Bergama (Pergamum) Archaeological Site




Location: İzmir Province Map

Info: (0232) 631 2883

Open: 8:30am- 5pm winter

9am- 7pm summer daily




Pergamum or Bergama (Πέργαμον or ἡ Πέργαμος in Greek) is an archeological site situated in İzmir Province in Turkey.



In antiquity, Pergamum, the largest city in the region, was located northwest of the modern city. In the Roman era, Pergamum reached its peak, it was inhabited by 150,000 inhabitants.

The founding of the Turkic Beylik of Karas around 1297 and its breakthrough to the Dardanelles Strait cut off the Byzantine Pergamum from land communications with Prussia, Nicaea, Nicomedia and Constantinople. In fact, from this moment on, the remaining Greek inhabitants of the city live in conditions of hunger and unsanitary conditions, as the nomadic Turks besieged the city itself, and all agricultural land in its vicinity was destroyed. Infant mortality from infections has also risen sharply, as evidenced by excavations of Orthodox cemeteries. The city itself apparently completely fell in 1315. As part of Pax Ottomana, the city’s trade relations with the surrounding regions recovered and food supplies were gradually established. The Turks themselves also partially switched to settled. But even in 1337, according to Ibn-Natutta, the city was still in ruins, and only the fortress on the top of its hill was maintained by the Turks in working condition due to its strategic importance. The Orthodox population declined sharply, its remnants were enslaved. The Turks allowed the remaining Orthodox slaves to continue to use the Christian cemetery. The number of deaths in infancy from infections among the remaining Greeks was reduced, but increased among Greek teenagers, who were now actively exploited by the Turks as slaves.

In 1912 there lived: Greeks - 25 277 people, Turks - 22 735 people, Armenians - 1500 people.