Location: Denizli Province


Description of Pamukkale


Pamukkale is a beautiful geological formation situated in Denizli Province of Turkey. The name of Pamukkale in Turkish means "Cotton Castle" after its appearance. It is a cluster of unique hot springs with a high concentration of calcium oxide. It consists of 17 geothermal springs with temperatures from 35 to 100 degrees Celcius and ponds in a series of terraces formed of travertine. Many locals and tourists alike believe that water in Pamukkale treats various chronic diseases.


In the place where the calcium-saturated thermal waters reach the surface of a high hill almost 200 m high, an amazing landscape of Pamukkale (which means "cotton fortress") has formed, which appears as a whole cascade of terrace baths decorated with snow-white calcite stalactites. At the end of II century. BC. the dynasty of the Attalids, the rulers of the kingdom of Pergamon, founded the resort of Hierapolis. Here you can see the ruins of ancient baths, temples and other Hellenistic monuments.

The ancient city of Hierapolis and the Pamukkale travertines are parts of the Hierapolis Archaeological Complex (tour. Pamukkale (Hierapolis) Örenyeri), access to which is by a single ticket. Ticket price is 60 Turkish liras. Entrance is possible either through two main entrances, or through a checkpoint at the foot of the mountain. The complex is open to visitors from 6-30 to 19 hours.

The complex also includes:
"Archaeological Museum of Hierapolis" (tour. Hierapolis Arkeoloji Müzesi) to visit which you need to purchase a separate ticket at the price of 8 Turkish liras.
"Antique Hierapolis Basin" (tour. Hierapolis Antik Havuz) - a pool formed as a result of an earthquake in the 7th century AD. Mineral pool water is useful for heart diseases, atherosclerosis, hypertension, rickets, etc. To visit the pool you need to purchase an additional ticket at the price of 50 Turkish liras (children under 6 years old - free of charge, from 7 to 12 years old - 13 liras).

Although there are 17 springs with thermal water in the region from 35 to 100 ° C, white travertines in Pamukkale are formed by precipitation of calcium from the water of one source with a water flow rate of 466.21 liters per second and a temperature of 35.6 ° C. Water in a controlled channel flows to the slope and descends along the slope from a height of 60-70 meters, gradually precipitating calcium carbonate in the form of a soft gel during a chemical reaction. To form a hard rock, it is necessary not to mix the gel. Therefore, access to some parts of the mountain is closed to visitors.