Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park

Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park

Location: East Java Map

Area: 503 km²


Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park is nature reserve in the East Java Island in Indonesia. Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park covers an area of 503 sq km. The park was founded on October 14, 1982. It has an area of ​​502.76 km² and is managed by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry. The difference in height is from 750 to 3676 meters above sea level, the average height is about 2100 meters. In 2007, the park was visited by 61,704 people. The administrative park is divided between the districts of Lumajang, Probolingo, Pasuruan and Malang.

The park is the only protected area in Indonesia, where there is erg (sandy sea), which has been an independent protected area since 1919. As the name implies, the "pearls" of the park are the caldera of the ancient Tenger volcano, from which five new volcanic cones rose, the most notable of which is Bromo (2329 m); and Semeru volcano (3676 m) - the highest mountain of the island of Java and the third highest mountain of the country. Also in the territory of the park there are other mountains up to 3035 meters high (Kepolo), four lakes and 50 rivers, there are waterfalls, caves, revered by the natives as saints; temples, villages and rice fields.


Flora and fauna
The flora of the park, numbering 1025 species, varies markedly depending on the altitude zone.
The foothill zone (750-1500 m - south, east and west of Semeru) is a tropical rainforest. The families of beech, mulberry, cashew, sterculia, madder, aroid, family and ginger dominate there; calamus, pepper, bones and begonia. Also there are 226 species of orchids.
In the mountain zone (1500-2400 m), the number of plants decreases markedly, most of them are the so-called "pioneer species". Nevertheless, here you can find stunted trees of the species Casuarina junghuhniana, Vaccinium varingifolium, Paraserianthes lophantha and acacia downhill. Among herbs and flowers, species of Anaphalis javanica are common, the emperor is cylindrical and centella asiatica; the genera Pteris and Themeda.
Vaccinium varingifolium, Casuarina junghuhniana, Paraserianthes lophantha and Anaphalis javanica are found in the sub-alpine zone (2400-3676 m). On Mount Semeru, plant life is absent above 3,100 meters, since the soil there is loose rocky sandstone.

The fauna of Bromo-Tenger-Semeru for such a territory is relatively poor. 130 species of birds live here (27 of them are protected by law), 22 species of mammals (15 of them are protected by law) and 4 species of reptiles. Among the most noteworthy animals of the park, one can note the birds of the Indian sparrowhawk, green peacock, Javanese salmon and Brahmin kite, deer mane-sucked zambar, wolf Cuon alpinus sumatrensis, monkey crab-eater, cats marble cat and Javanese leopard, pangolin javanese lizard.

The park and the area around it are inhabited by the Tengers, one of the few prominent Hindu communes that have remained on the island of Java to this day. Their beliefs and lifestyle have not undergone significant changes since the Majapahit kingdom existed here (1293-1520). The Tengers believe that they are the direct heirs of this empire and were expelled to these mountains in the 19th century due to the massive influx of Muslims from the island of Madura. .