over 4.9 million were trucks, over 2.2 million - buses.

Railway transport
Railway transport began to develop during the period of Dutch colonization (the first railway was laid in 1867). As of 2009, the length of railway tracks is 5042 km - 35th in the world. Electrified railways 565 km. The so-called Cape gauge, which has a width of 1067 mm, has been adopted as the national standard. The development of the railway network is characterized by the same regional disproportions as for the road network.

As of the end of 2011, there is no subway in any of the cities of the country. Since the mid-1990s, plans have been worked out to establish it in Jakarta. In 2004, the choice was made in favor of creating a combined high-speed railway system (Jakarta Mass Rapid Transportation) in the Indonesian capital, combining segments of an overpass monorail with a subway. The launch of its first stage (15.7 km section with 7 overground and 6 underground stations) is scheduled for early 2019.

Air Transport
Civil air service was established during the colonial period, at the beginning of the 20th century: the first airfield (Kemayoran in Jakarta) was opened in 1910. As of 2010, the country has 684 airports (10th in the world), as well as 64 heliports. At the same time, 171 airports have paved or concrete runways and 513 unpaved ones.

As of 2011, Indonesia has 17 scheduled passenger airlines, 32 non-scheduled passenger companies, 3 scheduled cargo companies, and 1 non-scheduled cargo company. In addition, in a number of regions, as necessary, military transport aviation is involved in passenger and cargo air transportation.

Other modes of transport
Significant development has received pipeline transport, used primarily for the movement of hydrocarbons. As of 2010, 7,165 km of gas pipelines, 5,984 km of oil pipelines, 885 km of pipelines for transporting gas condensate and 617 km of product pipelines for other purposes have been laid across the territory of Indonesia and the adjacent sea shelf.

In various regions horse-drawn transport retains some importance - both in rural and urban areas, horse-drawn and, less commonly, buffalo carts are used. Bicycles are widely used as personal transport. In addition, cycle rickshaws (Indon. becak) are used as public transport in many cities.



In terms of providing the population with means of communication, Indonesia is in the lowest group of moderately developed countries, however, in the 2000s, this sector was characterized by high positive dynamics, in particular in the field of telephone communications. Thus, there are 14.8 fixed telephone lines per 100 people (an increase of almost 5 times over a decade) and 69.2 contracts for the use of a mobile phone (an increase of 38 times). 90% of the population lives within the coverage area of ​​mobile phones. The telephone code of the country is + 62.

The access of the population to the Internet is also expanding very rapidly: if in 2000 it was available to no more than 1% of the population, then in 2007 this figure was 8.9%, and in 2009 - 16.1%. This allowed Indonesia to take 4th place in Asia in terms of the absolute number of Internet users - after China, India and Japan. Access to broadband high-speed Internet, while remaining very limited, is expanding at no less rapid pace - 0.72% of the population in 2009 against 0.34% in 2007. At the same time, in 2009, there were only 2 personal computers per 100 people, and 2.1 secure Internet servers per one million people. The national Internet domain is .id.

Satellite communications are provided within the framework of the national satellite program "Palapa", implemented since 1976. A total of 10 geostationary satellites have been launched since the beginning of the program, the last of which, Palapa-D, was launched in August 2009.



The national health system was fully affected by the consequences of the 1997-98 crisis. By the early 2000s, the government launched a large-scale program to restore and further improve its efficiency, a key element of which is the focus on decentralization.

The medical infrastructure at the grassroots level is expanding. By the end of the 2000s, each district (Kecamatan, see section on Civil divisions) had at least one health center (so-called public health center, Indong. Pusat Kesehatan Masyarakat), headed by a certified physician, whose staff could provide medical assistance in at least 8 areas.

At the lowest administrative level - in villages and settlements (see the section "Administrative-territorial division") - in addition to possible auxiliary first-aid posts, there are obligatory rural obstetric posts (Indon. Pondok Bersalin Desa, at least one in each), as well as the so-called integrated service points (Indon. Pos Pelayanan Terpadu) responsible for providing basic medical services and vaccinations.

In general, there is one doctor for every 5,000 people, and one hospital bed for every 1,111 people.

Public spending on health in 2013 amounted to about 3.1% of GDP (180th in the world). The average life expectancy of Indonesians in 2015 is 72.45 years.

Indonesia is one of the countries with a high level of infectious diseases. The situation with the spread of HIV infection is relatively favorable. 34% of the country's population smokes tobacco.

Despite the fact that, in general, health care is provided everywhere by means of conventional medicine, methods of traditional Indonesian, as well as Chinese medicine, are widely practiced.

In total, according to estimates for 2008, about 100 million Indonesians are provided with some form of health insurance.



Public spending on education is 2.8% of GDP (for 2008, 139th place in the world). The literacy rate for 2009 is 94.7% of the adult (over 15 years old) population. The number of illiterates is rapidly declining (from 2006 to 2009 - by almost a third), most of them are women living in rural areas. Until 2015, it was planned to completely eliminate illiteracy.

In terms of the absolute number of children studying in school - more than 50 million people - Indonesia ranks 3rd in the world. The national school system has three levels: primary school (grades 1-6, children aged 7 to 12), secondary school first (grades 7-9, ages 13 to 15) and secondary school (grades 10-12). , from 16 to 18 years). Along with secular schools (both public and private), there are private religious schools that have a similar three-stage gradation. In addition, technical schools are equated with secondary school of the second stage.

The first two stages of school education, that is, 9 years of study, are obligatory. More than 95.1% of children of the corresponding age attend primary school, more than 92.5% attend secondary school of the first stage, and 71.6% attend secondary school of the second stage. There are 20.1 students per school teacher (85th place in the world).

About 4.8 million people study at universities. The coverage of the population aged 19 to 23 years with higher education in 2010 is 18.4%, by 2014 the government plans to increase the latter figure to 30%.

As of 2011, there are 83 public and about 3,000 private universities in the country. Leading among them are:
Bandung Polytechnic Institute (Indon. Institut Teknologi Bandung)
Gaja Mada University (Yogyakarta)
University of Indonesia(Depok)
Bogor Institute of Agriculture (Indon. Institut Pertanian Bogor)
Gunadarma University (Indon. Universitas Gunadarma, Depok)
Diponegoro University (Indon. Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang)
10th November Institute of Technology (Indon. Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya)
Indonesian Normal University (Indon. Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Bandung)
University "Eleventh of March" (Indon. Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta)
University of North Sumatra (Indon. Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan)


The science

The foundations of the local scientific school were laid by the Dutch colonial administration. The first research institutions were established by her in the 19th century: the Bogor Botanical Garden, which was later attached to the Institute of Botanical Research (1884) and an experimental agricultural station (1876), the Institute of Geodesy in Bandung (1855), the Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics in Jakarta (1866), the Aikman Medical Institute and the Institute of Military Hygiene in Jakarta (both 1888), a branch of the Pasteur Institute and a geological laboratory in Bandung (both 1890). In the 20th century, in particular, the Veterinary Institute (1908) and the Institute of Forestry (1913) in Bogor, the Institute of Hydrology and Hydrometry in Bandung (1914), the Institute of Marine Research in Jakarta (1919) were founded.

Research in these and other scientific institutions of the 19th century - the first four decades of the 20th century was carried out mainly by Dutch specialists, their tasks were determined by the needs of the colonial economy and the social needs of the Dutch community. However, after the country gained independence, a significant part of the academic and research base laid by the colonialists was involved in the formation of the Indonesian national scientific infrastructure proper. In particular, under the influence of the relevant priorities of Dutch scientific activity in the colony, a range of advanced areas of modern Indonesian science was formed: agricultural and biological disciplines, veterinary medicine.

A significant part of the scientific institutions created by the Dutch during the period of independent development was restructured and enlarged, in parallel, new objects of scientific infrastructure were created in almost all major cities of the country. Along with specialized scientific centers, since the late 1940s, scientific divisions have been formed at various universities in the country. In accordance with the established administrative practice, most of the research institutes and large laboratory complexes belong to the structure of the relevant ministries and departments. Of the universities, the Indonesian University has the most powerful research potential (more than 100 scientific departments, priority areas are genetic engineering, nanotechnology, information technology and informatics, social sciences), Bandung Polytechnic Institute (priority areas are various technical sciences, information technology), Bogorsky Institute of Agriculture (priority areas - various branches of biology, agricultural disciplines, veterinary medicine, forestry).

At the government level, the State Ministry of Scientific Research and Technology is responsible for the development of science. There is no Academy of Sciences in the country for 2012, the Scientific Society of Indonesia (NOI) acts as its prototype. (Indon. Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia, LIPI). Within the framework of the NOI, research activities are coordinated in dozens of different natural sciences, technical and humanitarian areas, the plan to create an Academy of Sciences on its basis was adopted in 1991 without a specific time frame.


Culture and art

General information
Indonesia - given the multinational nature of its population - is distinguished by a high degree of ethno-cultural diversity. The most important factors in the development of local material and spiritual culture were the successive influence of several religions - Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, as well as various forms of paganism - professed in different periods by local residents, and significant external influence, in particular, Indian, Chinese, Arab and European. The corresponding diverse heritage can be traced in one way or another in almost all forms of national art.

Dozens of peoples of Indonesia have literature in their own languages. The most ancient and developed is Javanese, the first works of which - transcriptions of various parts of the Indian epic Mahabharata - date back to the 9th century. Later, under the influence of Javanese literary norms, in particular, Sundanese and Madurese literatures were formed. At the same time, the literary traditions of the peoples living in Sumatra and Sulawesi were formed mainly under the influence of Malay and Arab influence. In the 19th century, as the Malay language spread in Indonesia as a means of interethnic communication, local Malay literature appeared. Standing apart in this regard is the work of the greatest writer of that time, Eduard Douwes Dekker, a Dutchman who wrote in the Dutch language and is considered a national writer both in the Netherlands and in Indonesia.

The formation of literature in the Indonesian language, as well as the Indonesian language itself, dates back to the 1920s. The most famous authors of that period - Marakh Rusli, Abdul Muis, Muhammad Yamin - are characterized by an appeal to romantic and lyrical motives, combined with a rather critical attitude towards colonial reality. Even more sharply nationalist and anti-colonial sentiments are reflected in the works of writers of the 1930s and the first two decades of the country's independent development: Pramudhy Anant Tura, Ahdiat Kartamihardji, Utuya Tatanga Sontani, Armaine Pane. In the 1950s and the first half of the 1960s, with the support of the official authorities, the social significance of literature and its ideological charge were emphasized, and the principles of socialist realism were actively promoted. Ideological attitudes changed dramatically after the establishment of a right-wing military regime in 1965-67: many left-wing writers were repressed or forced to emigrate. The writers who continued their work generally either spoke from conformist positions, or expressed emphatically apolitical sentiments. The latter include the most significant authors of the late 1960s - 1980s - Mokhtar Lubis, Sutarji Kalzum Bahri, Gunawan Mohamad, Putu Vijaya - who brought elements of surrealism and existentialism to Indonesian literature, in particular. In the works of only a few authors - the poet and playwright Rendra, the publicist Kh. B. Yassin - there was a veiled criticism of the regime. Notable literary critics include Kh. B. Yassin and Umar Yunus.

The fall of the Suharto regime in 1998 and the democratic transformation that followed provided an opportunity for broad ideological pluralism in Indonesian literature. The journalistic genre has been greatly developed. A number of young authors received national and international recognition, in particular, the publicist and playwright Ayu Utami, and the novelist Andrea Hirata. At the same time, many authors of the older generation continued active work in the 2000s.

Historically, the earliest form of fine art to spread in Indonesia is sculpture. The oldest surviving sculptures date back to the 7th century. Both during this period and later, religious - Hindu and Buddhist - themes dominated in sculpture.

The formation of a national school of painting took place during the colonial period under Dutch influence. Its founder is the Javanese Raden Saleh (1807-1880), the author of epic paintings, who received an art education in the Netherlands. Another major artist of the 19th century was Abdullah Suryosubroto, a master of the landscape genre.


The beginning of the 20th century is characterized by the strengthening of the realistic trend in painting. From this period, the appeal to nationalistic, patriotic subjects becomes more and more noticeable, which, after the country gained independence, become dominant. Like literature, the painting of the 1950s and the first half of the 1960s is characterized by a rather high ideologization and appeal to current social topics, while the subsequent stage is markedly de-ideologized. The most significant phenomenon in the cultural life of Indonesia during the Suharto era, which had a significant impact on the further development of national art, was the New Fine Arts Movement (DNI, Indon. Gerakan Seni Rupa Baru) - an association of artists, graphic artists and sculptors - nonconformists who combined critical display of socio-political realities and some nationalist motifs with non-traditional artistic forms and techniques, sometimes with elements of shocking. Despite the disintegration of DNI as an organized association, many of its prominent representatives, such as Jim Supangkat, Semsar Siakhaan, Hardy and Harsono (Indon. Harsono), continued active creative activity until the 2000s and after.

The fine arts of the 2000s are characterized by the presence of two main trends: the so-called. "traditional", adhering to the principles of realism, and "modernist", to which it is customary to include representatives of abstractionism, surrealism, grotesque, etc. The most famous modernists include Nyoman Masriadi and Made Vianta.

The earliest forms of architectural heritage include Neolithic megalithic structures - menhirs, ledge mounds, dolmens, crypts (the most famous examples are in Java and South Sumatra). With the formation of states, the Hindu and Buddhist temples of Chandi become the most significant architectural structures, the appearance of which is quite noticeably different from the places of worship of these religions in continental Asia. The largest and most complex from an architectural point of view are the Buddhist Borobudur and the Hindu Prambanan, built in the 9th century in Central Java.

The architectural forms of the dwellings of various peoples of Indonesia, which developed by the Middle Ages and are mainly preserved in rural areas to this day, are very diverse. The most characteristic samples by region are light frame pile houses made of wood and bamboo with a thatched or tiled roof (Java, Madura), large elongated barn-type communal houses (Kalimantan), large communal houses with a high saddle roof of a large offset (Sumatra), light reed huts (eastern part of the Lesser Sunda Islands, western part of New Guinea).

During the period of Dutch colonization, European architectural forms were introduced. Among the largest objects that made it possible to preserve and develop national architectural styles are the palace complexes of local rulers - cratons (jav. keraton, kraton). The period of independent development of the country is characterized by an even more active widespread development of Western architectural forms.

From ancient times, starting with the emergence of musical culture at the household level, it acquired the most diverse forms among the peoples of Java, who actively perceived external, primarily Indian cultural influence, from which, in turn, spread to other parts of the archipelago. The main scales of traditional Indonesian music are the five-step slendro (Jav. selendero) and the seven-step pelog (Jan. pelog). In general, developed heterophony and polyphony, the prevalence of the instrumental melodic component over the vocal one are characteristic. The national musical tradition is most clearly expressed in the gamelan genre that has existed since the early Middle Ages - a folk instrumental orchestra, in which original percussion musical instruments play the main role. Since the 16th century, the keronchong (jav. keroncong) song and musical genre has been developing, in which vocal works are performed to the accompaniment of an instrument similar to a guitar. During the same period, the dangdut genre became widespread, combining elements of Malay, Arabic and Hindustani music.

During the period of Dutch colonization, while maintaining their own musical traditions at a broad national level, the Indonesians mastered European musical art at the elite level. European musical norms, combined with some traditional elements, are generally characteristic of the development of musical culture in the period of independent development - this is typical of both classical and popular music. The National Conservatory was opened in 1960, the National Symphony Orchestra was founded in 1968.


Theater and cinema

Early forms of performing arts date back to the theatrical performances of folk festivals and religious ceremonies. Since at least the 9th century, there has been a theatrical genre wayang-topeng - the performance of dances and pantomime in masks of characteristic characters. The first mentions of wayang-golek and wayang-kulit date back to the 11th century - respectively, the theater of voluminous puppets and the theater of flat leather puppets, their shadows are projected onto a fabric screen, which have remained the most popular forms of national theatrical art since that time. In all types of wayang, the dramatic basis of traditional performances are episodes of local adaptations of the Indian epic Mahabharata with a strictly limited set of characters. Performances are usually accompanied by a gamelan game.

Under Dutch influence, from the end of the 19th century, European genres of performing arts gradually spread, as well as mixed forms combining European and traditional techniques, in particular, ketoprak and ludruk. During the period of state independence, there is a development of all - traditional, European and mixed genres. The country's largest theaters have been set up in Jakarta, Yogyakarta, and Surabaya.

The first motion pictures were made in Indonesia in the 1920s by Dutch directors. The formation of the national cinema itself dates back to the 1930s (the first local director was Anjar Asmara), an integral national cinematographic school, both fiction and documentary) - to the 1950s. The cinema of the 1950s and the first half of the 1960s was characterized by an appeal to anti-imperialist themes and acute social problems. In the 1980s-1990s, due to the widespread penetration of foreign production into the Indonesian film market, the local film industry entered a period of decline, which was overcome only by the beginning of the 21st century. The 2000s were characterized by a sharp increase in both quantitative and qualitative indicators of Indonesian cinema: the volume of film production doubled annually, a number of films were nominated for awards at international film festivals.

Arts and Crafts
Decorative and applied art fully reflects the ethno-cultural diversity of the country - different regions in this regard are characterized by very specific features. The most common traditional artistic crafts that have gained international fame include the production of painted batik - both hot and cold (Java, Madura, Bali, some areas of Sumatra), the manufacture of ritual daggers - kris (Java, Bali) and kujangs (West Java) , three-dimensional and flat dolls for the wayang theater, other types of artistic leather processing (Java, Bali, Madura, Sumatra). Woodcarving and the production of decorative wickerwork are almost ubiquitous; in many regions (especially in Sumatra, Sulawesi and the Moluccas), artistic weaving. In Java, the traditional craft is bronze, in Kalimantan - tin and silver casting, as well as chasing. The production of decorative pottery and ceramics is most developed in the Lesser Sunda Islands (especially in Lombok), and there (especially in Flores) a rich tradition of making wooden figurines is preserved.


Public holidays

January 1 - New Year according to the Christian chronology (Indon. Tahun Baru Masehi);
the date is determined according to the Chinese calendar - Chinese New Year (Indon. Hari Imlek);
the date is determined according to the Islamic calendar - the birthday of the Prophet Muhammad (Indon. Maulid Nabi Muhammad);
the date is determined according to the Balinese calendar [en] - New Year according to the chronology adopted in the Balinese variation of Hinduism (Indon. Tahun Baru Saka);
the date is determined according to the Gregorian calendar - Good Friday (Indon. Wafat Isa Al-Masih);
the date is determined according to the Buddhist calendar - Buddha's Birthday (Indon. Waisak);
the date is determined according to the Gregorian calendar - the Ascension of the Lord (Indon. Kenaikan Isa Al-Masih);
the date is determined according to the Islamic calendar - Miraj (Indon. Lailat Al Miraj);
August 17 - Independence Day (Indon. Hari Proklamasi Kemerdekaan);
the date is determined according to the Islamic calendar - Uraza Bairam (Indon. Idul Fitri);
the date is determined according to the Islamic calendar - Eid al-Adha (Indon. Idul Adha);
the date is determined according to the Islamic calendar - the Muslim New Year (Indon. Tahun Baru Hijriyah);
December 25 - Christmas (Indon. Natal)


Taking into account the ethno-cultural diversity of the country, its national cuisine is actually a combination of cuisines from different regions, which have their own significant features. At the same time, some dishes, originally specific to a certain area, have gained nationwide popularity. The culinary traditions of the peoples of Indonesia were formed with the active influence of the corresponding traditions of neighboring Asian peoples: the most noticeable in this regard is the influence of Chinese cuisine.

Rice is the main carbohydrate food almost everywhere; in some regions, corn, cassava, and sweet potato occupy a significant place in the diet. Traditionally, the food of most Indonesians is boiled or fried rice with various additives - as a rule, chicken, meat, seafood, tempeh, fresh or soaked vegetables appear in this capacity, which are either cooked with rice or served as a side dish (in this In the case of additives, they are called lauk-pauk - indon. lauk-pauk). The most common of these dishes is nasi goreng - a kind of pilaf filled with almost any product. The most important ceremonial dish in many regions is tumpeng, a rice-shaped pyramid surrounded by various garnishes.

Widespread noodles made from wheat or rice flour, served as a soup or fried with various fillings, such as mi-goreng (Indon. mie goreng, literally - "fried noodles"). Bread borrowed from European cuisine has not received significant distribution. The most popular are various types of stuffed dough products, many of which are also borrowed from the cuisines of other countries, such as martabak.

Meat and protein products in general, due to their traditional high cost for most of the population, are present on the table, as a rule, in a small amount. Chicken, lamb, goat meat and, in coastal areas, fish and seafood are the most widespread. Beef is consumed quite rarely, pork is actively consumed in the Chinese community and among the non-Muslim peoples of Indonesia. Meat, fish or chicken meatballs - bakso, miniature skewers - sate, most often made from chicken, goat meat or lamb, as well as otak-otak - minced fish meatballs baked in banana or palm leaves are popular. In Java and in some other regions, soups have become widespread - usually from chicken and offal. Krupuk is produced and consumed everywhere - chips made from starch, cereal, shrimp, fish or other flour. Various vegetables are consumed in sufficiently large quantities, taking into account regional agricultural specifics. In Java, gado-gado is very popular - a mixture of various vegetables, filled with peanut sauce. Tropical fruits are a common delicacy.

Spices and spices are widely used in food - primarily various types of pepper - as well as soy and peanut sauces. Both tea, which is drunk both hot and cold, and coffee are very popular. Alcohol is not widely distributed, especially considering that the majority of Indonesians belong to the Muslim confession. However, in a number of regions, traditional local spirits are produced, among which tuaka is especially popular.


Mass media

Print mass-media
The first periodicals in local languages ​​(Malay, Javanese) appeared in Indonesia during the colonial period at the beginning of the 20th century, but print media were widely developed only after the country gained independence. At the same time, if the 1950s - the first half of the 1960s were characterized by relative freedom of the press, then the period of Suharto's presidency was characterized by strict political censorship and a high degree of control by the authorities. Radical advances in terms of ensuring freedom of the press occurred during the democratic reforms of the late 1990s and 2000s. During this period, there was a significant increase in the number of periodicals, the affiliation of certain newspapers and magazines to various political and social movements was clearly identified.

As of the late 2000s, over 170 daily newspapers, both central and local, were published in Indonesia with a total circulation of about 4.8 million copies, as well as more than 425 non-daily newspapers and magazines with a total circulation of about 7.8 million copies. The leading national newspapers are Koran Sindo, Compass, Media Indonesia, Republika, Jakarta Post.

Electronic media
The first broadcasting organization was created by the Dutch colonial administration in 1934. The formation of the actual national broadcasting system began immediately after the declaration of state independence. In 2009, more than 700 radio stations operated in the country. 6 national and about 50 regional stations are state-owned. There were about 140 radios per 1000 inhabitants.

Indonesian national television has existed since 1962, when Indonesia's first state television channel, TVRI, began broadcasting. Color television broadcasting began in 1979.

As of 2008, there were 2 public and 10 private nationwide channels in the country. In addition, more than 100 regional TV stations broadcast. There were about 60 televisions per 1000 people. Since the end of the 20th century, satellite and cable television have been developing, but a small proportion of residents have access to it - respectively, 1.7% and less than 0.1%.



The spread of European sports among Indonesians began during the period of Dutch colonization - mainly at the elite level. The authorities of independent Indonesia, as a rule, attached great importance to the development and popularization of sports, implementing relevant state programs through the structures of the Ministry of Youth and Sports and the Indonesian National Sports Committee.

By the 21st century, almost all summer sports, both men's and women's disciplines, have become widespread in the country to one degree or another. At the regional level, Indonesian athletes are among the leaders: at the end of the 2021 Southeast Asian Games held in Vietnam, they took third place in the team standings with 241 medals after Vietnam and Thailand. However, on a wider international scale, their achievements are much more modest: as of 2021, Indonesians have only managed to win more than one gold medal at the Summer Olympics once. Traditionally, the most successful are Indonesian badminton players, especially men. Men's national badminton team - 14-time winner of the Thomas Cup, women - two-time winner of the Uber Cup. It was the badminton players who brought Indonesia all 8 Olympic gold medals in the history of the country. Indonesian weightlifters (both men and women) are also quite successful at the Olympic Games in the 21st century, especially in the light weight categories. Eco Yuli Iravan is one of the leaders in the number of Olympic medals among weightlifters of all countries: he won medals at 4 Games in a row (2008-2020).

Among the most popular disciplines among the population are football, badminton, martial arts, motor sports, chess. Of the traditional national sports, the wrestling of silat and sepak takraw, a variety of board games, including mahjong, mancala, as well as kite flying and the game of spinning top - gasing, which has numerous regional variations, are the most common and enjoy the attention of the audience.

The largest stadiums are Jakarta's Gelora Bung Karno (multifunctional, for 100 thousand spectators), Samarinda's Palaran (football, for 60 thousand spectators), Palembang's Jakabaring (football, for 55 thousand spectators), Surabay's Bung Tomo ( football, for 50 thousand spectators).