Philippines Destinations Travel Guide.


Flag of Philippines

Language: Filipino, English

Currency: Peso (PHP)

Calling Code: +63


The Philippines - officially the Republic of the Philippines - is an island country located in Southeast Asia, on the Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Manila, to the north it is separated from the island of Taiwan by the Luzon Strait; to the west lies the South China Sea and Vietnam; to the southwest, the island of Borneo, to the south the Celebes Sea separates it from other islands of Indonesia and to the east it borders the Philippine Sea. Its location in the Pacific fire belt and its tropical climate make it a place prone to earthquakes and typhoons. The country is rich in natural resources and is located in one of the most biodiverse areas of the world.The archipelago consists of 7107 islands, which are classified geographically into three groups: the island of Luzon, the group of the Visayas and the Island of Mindanao.

The Philippines has an estimated population of 102 million people, the Philippines is the 12th most populous country in the world, without considering the 11 million Filipinos who live abroad. Several ethnic groups and cultures coexist along their islands. Cataloged as a newly industrialized country, its economy continues its steady growth since its independence.The economic reforms implemented at the beginning of the 21st century made the services sector displace agriculture as the main economic activity, and now this contributes more than half of GDP, but still faces several challenges in infrastructure: the lack of development in the tourism sector, education, health care and human development.


Travel Destination in Philippines

Agusan Marsh Wildlife Sanctuary is a nature reserve in Philippines that protects marshlands around upper basin of a Agusan river.

Angono Petroglyphs are remains of the human art in the Kabayan municipality of the Benguet province.

Apo Reef is a magnificent marine biosphere community of the coast of Philippines that covers 34 sq km. It is one of the most famous diving sites.

Spectacular Banaue Rice Terraces in Ifugao Province of Philippines is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Chocolate Hills in Bohol in are unusual geologic formations that consist of cone like hills covered by tropical jungles of Philippines.

Kabayan Mummies or Fire Mummies are located in the Benguet district of Philipines.

Tubbataha Reef in Sulu Sea near Philipines is famous diving site with diverse marine ecosystem.



The Philippines was named after King Philip II of Spain (1527–1598). The Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the island "Philippines Leyte and Samar" (Spanish: Leyte and Samar Felipinas) in honor of the then Prince of Asturias. In the following, the name "Philippines" is used to name the entire archipelago. Prior to that, they were called the "Western Islands" (Spanish Islas del Poniente) or the name that Magellan gave them - "San Lazaro".

The name of the archipelago has changed several times over the course of history. During the revolution in the Philippines, Congress proclaimed the territory the "Republic of the Philippines" ("República Filipina" or "Philippine Republic"). From the American victory in the Philippine-American War (1899-1902) until independence, the territory was called the "Philippine Islands". Since the Treaty of Paris in 1898, the archipelago has been called the "Philippines". Since the end of World War II, the official name of the archipelago has been the Republic of the Philippines.


Physical and geographical characteristics

Geographical position
The Philippines occupies the Philippine Islands, which are part of the Malay Archipelago. The largest of more than 7100 islands belonging to the Philippines: Luzon, Mindanao, Samar, Panay, Palawan, Negros, Mindoro, Leyte, Bohol, Cebu. The length of the Philippine archipelago from north to south is about 2000 km, from west to east - 900 km. In the west, the islands are washed by the South China Sea, in the east by the Philippine Sea, in the south by the Sulawesi Sea, in the north the Philippine Islands are separated from Taiwan by the Bashi Strait. The northernmost point of the Philippine Islands is the Batanes Islands. The southernmost is the island of Sibutu. The westernmost is Balabac Island, and the easternmost is Mindanao Island. The length of the coastline is 36.3 thousand km. The total area of ​​the islands is 299.7 thousand km².

The relief of the islands is made up mainly of mountains, the highest of which - Apo volcano (2954 m) - is located on the island of Mindanao. The mountain ranges are of volcanic origin, since the archipelago is located at the junction of the continental and oceanic lithospheric plates and is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, which is characterized by increased seismicity and volcanism. Deep-sea trenches and volcanic islands are a hallmark of the Philippines. Off the coast of the island of Mindanao, the Philippine Trench passes with a depth of up to 10,830 m - one of the deepest in the world's oceans.

The Philippines has a tropical maritime climate that is hot and humid. The year is divided here into three periods: tag-init or tag-arav - hot, dry time (summer), which lasts from March to May, tag-ulan - the rainy season, which lasts from June to November, and tag-lamig - cold dry season, which lasts from December to February. From May to October, the southwest monsoon, which is called "hagabat", reigns here, from November to April, "amihan" - the northeast dry monsoon reigns here. The temperature usually ranges from 21°C to 32°C, however, it can go beyond these limits for a short time. The coldest month here is January, and the hottest month is May.

The average annual temperature here is 26.6°C. The temperature does not vary much depending on the area. Whether it's the southern part of the islands, northern or eastern - the temperature there is about the same. The location of the area relative to sea level has a greater influence on the weather. The average annual temperature in Baguio, which is located at an altitude of 1500 meters above sea level, is about 18.3°C, which makes this place very popular.

It rains here from July to October due to the presence of a typhoon belt here at this time. Annual rainfall varies from 5,000 mm (200 inches) per year in open areas such as the east coast to 1,000 mm (39 inches) per year in vegetated valleys. The wettest cyclone in the archipelago was in July 1911, when 1,168 mm (46 inches) of rain fell there in one day. Baguio is a tropical cyclone in the Philippines.

Typhoons often hit the northern regions of the country, tsunamis are possible.

Flora and fauna
About half of the territory of the Philippines is covered with tropical rainforests, which are dominated by palm trees, rubber trees, banyan, apitong, mayapis, lauan, bamboo, orchids, and cinnamon are often found. At an altitude of over 1200 m above sea level, shrubs and meadows grow.

Among the animals living in the Philippine Islands, deer, mongoose, wild boar are more common than others. The fauna of the country is characterized by a wide variety of species of birds and reptiles. In the coastal waters there are many species of fish and shellfish, among the latter, pearl mussels are especially remarkable - shellfish capable of forming pearls.


State structure and politics

Under the 1987 Constitution, the Philippines is a presidential republic with a bicameral parliament and an independent judiciary. The head of state is the president, elected by direct universal suffrage for a 6-year term without the right to renew or re-nominate. The president heads the cabinet (government) and is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces.

The highest legislative body in the country is the Congress, which consists of two chambers: the Senate (24 seats) and the House of Representatives (252 seats). Senators are elected for a 6-year term (12 people alternately every three years, but no more than two consecutive terms), members of the House of Representatives - for three years (no more than three consecutive terms).

Philippine Ministry of Agrarian Reform
Department of Budget and Management of the Philippines
Department of the Interior and Local Government of the Philippines
Philippine Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Philippine Ministry of Science and Technology
Philippine Department of National Defense
Philippine Ministry of Public Works and Highways
Philippine Department of Welfare and Development
Philippine Department of Trade and Industry
Philippine Department of Labor and Employment
Philippine Department of Energy


Political parties

The main parties following the elections in May 2007:
Lacas/Kampi/Christian and Muslim Democrats - centrist, 4 senators, 142 deputies
Nationalist People's Coalition - centrist, 2 senators, 28 deputies
Liberal Party - centre-left, 4 senators, 14 deputies
Nationalist Party - right centrist, 3 senators, 8 deputies
Bayan - left, 7 deputies
Democratic Party / Laban - center-left, 1 senator, 4 deputies
Pversa Masan - center-left, 2 senators, 3 deputies
United opposition - centrist, 2 senators, 3 deputies
In addition, several other parties are represented in parliament. Parties not represented in parliament are two communist parties (KPF-1930 and KPF-1968) and the Green Party.

The Communist Party of the Philippines (1968) has had an armed organization since 1969 - the New People's Army (in the early 1980s - about 25 thousand fighters, in 2009 - about 4 thousand).

Islamist armed groups, the Moro Islamic Liberation Front and the Abu Sayyaf, also operate in the Philippines.


International relationships

The international relations of the Philippines are in trade with other countries and in the fact that 11 million Filipinos live in other countries. The Philippines is a founding member and an active member of the United Nations and has been elected to the UN Security Council many times. Carlos Romulo was at one time President of the UN General Assembly. The country is an active member of the Human Rights Council, and it also participates in peacekeeping missions, in particular in East Timor.

In addition to being an active member of the UN, the country is also a founding member and an active member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, an organization established to strengthen relations between the countries of Southeast Asia and promote their cultural and economic development.

The Philippines highly values ​​its relationship with the United States. They supported the US during the Cold War and the fight against terrorism. The Philippines is one of NATO's main allies. The Philippines allowed the United States to establish a military base on its territory, even though the country used to be an American colony. Japan is one of the countries that contributes more than others to the development of the Philippines. Although the situation of women in the Philippines is still not the best, the consequences of the Second World War have already been overcome.

The Philippines, in general, has good relations with other countries. The Philippines highly appreciates the support of countries with more developed economies, but also supports other countries that are less economically developed. Historical ties and cultural similarities are a good basis for cooperation with Spain. Although the living conditions of Filipinos living abroad are not always good, and they are even sometimes subjected to discrimination and violence, many Filipinos work in other countries.

As the threats of a communist revolution disappeared, the Philippines' former hostile relationship with China improved significantly in the 1950s. In relations with the islands of Taiwan and the Spratlys, the Philippines continues to be cautious, given the attempts by China to expand its influence. Recently, the Philippines has been working on improving economic cooperation with South Asian countries and Pacific neighbors.

The Philippines is an active member of the South Asia Summit, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Group of 24 and the Non-Aligned Movement. The Philippines also seeks to improve relations with Muslim countries through participation in the activities of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation.


Army and law enforcement

The task of the armed forces of the Philippines is national security, they are divided into 3 parts: the Philippine Air Force, the Philippine Army and the Philippine Navy (includes the Marine Corps). The Philippine army serves voluntarily. Civil security is overseen by the Philippine National Police, which is overseen by the Department of the Interior and the local government.

In the Autonomous Muslim Region on the island of Mindanao, the Moro National Liberation Front also controls the internal militias. In addition to the Moro National Liberation Front, the Communist New People's Army and Abu Sayyaf also operate in Mindanao, which deal with the kidnapping of foreigners for ransom. However, their activities have recently declined due to the fact that the Philippine government has become better in controlling civilian security. The Philippines spends 1.1% less of its GDP on maintaining its armed forces than other countries in the region. In 2014, Malaysia and Thailand spent 1.5% on their armed forces, China - 2.1%, Vietnam - 2.2% and South Korea 2.6% of their GDP. The Philippines has been an ally of the United States since World War II. An agreement on mutual military support was signed in 1951. The Philippines supported America during the Cold War and fought in the Vietnam and Korean Wars. The Philippines was a member of the now defunct SEATO, a NATO-like organization that included Australia, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, Thailand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The Philippines supported the United States during the fight against terrorists in Iraq.

Administrative division
The main administrative unit of the Philippines is a province. The Philippines is divided into 81 provinces grouped into 18 regions. Some so-called "independent" cities are not legally part of the provinces. The provinces are divided into municipalities and incorporated cities. Municipalities are divided into elementary administrative units - barangay communities.



prehistoric period
The oldest human remains found in the archipelago date back to the 65th millennium BC. The remains of the Tabun man found on the island of Palawan date back to the 25th millennium BC. One of the first inhabitants of the archipelago were Negritos, but their first settlement cannot be reliably dated today.

There are several theories regarding the origin of the first inhabitants of the Philippines. F. Land's theory states that the ancestors of the Filipinos are of local origin. Wilhelm Solheim's Theory of the Origin of the Ancestors of the Filipinos also states that the ancestors of modern Filipinos developed here locally between 4800 and 5000 BC, and not as a result of large-scale migration. The Austronesian theory says that Malayo-Polynesians came to the islands from the island of Taiwan around 4000 BC. and gradually displaced the local population.

The most widely accepted theory, based on linguistic and archaeological evidence, is the theory of "Origin from Fr. Taiwan”, which claims that the Austronesians of Taiwan themselves were descendants of the Neolithic civilizations on the Yangtze River of the Liangju culture, they began to migrate to the Philippines around 4000 BC, displacing the earlier settlers there. During the Neolithic period, there was a "Jade culture" on the islands, as evidenced by tens of thousands of exquisitely crafted jade artifacts found in the Philippines that date back to 2000 BC.

Jade processing culture is said to have originated in Taiwan in the 7th millennium BC, from where it spread to the southeastern part of mainland Asia. The fact that these artifacts were found on the islands of the archipelago indicates that in the prehistoric period there was communication between the population of the archipelago and other countries of Southeast Asia. In 1000 BC. e. The population of the archipelago can be divided into 4 groups: hunter-gatherer tribes, militant tribes, highlanders, who are called plutocrats, and port princes.

ancient time
Beginning in the 5th century, a civilization based on a mixture of different cultures and nationalities formed on the territory of modern Philippines. The indigenous people of the islands, commonly known as the Aeta Negritos, overcame prehistoric lands and continental glaciers and eventually settled in the lush forests of the islands. Later, Austronesian-speaking settlers from South China arrived on the islands via Taiwan. Chinese merchants arrived in the 8th century. Belonging to the Indo-Malay maritime kingdoms in the 7th-17th centuries, the Philippines was discovered for the European (Western) civilization by Ferdinand Magellan in 1521.

XIV century - the landing of the Arabs. By the time the first Europeans arrived in the north of the islands (on the territory of present-day Manila), rajas ruled, who, due to historical conditions, paid tribute to the states of Southeast Asia, namely the kingdom of Srivijaya. However, in essence, the Philippine Islands were already self-sufficient and had their own internal government.

Spanish period (1521-1898)
1521 - Spanish expedition led by Ferdinand Magellan lands in the Philippines.
1565 - On April 27, the Spanish conquistador Miguel Lopez de Lagaspi, accompanied by four hundred armed soldiers, arrived on the islands and founded San Miguel, the first Spanish settlement. From 1543, the islands became known as the Philippines in honor of the Spanish prince, and later King Philip II. The territory was subject to the Viceroy of New Spain. Established sea communication Acapulco-Manila. Spanish and Catholicism became widespread, with the exception of the southern rebellious islands inhabited by Muslims.
In 1762, after a fierce battle, Manila was captured by British colonial troops, but the next year it was returned to Spain. At the end of the century, the separatist movement intensified: Muslims and the local Chinese diaspora were opposed to Spain.
By the 19th century, a stratum of Spanish-speaking Catholic Filipinos, Creoles, and Mestizos emerged and became leaders in the struggle for independence. José Rizal, the most famous propagandist, was arrested and executed in 1896 for subversion. Shortly thereafter, the Philippine Revolution began, led by the Three K Society (Kataastaasan at Kagalang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan), or Katipunan, a secret revolutionary society founded by Andres Bonifacio and later led by Emilio Aguinaldo. The revolutionaries nearly succeeded in expelling the Spaniards by 1898.

Throughout almost the entire reign of the Spaniards, uprisings broke out in the Philippines, which did not end in success.

American period (1898-1946)

In 1898, after the Spanish–American War, Spain ceded the Philippines, Cuba, Guam, and Puerto Rico to the United States of America for $20 million under the 1898 Treaty of Paris. On June 12, 1898, the Filipinos, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, declared themselves independent from Spain. This led to rebel wars and revolution during the Philippine-American War, which officially ended in 1902, although sporadic battles continued until 1913. In 1903, the commander-in-chief of the rebel troops, Makario Sakai, was declared president of the unrecognized Tagalog Republic. With its own small government, the Philippine Islands became a dependent territory of the United States and only in 1935 received the status of autonomy within the United States. While the Philippines was an autonomy, an unelected representative was sent from the Philippines to the lower house of the US Congress, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands are currently doing the same.

During World War II, the Philippines was occupied by the Japanese.

Independent Philippines
In fact, the Philippines was finally granted independence in 1946.

The subsequent period was overshadowed by post-war problems. Civil unrest in 1986, dubbed the Yellow Revolution, led to the overthrow of the unrecognized dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos. At the moment, difficulties are arising due to the uprisings of the Maoists and Trotskyists, as well as Muslim separatism.

Modern history
Rodrigo Roa Duterte became President on June 30, 2016. In 2022, he was replaced by Ferdinand Romualdes Marcos, who received the most votes in the elections. The new president is the son of Ferdinand Marcos, who was president of the Philippines from 1965-1986.



The economy of the Philippines is in 33rd place in the world, according to the IMF, the GDP of the Philippines in 2016 is 310.312 billion US dollars. The Philippines mainly exports semiconductors and electronics, vehicles, clothing, copper products, petroleum products, coconut oil, and fruits. The Philippines trades mainly with the US, Japan, China, Singapore, South Korea, the Netherlands, Hong Kong, Germany, Taiwan and Thailand. The national currency of the Philippines is the Philippine peso.

The Philippines is a young industrial nation that is transitioning from an agriculture-based economy to a manufacturing and service-based economy. There are approximately 40,813,000 people of working age in the country, about 30% of them are employed in agriculture, agriculture brings about 14% of GDP. The industrial sector employs about 14% of workers, the industrial sector brings about 30% of GDP, while 47% of people of working age are employed in the service sector, which brings 56% of GDP.

As of December 14, 2014, 6% of people of working age were unemployed. The inflation rate is 3.7%. Gross international reserves as of October 2013 were US$83 billion. The value of external debt to GDP continues to decline, in March 2014 it was 38.1%, while in 2004 it was a record figure of 78%. The country is a net importer.

After the Second World War, the Philippines was the second largest economy after Japan among the countries of Southeast and East Asia. However, in the 1960s, other countries began to overtake the Philippines. During the reign of President Ferdinand Marcos, there was a stagnation in the economy and political instability. The economic growth of the country slowed down, there were periods of economic recession. Only in the 1990s, in connection with the implementation of the program of liberalization of the economy, its restoration began.

In 1997, the Philippine economy was hit hard by the Asian financial crisis, causing the Philippine stock market to crash and the value of the peso to fall. However, the crisis has not affected the Philippines as much as its Asian neighbors. This was mainly due to the government's financial conservatism, and after 10 years of IMF monitoring of the economy, Philippine economic growth accelerated. There are signs of progress. In 2004, GDP grew by 6.4%, and in 2007 by 7.1%, these figures are higher than in the previous three decades. The average annual GDP growth in the period 1966-2007 was at the level of 1.45%, for comparison, in the countries of South Asia and the Pacific region it was approximately 5.96%. 45% of Filipinos earn about $2 per day.

Remittances from Filipinos who work abroad to their relatives outnumber foreign investment in the Philippine economy. Remittances peaked in 2010, when 10.4% of GDP was transferred into the country, in 2012 and 2014 remittances were about 8.6% of GDP, on average, about 28 billion are transferred from abroad to the country per year. US dollars. Regional development is uneven, the Metro Manila region in particular is developing much faster than other regions, and the government is taking steps to encourage investment in other regions of the country. Even despite the restrictions, service industries such as tourism and business outsourcing are considered the best areas for the country's economic growth.

Goldman Sachs has included the country in its list of "Eleven" economies, but the Philippines is preceded by China and India. Goldman Sachs believes that by 2050 the Philippine economy will be the 20th largest in the world. HSBC believes that by 2050, the Philippines will be ranked 16th in the world, 5th in Asia, and 1st in Southeast Asia for economic development. The Philippines is a member of the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization (WTO) and Asian Development Bank.

There is no single minimum wage in the Philippines, it is set separately by province and economic activity. As of 2019, the minimum wage ranges from 270 pesos ($5.18) per day in the agricultural sector in the Ilocos region to 537 pesos ($10.30).

Advantages: openness to foreign investors. Growing productivity in agriculture. Export of bananas and pineapples. Significant remittances from citizens working abroad.

Weaknesses: Energy problems limit development opportunities. Underdeveloped infrastructure. Due to the small amount of monetary savings of citizens, dependence on foreign financial resources. Unproductive natural economy.

Today the Philippines is an agro-industrial country. The most developed industries are: electronic, textile, chemical, woodworking, food, pharmaceutical. Agriculture includes fishing and forestry. The Philippines is the largest exporter of coconuts, bananas, rice and pineapples. The most important trading partners are the USA, Taiwan, Germany, Japan, Hong Kong. The country has a fairly well developed transport infrastructure - roads, river and sea transport, there are railways. The largest ports of the country: Davao, Manila and Cebu. The monetary unit is the Philippine peso.


Science and technology

The Philippines is constantly investing in the development of its science and technology. In the Philippines, the Department of Science and Technology creates and implements science and technology development projects. The country rewards scientists who have contributed to the development of science and technology in the Philippines with prizes. Renowned Filipino food scientists, including Maria Orosa, developed the recipe for dishes such as calamansi nip, soyalak, and banana ketchup.

Fe del Mundo is a Filipino pediatrician who is known for his fundamental work on pediatrics, Paulo Campos is a doctor who is called the "father of nuclear medicine" for his work in this field, Ramon Barba is a horticulturalist who developed a mango variety with many flowers on a tree.

In 1960, the International Rice Research Institute, headquartered in Los Banos, Laguna, was established to breed new varieties of rice. In 1996, the Philippines bought its first satellite, Agila-1. In 2016, the Philippines launched its first Diwata-1 microsatellite, followed by 5 others.



The culture of the Philippines includes elements of Eastern and Western cultures. It includes elements of the cultures of different Asian countries, as well as Spain and America.

The traditional celebrations known as Barrio fiestas (district festivals), which are held in memory of patron saints, are universal. These holidays are a time for feasting, music and dancing. The Monorines and Sinulog Festivals are the most famous.

Some traditions, however, are changing or being gradually forgotten. The Bayan National Dance Group of the Philippines presents various traditional dances. She is best known for her tiniling and singkil dances, which are danced with bamboo sticks.

Consequences of American and Spanish colonization
One of the most notable components of Spanish heritage is the predominance of Spanish given names and surnames among Filipinos, however, a Spanish given name and surname does not necessarily imply Spanish ancestry. This feature, unique among the people of Asia, was the result of an edict by the colonial governor-general, Narciso Claveria Zaldua, which spoke of the spread of Spanish surnames and Spanish customs among the population of the Philippines. The names of many streets, cities and provinces are also Spanish. Spanish architecture also left its mark in the Philippines, many cities were designed around a central square or Plaza Mayor, however, many of the buildings built according to Spanish customs were destroyed during the second world war. However, some such buildings remain, mainly churches, government buildings and universities. Four Baroque Filipino churches included in the UNESCO World Heritage List are the Church of St. Augustine in Manila, the Church in Paoay (Northern Ilocos Province), the Church of Nuestra Señora de la Asunción (Saint Mary) in South Ilocos and the Church of Santo Tomas de Villanueva in Iloilo.

Vigan is also one of the most famous surviving Spanish-style buildings. In Iloilo, you can also see many colonial buildings built during the American occupation. There are a lot of such commercial buildings of that era, especially in Calle Real.

However, in some areas of the country, such as Batanes, there are no significant differences in lifestyle, there is a mixed influence of Spain and the Philippines, the buildings there are built of limestone and coral. The castles of Idyangs and Iwatan were the main defenses of the Philippines before the Spanish conquest.

The general use of English is an example of American influence on Filipinos. This contributes to the perception of modern American culture. This is evident in the Filipino love for fast food restaurants and American movies and music. Fast food restaurants can be found on many street corners. American fast food restaurants have appeared in the Philippines, but they have not been able to displace local eateries such as Goldilocks and Jollibee.



Just like the music of the Philippines, which is constantly changing, Filipino dance is also in constant change. In pre-colonial times, there was a huge variety of dances in the Philippines, which abounded in different tribes. This suggests that a large number of diverse dances have been developed in the Philippines. Before the arrival of the Spaniards, the tribal dance on the islands of Luzon and Visayan was very similar. On the island of Mindanao, the dance has significant features of the dance of the Muslim peoples, on the island of Zamboanga, the Spaniards had a minimal influence on the dance.

Filipino dance is used in rituals, it reflects different periods of a person's life. During the Spanish rule, most dances were accompanied by rondalay music, which is usually played on 14-stringed bandurrias, and this and other stringed instruments appeared and became widespread in the Philippines.

The well-known tinikling dance in the Philippines is accompanied by the Rondalaya band and is danced with two bamboo sticks. It usually starts with a scene in which ordinary villagers laugh. At the end of the dance, the bamboo sticks are crossed. Bamboo sticks are also used in a dance with shades of Muslim dance - Singkil. To date, dances are very diverse and range from sophisticated ballet dance to street breakdance.



Philippine cuisine has evolved over several centuries, incorporating elements of Asian, Malayo-Polynesian, Chinese in particular, the cuisines of Spain and America, adapting them to local ingredients, thus forming national Filipino dishes. Dishes range from the very simple, such as fried fish and rice, to the more complex, such as paella and cocidos, which are prepared for a fiesta.

Popular dishes are: lechon, adobo, sinigang, kare kare, tapa, krispi pata, pancit, lumpia and halo halo. The following ingredients are used in cooking, which can be found in the Philippines: calamondin, coconuts, saba (a kind of short wide plantain), mango, hanos and fish sauce. Filipinos tend to prefer strong flavors, but the cuisine is not as spicy as that of their neighbors.

Unlike some Asian countries, Filipinos do not eat with chopsticks, they use Western cutlery. Rice is a staple food in Filipino cuisine. There are a wide variety of stews and main dishes with broth, which is probably why the spoon and fork are popular as cutlery, rather than the knife and fork.

The traditional way of eating with hands, known as kamayan (using a clean right hand to bring food to the mouth), was formerly more common in rural areas. However, due to the large number of Filipino restaurants that introduced the kamayan, it quickly became popular. For the same reason, a way of eating called "Buddle Fight", which is popular in the army, has become popular; with this method of eating, food is placed on banana leaves, several people eat from one leaf at once.


Mass media

The media broadcast mainly in Filipino and English. The media also use other Filipino languages, in particular the Visayan languages, they are broadcast mainly on the radio, which is available even in the most remote regions of the country, otherwise, some Filipinos would have been left without access to the media at all. The TV networks ABS-CBN, GMA and TV5 are in the highest demand, and radio is also widely used.

The media is active and constantly provides Filipinos with details from the life of celebrities and reports on high-profile scandals. Dramas, fantasy shows, telenovelas, Asian films and anime are widely broadcast. Daytime television is dominated by game shows, various shows and talk shows such as Eat Bulaga and It's Show Time. The Philippine film industry has a long history of development and is popular in the domestic market, but has recently faced increasing competition from American, Asian and European filmmakers. The most famous are such directors and actors as Lino Broca and Hopa Aunor, who made such films as "Manila: in the claws of the light" and "Miracle". In recent years, it has become a pattern: celebrities first participate in TV shows and act in films, and then they begin to deal with politics, which often creates considerable problems.



Traditional Filipino games such as Luxong, Baka Patientero, Pico, and Tumbang Preso are still widely played among the youth. Sungka is a traditional Filipino board game. Card games are popular during festivals, some of them, such as pusou and tongits, are illegal gambling. Mahjong is played in some Philippine localities.

Sabong or cockfighting is another popular pastime among Filipino men, and has existed long before the arrival of the Spaniards. The first description of this pastime, which was made by Antonio Pigafetta, the chronicler of Magellan, refers to the kingdom of Taytau. The yo-yo is a popular toy in the Philippines, created in its modern form by Pedro Flores, the name comes from the Llocano language.


Education, science, art

On the territory of the country there is an old astronomical observatory - the Manila Observatory. The main task of the observatory in the 19th century was the prediction of typhoons. The national dance of the Philippines is the Tinikling.

The population estimate for 2022 is 114,597,229 people (13th in the world).
Annual growth estimate for 2022 is 1.6% (62nd place in the world).
Fertility estimate for 2022 is 2.78 births per woman (58th in the world).
The birth rate for 2022 is 22.28 per 1000 (57th in the world).
Mortality estimate for 2022 is 6.41 per 1000 (140th in the world).
Infant mortality estimate for 2022 is 22.23 per 1000 (73rd in the world).
The average life expectancy estimate for 2022 is 70.14 years, for men - 66.6 years, for women - 73.86 years.
Literacy score for 2019 is 96.3%, for men - 95.7%, for women - 96.9%.
The urban population estimate for 2022 is 48%.
Ethnic composition: Tagalog 24.4%, Visayan/Binisaya 11.4%, Cebuano 9.9%, Hiligaynon/Ilocano 8.8%, Bikol 6.8%, Warai 4%, other 26.2% (2010 estimate) year).
The Philippines is currently one of the main exporters of labor to the US, Canada, Japan and Australia.

The country has two official languages ​​- Pilipino (based on Tagalog) and English.



The official language is Tagalog (Tagalog, or Pilipino). The majority of the population speaks Filipino languages ​​of the Austronesian family, the most common being Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Bicol, Hiligaynon, Pangasinan, Kapampangan, and Warai Warai. A significant part of the population speaks English. Spanish (3%), Spanish-Creole Chabacano (1%), and Chinese are also common. Spanish in the Philippines for over three centuries (1571-1898) served as the only written language of the country. However, due to the extreme remoteness of Spain, he never became native to the bulk of the local population. The Spanish-American War of 1898 ended with the fall of the Philippines under US control. Spanish, however, retained the traditional function of the lingua franca in the country until the early 1950s, after which the American government made active efforts to replace it with English. First, Spanish lost its official status under the 1973 constitution, and then ceased to be taught in schools as a compulsory subject after 1986, returning to the school curriculum as a compulsory subject only in 2008. Moreover, all the indigenous languages ​​of the Philippines, including the main among them - Tagalog - retain significant layers of Spanish vocabulary, which makes up to 40% of their vocabulary. English is widely used in the Philippines, especially in science, education, and the press.



Catholicism professes 80.6% of the population, Protestantism - 8.2%, other Christian religions - 3.4%, Islam - 5.6%, about 2% of Filipinos adhere to traditional beliefs, 1.9% - other religions (Hinduism, Judaism , Bahaism) (2010).



One of the largest cities in the Philippines, Manila is located on the island of Luzon. It is the capital of the state, the main cultural and economic center. Manila is the center of the Greater Manila conurbation, with a population of 12 million people. It includes such large cities as Quezon City, Kalookan and Pasay. Manila is home to the National Museum of the Philippines, the Santo Tomas Museum of Natural History and Anthropology, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art. In the historical center of Intramuros there are fortifications, churches, houses of the 16th-18th centuries, the Botanical Garden. Tourists are offered sightseeing tours of Manila, to Taal Lake, air safaris and folklore shows are organized.

The Philippines is famous for its beaches and picturesque coral reefs. The most famous tourist resorts are located in the southern part of the archipelago on the islands of Boracay, Cebu, Bohol and Palawan. Tourists are offered both a beach holiday and a more active one - cruises, diving, surfing. Attractive and dynamically developing is the island of Mindoro, which is located in the north of the Philippine archipelago and is easily accessible from Manila.

There are 35 national parks on the islands (the largest is Mounts Eaglet - Bako), faunal reserves and forest reserves. The largest and most interesting for tourists are Mount Apo, Taal, Mayon, Kanlaon, located on the islands of Luzon and Mindanao.

The Philippines has sufficient recreational resources, natural and socio-cultural. Today, the islands offer almost all types of tourism: beach, extreme, sports, environmental, educational, sex tourism. Tourism is negatively affected by the politically unstable situation in the country, conflicts between the Muslim and Christian communities. In addition, the monsoon climate and the rainy season, which lasts more than 6 months, do not contribute to the development of beach tourism.

mass media
The state television company - PTV (People's Television Network - "People's Television Network"), includes the television network of the same name, the state radio company - PBS (Philippine Broadcasting Service - "Philippine Broadcasting Service"), includes radio networks Radyo ng Bayan, Radyo Magasin, Business radio, Sports radio, Radio Pilipinas.