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Austria

 

Austria Destinations Travel Guide

 

 

 

Language: German

Currency: Euro (€)  (EUR)

Calling code: 43

 

Austrian Visa Requirements

 

History of Austria

 

 

 

Description of Austria

Austria (in German, Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (in German, Republik Österreich), is a Central European State, Member State of the European Union, with capital in Vienna, which has a population of 8.5 million inhabitants. Austria borders the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. Austria has no outlet to the sea. However, it is traversed in a significant part by the Danube river, navigable river for a large part of its channel and which allows ships of various sizes to navigate through the various riverine countries to its mouth. The territory of Austria covers 83,871 km² of surface and has a predominantly alpine climate. Only 32% of the country is below 500 meters of altitude, and the highest point is the Gross Glockner peak with 3798 meters of altitude above sea level.The majority of the population speaks German which is also the official language, but other languages ​​that are official are also spoken in some specific areas such as Croatian, Slovenian and Hungarian.

The origins of modern Austria go back to the Habsburg dynasty that made the country a fundamental part of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1867 the Austrian Empire became the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Habsburg Empire ended in 1918 at the end of the First World War. The First Republic of Austria was established in 1919. In 1938, through the process known as the Anschluss, the country was occupied by Nazi Germany. This occupation would last until the end of the Second World War, when Austria would regain its independence and the Second Republic of Austria would be created in 1955.

At present, Austria has a parliamentary government with a representative democracy composed of the nine states of Austria, the largest city in Austria is its capital, Vienna, with a population of 1.79 million inhabitants. Austria is one of the richest countries in the world, with a per capita income of € 38,500 in 2014. The country also has one of the highest rates of Human Development Index and an unemployment rate of 9,1 in 2015. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and of the European Union since 1995. It is also a founding member of the OECD. The currency in course is the euro, adopted in 1999.

 

The name of the country comes from the ancient German Ostarreіch - "Eastern State". The name "Austria" was first mentioned in a document dated November 1, 996.

The Austrian flag is one of the oldest state symbols in the world. According to legend, in 1191, during one of the battles of the Third Crusade, the snow-white shirt of Leopold V was completely splattered with blood. When the duke took off his wide belt, a white stripe formed on his shirt. The combination of these colors became his banner, and in the future the flag of the Republic of Austria.

In honor of Austria, the asteroid (136) Austria is named, discovered March 18, 1874 by the Austrian astronomer Johann Paliz at the Austro-Hungarian Maritime Observatory in Pula.

 

Travel Destinations in Austria

 

Vienna (Austria)

Vienna (German: Wien, Austro-Bavarian: Wean) is an Austrian state. It is the capital of the Republic of Austria and by far the largest city in Austria with its population of more than 1.7 million. As you'd expect it's Austria's cultural, economic, and political centre. As the former home of the Habsburg court and its various empires, the city still has the trappings of the imperial capital it once was, and the historic city centre is inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.

Belvedere

Prater

Schonbrunn Palace

Vienna

 

Burgenland (Austria)

Burgenland is a state of Austria. It's the most eastern part of the country, bordering on Hungary and Slovakia. The state is divided into 3 regions (Nordburgenland, Mittelburgenland and Südburgenland and seven boroughs. The capital city is Eisenstadt, which is situated in the Nordburgenland.

Bernstein Castle

Forchtenstein Castle

Burg Güssing

Burgruine Landsee

Burg Lockenhaus

Burg Schlaining

Eisenstadt

 

 

Carinthia (Austria)

Carinthia (German: Kärnten) is a state of Austria. It is especially known for its skiing areas, and its fantastic lakes.

Aichelberg Castle

Castle/Monastery Arnoldstein

Dietrichstein Castle

Burg Griffen

Falkenstein Castle

Feldsberg Castle

Federaun Castle

Finkenstein Castle

Flaschberg Castle

Freiberg Castle

Geyersberg Castle

Glanegg Castle

Gmünd Castle

Goldenstein Castle

Gomarn Castle

Gradenegg Castle

Burg Groppenstein Burg Greifenfels Gurnitz Castle Haimburg Castle
Hartneidstein Castle

 

Hochosterwitz Castle

Hohenburg auf Rosenberg Castle Hohenwart Castle
Hollenburg Castle      

 

Lower Austria (Austria)

Aggstein Castle

Carnuntum Archaeological Park

Danube-Auen National Park

Hardeggs Castle

Hinterhaus Castle

Kreuzenstein Castle

Kuenringerburg Castle

Melk Abbey

Thayatal National Park

     

 

Salzburg (Austria)

Salzburg, (German: Salzburg or Salzburgerland, lit. Salt castle) is one of the smaller provinces of Austria. Composing of an area of about 7,100 km², there are only 500,000 people. Most of the area is covered by the Alps, only the northern part is flat. There you can find the largest city and capital of the state Salzburg. The most important forms of income are tourism and agriculture. The Arts are an important part of the Salzburger tradition: home to Mozart, the annual Salzburg Festival, and the mystery play Jedermann (Everyman). Salzburg province also shares much of its rural regional and provincial culture with neighboring Bavaria and Tyrol. This makes it a wonderful place to experience both the high culture of the Mozart era and the true alpine Austrian culture at its purest.

Eisriesenwelt Ice Cave

Hellbrunn Castle

Hohensalzburg Fortress

Hohenwerfen Castle

Hohe Tauern National Park

Krimml Falls

Lake Toplitz

Salzburg

 

Styria (Austria)

Deutschlandsberg Castle

Gesäuse National Park

Graz

Lurgrotte Caves

Castle Riegersburg

Schloss Eggenberg

Stübing

 

 

Tyrol (Austria)

Tyrol (German: Tirol) is a multi-national historical region located in the heart of the Alps in Austria and Italy. It consists of North, East, and South Tyrol. North and East Tyrol lie in Austria and together make up the Austrian federal-state of Tyrol with its capital in Innsbruck. North and East Tyrol are a bit of an oddity as they do not share a common frontier. This is a direct result of history, South Tyrol, despite its German speaking majority, has been part of Italy since the end of World War I. It makes up the northern portion of the alpine Italian autonomous province Trentino-Alto Adige with its capital in Bolzano (Italian) or Bozen (German). Together the two provinces make up historic Tyrol.

Ambras Palace

Bruck Castle

Festung Kufstein

Freundsberg Castle

Heinfels Castle

Innsbruck

Itter Castle

Kienburg Castle
Kropfsberg Castle Laudegg Castle Lichtenwerth Castle Naudersberg Castle

Tratzberg Castle

Zammer Lochputz

   

 

Upper Austria (Austria)

Abbey of St. Florian

Attersee

Bad Ischl

Braunau am Inn

Clam Castle Eschelberg Castle

Hallstatt

Kalkalpen National Park

Linz

Mauthausen Concentration Camp

Schloss Ort Vichtenstein Castle
       

 

Vorarlberg (Austria)

Vorarlberg is the westermost federal state of Austria, sharing borders with the countries of Germany (Bavaria), Liechtenstein, and Switzerland and the Austrian federal-state of Tyrol. Vorarlberg also enjoys a small window on Lake Constance via the city of Bregenz. It is the richest and most well to do province of Austria outside Vienna. For its size it offers a lot of diverse landscape including everything Tyrol has to offer with the exception of a large city.
Neu-Ems Castle

Neu-Montfort Castle

Schattenburg

 

 

 

 

Geography of Austria

Austria is located in the Central Europe. It borders Czech Republic in the North East, Slovakia in East, Hungary in the South and Slovenia, Italy in the West. Liechtenstein, Switzerland and Germany in the North. Major rivers include Danube, Moore, Drava, Inn and Salzach. Additionally there are numerous mountain lakes in picturesque valleys in the Alps. Approximately 70% of the country is occupied by the Alps mountain range. The highest point in Austria is peak Grossglockner (3997 meters).

Language in Austria

The official language of Austria is German. Although it is in accent, pronunciation and rhythm.  Rural alpine areas also speak German, but even native Germans- speaking citizen have difficulty understanding each other.

Religion in Austria

About 78% of the population are Catholics, 5% are Protestants, 2% are Muslims and about 12% are atheists.

Currency

The country uses Euro as its official currency.

Political system of Austria

Austria is a parliamentary republic. The head of the government is a Federal president who is chosen every six years. The head of the government is Federal counselor. Parliament of Austria is double chambered Federal Assembly, which consists of of the Federal Council and the National Council.

Safety while you travel in Austria

In recent years the number of crimes have increased. These usually include petty crimes such as pick pocketing, stealing of handbags and other personal property. So avoid large groups of people since this offers the best opportunity for thieves.

 

Telephones

Emergency Service 120

Fire Service 122

Police 133

Ambulance 144

Office hours

Opening hours vary from museum to museum. The day off for museum is usually a Monday. Most of small stores usually have lunch hour from 12 to 1pm then they are closed. Large stores however stay open without lunch breaks. Businesses usually close from 6pm to 8pm. Banks are open on weekdays.

 

 

Contrary to popular perceptions, Austria is not all about mountains. While the Alps do cover 3/4 of the country dominating the provinces of Vorarlberg, Tyrol, Salzburg, Styria, Upper Austria and Carinthia, the eastern provinces of Lower Austria, the Burgenland and the federal capital of Vienna are more similar to the geography of the neighbouring Czech Republic and Hungary. This diverse mix of landscapes is packed into a relatively small area of size. Glaciers, meadows, alpine valleys, wooded foothills, gently rolling farmland, vineyards, river gorges, plains and even semi-arid steppes can be found in Austria.

One quarter of Austria's population lives in Greater Vienna, a European metropolis, located where the Danube meets the easternmost fringe of the Alps, not far from the border with Slovakia and its capital Bratislava.

Virtually all government, financial and cultural institutions, as well as national media and large corporations are based in Vienna, due largely to history and geography. Thus, the capital dominates Austria's cultural and political life and is clearly a world unto its own. It has little to do with the rest of mainly rural Austria and outside of Graz and Linz there really are no other large scale cities in the country. There is a playful joke told in Vorarlberg province regarding the dominance of Vienna regarding national affairs that reads, "the people of western Austria make the money and Vienna spends it."

Climate
Austria has a temperate continental climate. Summers last from early June to mid-September and can be hot in some years and rainy in others. Day-time temperatures in July and August are around 25°C (77°F), but can often reach 35°C (95°F). Winters are cold in the lowlands and very harsh in the Alpine region with temperatures often dropping below -10°C (14°F). Winters last from December to March (longer at higher altitudes). In the Alpine region large temperature fluctuations occur all year round and nights are chilly even in high summer. The northern Alps are generally a lot wetter than the rest of the country. The South East (Styria and Carinthia) is dry and sunny. The area around Vienna often experiences strong easterly winds.

Electricity
Electricity is supplied at 220 to 230V, 50Hz. Outlets are the European standard CEE-7/7 "Schukostecker" or "Schuko" or the compatible, but non-grounded, CEE-7/16 "Europlug" types. Generally speaking, U.S. and Canadian travellers should pack an adapter and a converter for these outlets if they plan to use North American electrical equipment in Austria.

 

 

Transportation

Visa
Austria is a member of the Schengen Agreement.

There are no border controls between countries that have signed and implemented this treaty - the European Union (except Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Ireland, Romania and the United Kingdom), Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland. Likewise, a visa granted for any Schengen member is valid in all other countries that have signed and implemented the treaty. But be careful: not all EU members have signed the Schengen treaty, and not all Schengen members are part of the European Union. This means that there may be spot customs checks but no immigration checks (travelling within Schengen but to/from a non-EU country) or you may have to clear immigration but not customs (travelling within the EU but to/from a non-Schengen country).

Please see the article Travel in the Schengen Zone for more information about how the scheme works and what entry requirements are.

To stay longer than 90 days, a non-EU foreigner will need either a long-stay visa (valid for up to 6 months) or an Aufenthaltstitel (residence permit). Visa-exempt visitors may be able to acquire a residence permit inside Austria after entry, but consulates do not recommend this route due to processing times for the permits and that the permit must be obtained within the initial 90-day period of stay.

One of the ways to stay in the country for longer than 90 days is to study on a study visa, for example by studying on a TEFL course run by the English Teacher Training College at one of several campuses around Austria or a larger university like Vienna or Salzburg.

By plane
There are 6 airports in Austria with scheduled flights. The most important international airport is Vienna which has connection to all major airports of the world. Other international airports include Graz, Innsbruck, Klagenfurt, Linz, and Salzburg which provide domestic flights as well as connections to some European countries. Those airports are particularly popular with cheap airlines such as Ryanair. For travelling to the western states it is recommended to use the very close Munich airport.

The most common airports to visit Vorarlberg are Altenrhein (Austrian), Friedrichshafen (Ryanair, Intersky) and Zurich (Swiss).

If visiting Austria for winter sports, choose airport considering cost and duration for the whole trip (plane+transfer), not always Vienna and even likely not in Austria.

Unlike many countries, getting in to Austria for skiing shouldn't imply flying to the capital city first. Vienna itself is a 4 hour drive away from the nearest medium-sized resort, and longer by public transport. See more in GetIn section of Winter sports in Austria.

With children
Austrian Airlines: Baby strollers weighting over 10kg should be checked in as a luggage; strollers below 10kg are allowed up until the aircraft board, and taken by personnel right at the entrance to the aircraft. See also a dedicated page on flying by Austrian with children: .

By bus
Bus is not always the cheapest way to travel though deep discounts for advanced bookings are being introduced for long-distance travel (as far as from Warsaw to Austria for €4). The bus may also be the cheapest option if you want to travel at short notice or if you have large amounts of luggage. Bus travel is especially interesting for those coming from the East as there are many buses into Vienna and they are often faster than trains. Information about their assorted services and pricing is can be found in that section.

Eurolines Austria is the largest operator and organizer of bus travel in Austria though many services are not included in their schedules.

Due to the large Balkan diaspora after the Yugoslav wars in the 90's, there are numerous bus companies serving the main Austrian cities (such as Vienna, Salzburg, Linz, Graz, Innsbruck, etc.) to many destinations in Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, with prices as low as 45 or 50 EUR for a return ticket from Belgrade to Vienna.

 

By car
Austria and all its neighbouring countries are Schengen members so in theory there are no border controls. However, because of the current migrant crisis, Austria and some other countries in the EU temporarily reintroduced controls on some border crossing points, so you should count in some possible delay especially when crossing borders in northern or western direction (e.g. travelling from Hungary to Austria or Austria to Germany). For using the Autobahnen or Schnellstrassen, a vignette, or tax sticker, must be purchased. Costs for cars are approx €90 for one year, €25 for 8 weeks, or about €8.50 for 10 days. For motorcycles, the prices are about 50% cheaper. Vehicles above 3.5 tonnes maximum permitted laden weight must carry a so called "GO-BOX" instead of the vignette - a small eletronic device, which uses the high frequency range to communicate with toll points and calculate the distance based fees.

On some Saturdays in July and August expect traffic jams on the motorways between Germany, Austria and Italy when millions of German tourists head south at the beginning of school vacations. A delay of about 2 hours is not unusual. The motorway A10 between Salzburg and Villach is especially notorious. It's best to avoid those Saturdays.

From Germany
Motorway A8 from Munich to Salzburg.
Motorway A93 from Rosenheim via Kufstein to Innsbruck, Tyrol.
E43 (A96) from Leutkirch via Wangen to Bregenz, Vorarlberg.
E56 from Regensburg via Passau to Linz, Upper Austria.
From Italy
Motorway A23 (E55) via Tarvisio to Villach, Carinthia.
Motorway A22 (E45) via Brenner to Innsbruck, Tyrol.
From Slovenia
E652 to Villach,Carinthia.
E57 via Spielfeld to Graz, Styria.

By train
Austria has plenty of connections with all its neighbours daily. Every neighbouring countries (even Liechtenstein) have trains at least hourly. Many (Czech Republic, Hungary, Germany, Slovakia, Switzerland) even more frequently. The ÖBB (Austrian Railways) operate high-speed ICE and RailJet trains from cities like Zurich, Munich,Frankfurt, Passau, and Budapest. Eurocity trains are the next fastest trains available as well as the trains connecting the bigger Austrian cities called Intercity. Regional trains called EURegio and simply Regionalzug are also available from all 8 of Austria's neighbours.

Vienna is the largest railway hub by day and also night trains from most Central European countries, which travel to many stops across Austria. Day trains are normally much quicker than night trains. Tickets can be purchased from certain locations to Austria via the ÖBB website. Always compare fares from the departure or even transit countries' railways as there may be price difference even for the same train. ÖBB offers discount 'SparSchiene' tickets to and from destinations like Croatia, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Serbia, and Switzerland for a flat-rate (i.e. €29 for a one-way seater, €39 for a couchette, or €59 for a sleeper). There are a limited number of tickets at this price. At peak times you need to book in advance. Additional offers are available to all countries in Central Europe, although many cannot be booked online.

Information for train spotters
In Austria most railways run electrically. Most electric trains get their power from a single-phase AC network. This network uses its own power lines run with 15 kV. In contrast to normal power lines, these employ a number of conductors that is not divisible by 3 - most power lines for the single phase AC grid of the traction power grid have four conductors. There are many interesting mountain railways of all types and trains from around central Europe.

By Foot or bicycle
Many trails, pedestrian and bicycle bridges and ferries exist around Austria's borders. Details can be found in local sections.

 

Get around

By train and bus
Trains are the best and most common form of public transport in Austria. Comfortable and moderately priced trains connect major cities and many towns; buses serve less significant towns and lakes. The two forms of transport are integrated and designed to complement each other, and intercity coaches exist but don't provide anywhere near the level of intercity rail service.

Austrian trains are operated mostly by state-owned company ÖBB. The Raaberbahn (GySEV) provides some trains over Austrian-Hungarian border and there are some short private railways with tourist trains, these railways supplement rather than compete with the ÖBB.

The only competitor to the ÖBB is WestBahn on the Salzburg-Linz-Vienna line (the company shares the name of the strech it runs on). Rail passes, ÖBB tickets and VORTEILScard are not valid on WestBahn, buy tickets on-line or onboard. If you are traveling between Salzburg, Linz, Vienna, and points between, WestBahn will likely be cheaper than taking ÖBB (they generally peg their maximum prices to the 50% discounted fares of the ÖBB available to those (generally residents) who have an ÖBB VORTEILScard/loyalty card). WestBahn operates directly to more Viennese destinations than the ÖBB intercity services - half their services go to Wien Westbahnhof (West Station), the other half use the S-Bahn tunnel and stop at Wien Meidling, Hauptbahnhof (Main Station), Quartier Belvedere, Rennweg (S-Bahn to the airport), Mitte (City Airport Train to the airport), and Praterstern.

Free wifi on Railjets, newer regional trains, on WestBahn trains, and in the main train stations.

The ÖBB also operate buses on the Graz–Klagenfurt–Venice line because the road between these cities is much shorter that railway.


Train types
S (S-Bahn/Schnellbahn) – commuter trains offered in several regions and suburban areas
RSB (Regio S-Bahn) – an express version of the S-Bahn making limited stops
R (Regionalzug) – slow local trains, stops everywhere
REX (Regionalexpress) – fast regional trains, stop at more significant stations
D (Schnellzug) - "rapid" train, normally with poorer service quality than IC/EC.
IC (InterCity) – long-distance trains connecting major towns and cities.
EC (EuroCity) – international long-distance trains
EN (EuroNacht) - overnight intercity (domestic or international) train with sleeping accomidations.
WB (WestBahn) - private competitor's InterCity service, through ticketing to/from other trains possible within regional transporation districts.
ICE (InterCityExpress) – German high-speed trains
RJ (Railjet) – Austria's home-grown high-speed trains
On suburban and regional trains there is normally only second class. On ICE, IC and EC trains is second class, which has sufficiently roomy plush seats, and first class which is more private and with roomier leather seats. The RailJet offers three classes Economy which is akin to second class (second class tickets are valid), First Class featuring leather seats and services like a welcome drink, while an upgrade from first to Premium Class gives you even more space and at your seat services.

Tickets
The ÖBB sell domestic tickets using a price based only upon distance travelled, regardless of when you buy the ticket and which train you take. Base fare is rather expensive, but Austrian Railways offer some interesting discounts. If you buy a normal (not "Sparschiene"/discounted) ticket from Salzburg to Vienna, that ticket is valid for any train that takes you to Vienna, even for a foreign train stopping inside Austria. (Exception being any train operated by WestBahn, you'll recognize these trains by thier white livery with bright green and blue stripes.)

Tickets can be ordered (and paid for) on the web, including itineraries coving connecting trains and involving narrow-gauge, privately-operated, railways (like in the Zillertal valley). You can also reserve seats for a small fee: that is definitely recommended if you plan to travel with luggage. Tickets ordered online should be printed and presented to the conductor on board upon request. They should be printed since they will barcode-scanned and stamped.

 

When purchasing tickets online you're offered two options: to print the tickets, or to pick it up from OBB machine at station. If you print the ticket, the cancellation will not be possible (and the web site warns you about it) - and the customer service department will not forgive your mistake. You do not have to decide right away, however - you can decide later. Also after successful purchase you have a three minute "grace period" where you can undo your purchase, and get full refund - use it to recheck your ticket information. If you printed the ticket, you must show it to the conductor, along with the photo ID matching the name on the ticket and the card used for purchase.

There are ticket machines at all sizable train stations and on board some regional trains. When boarding regional trains you are required to have purchased a ticket before boarding, if it is possible to buy a ticket via railway office or vending machine at the station you are departing from. (This includes most stations. These stations are marked with SB in all ÖBB timetables). Ticket machines do not display or print itineraries, and many train stations only display basic timetables. It is best to find an itinerary on the Austrian Railways website trip planner. Stations also provide pamphlets with detailed timetables, but they assume that you know which line to board to get to your destination and can only be obtained during office hours.

The behind the scenes of ticketing is a bit more complicated: tickets from local public transportation authorities (like OÖVV, VVNB, SVV and VOR) are valid in both ÖBB and WestBahn trains and buses, as well as many other railways, in the zones they cover. This fare system is parallel to the railways' own systems and has the advantage of sometimes being cheaper and/or including connecting local public transport, but railway discounts don't apply. Machines and agents will automatically select these tariffs for you if they are cheaper than the railway tariff. This means that for instance you might be asked if you have a valid public transportation pass for Vienna, because your railway ticket can then start at the city limits instead of at the station you depart at saving you a couple euros.

Discounts
SparSchiene are cheap tickets offered between major cities both domestically and internationally. These tickets aren't based on distance, rather they're cheapest when booking well in advance online and are tied to a specific train run and time. Though this offer can be very tempting, especially for those without the VORTEILScard, do consider that they provide less flexibility than regular tickets and are not refundable or changeable and are often sold-out at popular times. For instance SparSchiene tickets from Salzburg to Klagenfurt can be had for €9 in second class, compared to €35 regular price, or €18 with VORTEILScard.
VORTEILScard gets you 45-55% reduction on any domestic rail ticket (depending on the train and whether you buy it online, at a ticket machine or at a counter) and 25% off on cross-border trains in Europe (RailPlus discount). The VC is also valid on private railways except the rack and WestBahn railways. Cards are valid for one year and are first issued as a temporary paper ticket (printed on the spot and valid for the first two months). A plastic ID card is then sent out by mail, normally within two weeks. The VC is available at all ÖBB station ticket offices and counters. You will need both your passport to fill out the form and purchase your VORTEILScard. For one year:
VORTEILScard (regular) costs €99.90 if you aren't eligible for the following.
VORTEILScard costs €19.90 for those under 26 years.
VORTEILScard Senior costs €26.90 for men and women over 60 years. (All seniors by this criteria are waived seat reservation fees, regardless of VorteilsCard.)
Persons with limited physical mobility or the handicapped (the visually impaired, for example) are eligible for certain other versions of the VORTEILScard at extremely nominal prices, although getting these with foreign documents can be a challenge. Regardless, though, you are eligible to have the seat reservation fee waived.)
Einfach-Raus-Ticket can be used by groups of up to 5 people for unlimited train travel during one day on all Austrian regional trains (categories S, RSB, R and REX) and trains run by the operator Raaberbahn. It's valid from 09:00 on weekdays (from midnight on weekends) until 03:00 the following day and costs €32 online, at vending machines, at stations or wherever ÖBB tickets are sold.

 

 

History

The lands of modern Austria were conquered by the Romans from the Celts in 15 BC. e. In the VI – VIII centuries, the territory of the future Tyrol is occupied by the Germanic Bavarian people, the territories of the future Austria, Styria and Carinthia are occupied by the Slavs. In 788, conquered by the Franks. In 803, the Avar brand was created, in 976 it was renamed the Eastern brand. Since its inception, Austria, Styria, Carinthia and Tyrol have been absolute monarchies. In 1156, during the reign of the Babenberg dynasty, Austria was separated from Bavaria into an independent duchy, which in 1276 passed to the Habsburgs.

Since 1438, the dukes of Austria were elected mainly emperors of the Holy Roman Empire, in 1453 (by this time they were already in personal union), the duke of Austria received the title of Archduke. In 1526, the Czech Republic and Croatia were annexed to Austria. As a result of the Silesian Wars, the country lost Silesia. At the end of the 18th century, as a result of the partition of Poland, Galicia, Lesser Poland and Southern Mazovia (as Western Galicia) were annexed to Austria. In 1687, Hungary joined the union with Austria. As a result of the wars with France, in 1806, the Archduke of Austria lost the title of Holy Roman Emperor, but received the title Emperor of Austria, and since 1815, after the creation of the German Union, the emperors of Austria were its presidents, the country lost Southern Mazovia, but received Lombardy and Veneto. In 1859, as a result of the defeat in the Austro-Italian-French war, it lost Lombardy and Veneto, in 1866, as a result of the defeat of Austria in the Austro-Prussian war, the German Union self-dissolved.

In 1867, the Austrian emperor issued a constitution proclaiming Austria as a constitutional dualist censored monarchy, the imperial council consisting of the House of Lords, consisting of the titled nobility, and the House of Representatives, elected by electors on the basis of the property qualification according to the majority system in 2 rounds, became the legislative body. the state is the hereditary emperor, and the executive body is the ministry appointed by the emperor and held accountable to him. The most influential party was the Christian Social Party. At the beginning of the 20th century, universal suffrage was introduced in the elections to the House of Representatives, the Christian Social Party retained its influence, but the Social Democratic Party of Austria was on a par with it.

On November 11, 1918, the Kaiser of Austria and King of Hungary Charles I declared his self-removal from reigning over Austria; on November 12, 1918, the Reichsrat abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords, proclaimed the empire a republic of German Austria and part of the German empire, which automatically entailed the breakdown of the Austro-Hungarian union and the liquidation Austria-Hungary. On the same day, the Reichsrat adopted the "Law on the State Form and Form of Government of German Austria", according to which elections for the constitutional national assembly were called for the adoption of the constitution, before it was convened, the provisional legislative body became the interim national assembly, which included all members of the 1911 Reichsrat selected from the German part of Austria. The State Council headed by the State Chancellor - Social Democrat Karl Renner became the interim executive body. On November 13, 1918, Charles I declared his self-removal from the reign of Hungary; on November 16, 1918, the state assembly abolished the monarchy and proclaimed the Kingdom of Hungary as the Hungarian People's Republic - the breakdown of the Austro-Hungarian union was recognized by Hungary. On November 14, members of the Reichsrat from the districts inhabited by Czechs of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia formed the Czechoslovak Revolutionary National Assembly, which proclaimed the Czechoslovak Republic.

 

On February 16, 1919, elections were held for the constitutional national assembly, the first place in which was won by the Social Democratic Labor Party of Austria, and the second place by a small margin was the Christian Social Party. On March 14, it adopted laws on national representation and state government, according to which the constitutional national assembly became the legislative body, and the state government became the executive body. On September 10, 1919, the Saint-Germain Peace Treaty was signed, Austria was forbidden to reunite with Germany, she recognized the independence of Czechoslovakia, Hungary. The regions of Lower Styria, Slavonia, Dalmatia and Croatia were transferred to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, Transylvania and Bukovina - Romania. On October 21, 1919, it was ratified by the constitutional national assembly, changing the name of the state to the Republic of Austria. On October 10, 1920, it adopted a federal constitutional law proclaiming Austria as a federal democratic parliamentary republic, establishing the federal assembly as a legislative body consisting of the federal council and the national council, the federal government and the posts of the federal president, federal chancellor, and federal ministers.

On March 4, 1933, Federal Chancellor Engelbert Dolphus dissolved the federal assembly and a year later issued the so-called “May Constitution”, which abolished it. It replaced the people's representation with a corporate one, the federal legislature became the legislative body, 20 members of which were appointed by the state council, which, in turn, was formed by the federal president, 10 - by the federal economic council formed by trade unions and trade and industrial unions, 10 - by the federal cultural council created creative unions, 9 - by the council of lands, which ex officio included zemstvo captains; The federal government remained the executive body, and the federal president remained the head of state.

In 1938, the Anschluss occurred, the annexation of Austria by Nazi Germany, the federal lands were transformed into the Reichsgau Vienna, Upper Danube, Lower Danube, Carinthia, Salzburg, Styria, Tyrol-Vorarlberg, governed by the deputies appointed by the Reich Chancellor of Germany.

In April 1945, the troops of the countries of the anti-Hitler coalition expelled the Wehrmacht from Austria, the fascist governors were removed, power was transferred to the provisional land governments (in some lands they were called provisional land committees), consisting of opponents of fascism. On April 27, 1945, a provisional state government was created at the national level from the Social Democrats, the Communists (they entered before 1947) and the Christian Socialists, led by the State Chancellor, Social Democrat Karl Renner. The process of denazification began, to control which the country was occupied by the troops of four member states of the anti-Hitler coalition and divided into four zones of occupation: Soviet, British, American and French. On July 4, 1945, an inter-allied control commission for Austria, consisting of representatives of the occupying parties, was created to directly control denazification. In September 1945, political parties were allowed, the largest of which were the Socialist Party of Austria, the Austrian People's Party, the Communist Party of Austria and the Democratic Party. On November 25, 1945, elections to the national council were held. In the fall of 1945, the federal constitutional law of 1919 was restored. Negotiations on the conclusion of a peace treaty began in 1947, but it was concluded only on May 15, 1955, because “when, after many years of allied occupation, it became clear that the competition between the West and the USSR for Austria would not bring anyone a clear victory, in Austria political circles once again awakened interest in neutrality. Vienna’s military-political equidistance could become an acceptable formula for resolving the issue of the withdrawal of Western and Soviet occupation forces. ” In October of the same year, the Austrian Law of Permanent Neutrality was adopted, which it still observes. On October 25, all Allied forces from Austria were withdrawn.

 

The times of the Cold War brought diplomatic fame to Austria, its capital Vienna. Representations of the largest international organizations, including the UN, have settled here. Successfully developed the post-war economy of the country.

On January 1, 1995, Austria joined the European Union.