Wiener Neustadt, the largest city and the economic center of the industrial quarter, is about 40 km south of Vienna at 265 m above sea level and has almost 40,000 inhabitants. The city is simply called "Neustadt" (in dialect: Neistott) by the local population. The city is a supraregional center for southern Lower Austria and northern Burgenland, an important industrial center, transport hub, shopping and school town. Wiener Neustadt is the eleventh largest city in Austria.
The statutory city of Wiener Neustadt is divided into a total of eight city districts:
Heather settlement/ Heideansiedlung
There were plans in the 1970s and 1980s to incorporate numerous
neighboring communities into Wiener Neustadt. But that didn't
happen. Thus, the urban area of Wiener Neustadt no longer includes
any other localities, the development continues in part across the
In 1192 the city was founded by Duke Leopold V of Babenberg as a bulwark to secure the border to the south and east. Much of the ransom for King Richard the Lionheart was used to build it. In the 15th century the city was the residence of Emperor Friedrich III. and in 1459 Emperor Maximilian I was born here. Conquered by the Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus in 1487, Maximilian was only able to recapture the fortress in 1490. As a result, the city lost its importance, but proved to be a valuable fortress against the advancing Ottomans. In 1752 the "Theresian Military Academy" founded by Maria Theresa was opened in the rooms of the imperial castle, which still trains officers for the Austrian Armed Forces. In 1909 Wiener Neustadt received the first airfield in Austria, which is still used by the military today.
Due to the great importance of the city in rail traffic and the armaments industry, Wiener Neustadt was the target of numerous Allied bombings between 1942 and 1945. The city was almost completely destroyed.
When the city was founded in 1192, the appropriate name for a new establishment was also given: Neustadt. As a result, the city was referred to as Neustadt bei Wien to distinguish it from other new towns. The name Wiener Neustadt became established in the 18th century (see also Wiener Neudorf).
The castle in Wiener Neustadt is known today as the seat of the
Theresian Military Academy in Wiener Neustadt. The first castle in
Wiener Neustadt was built in 1193/94, at the same time as the city
wall of Wiener Neustadt was being built. They were paid from Richard
the Lionheart's ransom demands. This castle is said to have stood on
the northeast corner of the city, but there is no archaeological
evidence for this.
However, when this became too small, the newer castle was built on its current location by the Babenberg Duke Leopold VI, the glorious at the beginning of the 13th century. Since the area is quite swampy, it was built on wooden pilots. Under Duke Friedrich II the Arguable, it was finally surrounded by a moat, outer walls and corner towers.
In 1246 the Battle of the Leitha took place east of the castle, in which Frederick II was killed. A memorial on Pöttschinger Strasse still reminds of this. The castle was first mentioned in a document in 1260. However, the wall was torn down again in 1253 under Ottokar II and rebuilt towards the end of the 13th century.
The castle collapsed in an earthquake in 1348. This led to an enlarged new building under the Habsburg Duke Leopold III, which began in 1378. On the terrace that was built above the crypt chapel by Leopold IV, Peter von Pusika built the Divine Corpus Christi chapel on behalf of Duke Ernst and later the St. George's Chapel in the newly created west wing on behalf of Emperor Friedrich III. In many places you can still find the inscription A.E.I.O.U., which refers to Friedrich III. going back.
When Friedrich III. refused to release Ladislaus Postumus from his guardianship, this led to a siege of the manor by the estates with an army of 16,000 men as a result of the Mailberger Bund. Friedrich released his ward only after negotiations and subsequently founded the Order of St. George, to which he made the castle available as a seat. However, the seat was repealed in 1598.
In 1486 there was another siege by Matthias Corvinus, which ended after two years with the defenders giving up. After the death of Corvinus, the occupying troops were driven out of the castle and town.
Under Emperor Maximilian I, the castle lost the status of a permanent residence and only a hermitage of the emperor was created. Emperor Maximilian is buried in the St. George's Chapel.
In 1521 Archduke Ferdinand, who later became Emperor Ferdinand I, withdrew to the castle due to the resistance of the Protestant class. As a result, however, the Vienna city government was arrested and executed here on the basis of the Wiener Neustädter blood court.
But other well-known personalities were also imprisoned in the castle tower, the Rákócziturm, which was adapted as a state prison, such as Franz Rákóczi or Count Peter Zrin.
During the first Turkish siege of Vienna in 1529, the castle was
attacked but not taken. During the Second in 1683 she was not
attacked. In the meantime, however, fires in 1608 and 1616 wreaked
In 1743 1400 French prisoners of war were housed in the castle. A little later, a plague-like epidemic broke out, claiming many victims. Because of the risk of infection, the castle remained closed for two years after the survivors had left. After that it was hardly used and was neglected.
In 1752 the Theresian Military Academy was established in the castle. Numerous modifications had to be carried out for this purpose. This was carried out by the Viennese master builder Matthias Gerl.
A severe earthquake in 1768 caused major damage again, making the building uninhabitable. Three of the four towers had to be removed. New imperial rooms were set up in the east wing. The main staircase was drawn in in place of the Corpus Christi chapel.
After the end of the First World War, the military academy was closed, but reopened in 1934.
Towards the end of the Second World War in 1945, the castle was almost completely destroyed by aerial bombs, fires and looting. The castle was set on fire and burned down completely in almost 14 days in April and May 1945. The remaining ruins were restored to their historical form during the reconstruction between 1946 and 1959. As far as this was possible, the historical foundation walls were left, but the room layout inside was adapted to meet the times. The military academy was able to resume operations in 1958.
The castle, which was always owned by the rulers, is now owned by the Republic of Austria.
The seven wonders of Wiener Neustadt
As a reference to the Seven Wonders of the World, they are intended to point out seven special features that existed in the history of the city of Wiener Neustadt and some still exist today. See also Wikipedia: The seven wonders of Wiener Neustadt
The fluctuating ground: The city was founded in 1194 because of its outstanding strategic position on extremely swampy ("fluctuating") ground.
The lettuce that grows on the trees: To secure the swampy ground, wooden stakes were driven into the ground. The gardener's lettuce literally grew "on the trees".
The house without a nail was supposedly built without a single nail and was located at the Wiener Tor; it was demolished in the 19th century.
The grave between heaven and earth: Emperor Maximilian (1459-1519) decreed in his will that he would like to be buried in Wiener Neustadt (instead of Innsbruck). The church in the castle, St. George's Cathedral, is located on the first floor, thus also the grave "between heaven and earth".
The church, under which a hay cart can pass: The St. George's Cathedral, already mentioned in the previous miracle, is located above the main gate of the castle.
The church under the bridge: The two towers of the cathedral were connected by a bridge, but it was destroyed in a fire in 1834.
Two brooks that flow over each other: the Wiener Neustädter Canal once began in Vienna (today in Laxenburg) and led to Wiener Neustadt. In the urban area, the canal crosses the Warme Fischa on a bridge and a few hundred meters further south also the Kehrbach.
The Wiener Neustadt Ost airfield (LOAN, Wiener Straße 120) has a 1,067 m long asphalt runway, but there are no scheduled flights to it. Arrivals and departures are only possible under visual flight conditions, the usual operating times are from 9:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m. local time.
The Wiener Neustadt West airfield (LOXN, Flugfeldgürtel 19) is used exclusively for military purposes.
The closest airport with scheduled service is Vienna Schwechat, the best way to get there by public transport is by Railjet or ICE to Vienna Meidling and from there by express train, regional train or S-Bahn.
Other airports are in Bratislava (approx. 90 km) and Graz (approx. 130 km).
All international trains on the southern route (Vienna - Graz / Villach) stop in Wiener Neustadt Hauptbahnhof, the journey time from Vienna Hauptbahnhof is approx. 30 minutes, from Graz approx. 2 hours and from Klagenfurt approx. 3 hours.
From Vienna you can take the S-Bahn (e.g. from Floridsdorf, Praterstern, Wien-Mitte, Hauptbahnhof, Meidling) to Wiener Neustadt. Since the S-Bahn stops everywhere, the journey time from Vienna Central Station is about an hour. S-Bahn trains also stop in Wiener Neustadt Nord (S1, S2, S3) and Wiener Neustadt Civitas Nova (S60).
There are regional trains from Vienna (via Mödling and Baden or via Ebreichsdorf and Pottendorf), Gloggnitz (via Ternitz and Neunkirchen), Hartberg and Sopron (via Mattersburg).
Wiener Neustadt can be reached by car via the A2 (Südautobahn) from Vienna in just under 30 minutes, exit 39 Wöllersdorf. From Graz you also follow the A2 (approx. 1:15 hours) to the Wiener Neustadt West exit. From Sopron it is best to drive via Eisenstadt and Mattersburg (B16-S31-S4) to the Wiener Neustadt Süd exit. Parking spaces in the city center are short-term parking zones, but there are some parking garages.
From Vienna, you can cycle along the Wiener Neustädter Canal (approx. 50 km, little traffic, slight inclines).
Around the city
Wiener Neustädter Hauptbahnhof is the starting point for many regional train lines and a stop for all long-distance and local trains. All city bus routes of the WNSKS (Wiener Neustädter Stadtwerke und Kommunal Service GmbH) depart from the station forecourt, including the regional buses operated by the WNSKS to Burgenland and the Bucklige Welt, as well as most of the regional bus routes operated by the M. Partsch bus company. Most of the WNSKS and Partsch buses also go around the Ring and thus serve Neustadt's second major bus hub, the main square, in addition to the train station. The Blaguss and Postbus routes depart from Ungargasse.