Ujung Kulon National Park

Ujung Kulon National Park

Location: Banten, Java Map

Area: 1,206 km²


Ujung Kulon National Park is a natural reserve on the island of Java in Indonesia. Ujung Kulon National Park covers an area of 1,206 km2. It also includes the volcanic group of Krakatoa Islands and some other Islands in the Sunda Strait, the largest of which is the island of Panaitan.

The area of the Park is 1206 km2 (of which 443 km2 are occupied by the sea). Most of it is located on a Peninsula stretching far into the Indian ocean. The eruption of Krakatau in 1883 caused tsunamis that destroyed villages and crops of the coastal areas on the Western Peninsula, and covered a huge area with a layer of ash about 30 cm thick, All of this caused the total evacuation of the Peninsula, and thus helped to keep out here most of the Javanese flora and fauna, and most of the remaining lowland forest of the island.

It is the first national Park created by Indonesia and declared a world heritage site by UNESCO in 1991. It is also the last of the habitats of the endangered Javan rhinos. As of the 1980s, Ujung Kulon had a population of 40-60 individuals. As of 2011, the local population consists of 35 individuals (22 males and 13 females).

The Park protects 57 rare species of plants, 35 species of mammals, 72 species of reptiles and amphibians and 240 species of birds. Mammals include the banteng, silver Gibbon, crab-eating macaque, Javan leopard, lesser deer, Javan langur, etc.

Some parts of the modern Park have been protected since the beginning of the XX century. Krakatoa island was declared a nature reserve in 1921. It was followed by the Pulau Panaitan and Pulau Pekang nature reserves, established in 1937. Ujung Kulon reserve was established in 1958, it was declared a national Park in 1992.