Innsbruck

Location: Tyrol

 

The alpine metropolis of Innsbruck lies on the Inn and is the capital of the Austrian state of Tyrol. With around 120,000 inhabitants, it is the fifth largest city in Austria.

In administrative terms, Innsbruck is divided into nine cadastral municipalities (city districts). These are the city center (Altstadt, Dreiheiligen, Saggen, St. Nikolaus and Mariahilf), Wilten (Mentlberg, Sieglanger, Wilten West), Pradl (Pradler-Saggen, Reichenau, Tivoli), Hötting (Höttinger Au, Hötting West, Hungerburg, Sadrach , All Saints' Day and Kranebitten), Mühlau (Hungerburg, Hoch-Innsbruck), Amras with the Roßau, Arzl (Neuarzl and Olympic Village), Vill and Igls.

The Hungerburg district, also Hoch-Innsbruck and located on a plateau north of the center, is an exception to two cadastral communities, the name is attributed to a poor snack station.

Neighboring communities of the city are Rum, Thaur, Ampass, Aldrans, Lans, Patsch, Mutters, Natters, Götzens, Völs, Kematen, Zirl and Scharnitz (a little further away).

Location
The special feature of the climatically favorable situation of the mountain town Innsbruck is due to the location between the surrounding mountain ranges and in the wide trough valley of the Inn; the flat valley floor is graveled up to 200 meters by the river: to the north and against the Atlantic lows that come from here, Innsbruck is protected by the striking and closed north chain of the Karwendel with the Hafelekar, to the south with the valley opening of the Wipptal between the somewhat gentler ones Tux Alps with the Patscherkofel and the Stubai Alps, the valley is open to the sun and the warm southern foehn: the Inn Valley is a dry valley.

 

History

Traces of settlement in the Innsbruck city area can be traced back to the Neolithic Age. Under the Romans, the region lies on the trade route over the Brenner and the Wipptal, which flows north of the Inn into the east-west route of the Inn Valley. This trade route ran on the climatically favorable, because sunlit south side of the Karwendel and was therefore faster snow-free in spring.

In the Middle Ages there was a castle of the Counts of Andechs on the rock of Ambras south of the Inn since the 10th century. A few kilometers south of the Inn was also the Veldidena fort (with origins in the Veldidena Roman camp), where Wilten Abbey was founded in 1138. Wilten only became part of Innsbruck as a cadastral municipality in 1904. The ferry crosses the Inn. In 1133 the castle of the Counts of Andechs was destroyed by the warring Wittelsbachers under Heinrich von Bayern, the counts relocated to the north side of the Inn, and a market town is created near Mariahilf.

The first bridge over the Inn was built sometime between 1133 and 1180; it was first mentioned in 1187 as "Insprucke". The name Innsbruck is derived in Latin from Oeni Pons or Oenipontum (from Oenus for Inn and Pons for bridge). Between 1187 and 1205 the market was granted city rights, south of the bridge is today's old town, which was still fortified at the time. Innsbruck quickly gains wealth and prosperity from the customs revenue, as all trade made its way through the city via the Brenner Pass. The Innsbruck city coat of arms has been in use since 1267, it shows the Inn Bridge from a bird's eye view, in 1281 the extension to include the Neustadt (the area around Maria-Theresien-Straße) takes place.

In 1363 Innsbruck and the Tyrolean counties fell to the Habsburgs and Austria, under Duke Friedrich IV (Friedrich with the empty pocket) the royal court of Tyrol was relocated from Meran to Innsbruck, after which the city experienced its absolute heyday under Emperor Maximilian I. . The University of Innsbruck is founded on October 15, 1669. Under Empress Maria Theresa, the city experienced another boom, the Hofburg was converted into a baroque palace and the triumphal gate was rebuilt.

The 19th century is quite turbulent at the beginning; After Napoleon's victory over Austria in 1805, Tyrol passed to the Bavarians, who were friends with the French. The liberation struggles follow, Andreas Hofer wins first on Berg Isel in 1809 and then three more battles, the fourth is lost, Tyrol falls back to Bavaria and only becomes Austrian property again in 1814. In 1849 Innsbruck officially replaced Merano in South Tyrol as the capital of Tyrol.

 

The railway line has been running from Munich via Kufstein and the Lower Inn Valley to Innsbruck since 1858. With the opening of the Brennerbahn in 1867, the Arlbergbahn in 1884 and the train to Mittenwald in 1912, the city also became a traffic junction in the railway network and, along with its easy accessibility, also became a tourist center.

The founding period (1848 to 1918) brought a building boom in Innsbruck, numerous public buildings, villas and churches were built in the style of historicism (neo-Gothic, neo-Romanesque).

Numerous artists are also active in Innsbruck, the "Brenner Circle" around the magazine "Brenner", founded in 1910 by the publisher Ludwig von Ficker, names writers such as the expressionist poet Georg Trakl, Else Lasker-Schüler, Ludwig Wittgenstein and Adolf Loos.

During the Second World War, Innsbruck, the capital of the Reichsgau Tirol-Vorarlberg, suffered 22 air raids by the Allies, some with severe damage. After the war, it was quickly rebuilt under the French occupation.

In 1964 and 1976 Innsbruck hosted the Winter Olympics, which brought the city not only the sports facilities but also numerous modernization measures in road construction. The 1st Winter Youth Olympic Games took place in Innsbruck in January 2012.

Tourism
With an annual added value of around 400 million euros in Innsbruck and the 24 villages around the city, tourism is an important pillar of the regional economy. There are a total of 2.1 million overnight stays in the region (with 15,900 guest beds). In addition, there are 4 million day visitors annually (figures from Innsbruck Tourismus as of 04-2010).

Despite the large number of visitors, tourism is mainly concentrated in the city center with Maria Theresienstraße and the historic old town. Apart from a few peripheral sights such as Bergiselschanze or Ambras Castle, few tourists leave this area.

 

Travel Destinations in Innsbruck

Museum Maximilianeum (Innsbruck)

Goldenes Dachl (Innsbruck)

Hofburg (Innsbruck)

Hogkirche (Innsbruck)

Domkirche St. Jakob (Innsbruck)

Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum (Innsbruck)

Tiroler Volkskunstmuseum (Innsbruck)

 

Getting there

By plane
Innsbruck has an international airport in the west of the city, Innsbruck Airport (IATA Code: INN). There are regular flights from Frankfurt am Main, Amsterdam, Vienna, Graz, Hanover and London, and there are also charter flights from several European regions, especially in winter.

During the day, bus line F runs from the airport every 15 minutes to the main station and the city center.

By train
Innsbruck's main train station is the city's most important train station. It is located east of the city center on Südtiroler Platz, from where the city center and the old town are easy to reach. In the urban area are also the Westbahnhof, the Hötting train station and the stations Allerheiligenhöfe and Kranebitten. There are international train connections from Zurich several times a day, from Munich and Vienna every 2 hours and from Verona / Bozen. (OEBB.at)

The ÖBB also offers some night train lines that run through Innsbruck or have as an end point. On some, it is also possible to transport a car.

By bus
The bus station is located directly at the main train station. From here regional buses run to parts of the Upper and Lower Inn Valley, to the Seefeld Plateau, to the Wipptal and individual courses also to the Ötz and Zillertal. Long-distance buses from Germany to Innsbruck (Munich - Garmisch-Partenkirchen - Innsbruck) have been running since 2014. At € 11 they are an alternative to train travel.

By street
Innsbruck can be reached by road via the Inntal motorway A12, which runs in a west-east direction (Kufstein - Innsbruck - Zams) through Tyrol and from the south via the Brenner motorway A13. In Austria, all motorways are subject to tolls (vignette - sticker!), The Brenner motorway costs an additional € 9.50 for cars per direction (4/2019).

From the north (D) it is also possible to travel to Innsbruck toll-free via the Garmisch area (A95 from Munich) via the Zirlerberg and then via the B171 to Innsbruck. The route from Munich is even a little shorter than the motorway route via Kufstein, but there is also a lot of rush hour traffic, especially on weekdays.

If possible, you should avoid driving around the city center of Innsbruck, the parking situation in the city is extremely bad: Free parking spaces are expensive short-term parking zones in large parts of the city. Most of the city center is also a paid short-term parking zone (half an hour € 0.70); the old town itself is largely a pedestrian zone or traffic-calmed.

If it cannot be avoided, there are garages and multi-storey car parks near the center. The multi-storey car parks are also expensive (approx. € 2.50 per hour, no time graduation), so the costs for a stay of several hours can quickly reach double digits. In addition, the parking space for the cars is also very well used, the parking garages are pretty tight.

It is therefore advisable for longer visits to park the car outside and take public transport into the city.

 

Around the city

Local public transport is organized by the Innsbrucker Verkehrsbetriebe, the Innbus and the Verkehrsverbund Tirol as well as some private companies.

Train
A regional train system similar to the S-Bahn (Tirol Takt) connects Innsbruck with its eastern, western, southern and northwestern suburbs. In the city area, next to the main train station, there is the Westbahnhof and the stations Hötting, Allerheiligenhöfe and Kranebitten. Inner-city VVT tickets are also valid within this area.

tram
Innsbruck has a tram network that partially extends into the surrounding area (called tram in Innsbruck), but no subway. The two railways to the surrounding area (line STB to Fulpmes and line 6 to Igls) are very scenic. Line 3 connects the Amras district with the Höttinger Au. Line 1 to the Mühlau district with Wilten. The main transfer hubs are the main train station and the market square. Time and multi-trip tickets can either be bought in tobacconists (kiosks), at machines or (only single trips) directly from the driver. On the tram line to Fulpmes you can also get discounted tickets with the ÖBB half-price pass. A limited number of bicycles can be taken on all urban lines.

By bus
There is an extensive bus network. Caution is advised with the line names, as many bus lines divide into several branches with sometimes completely different destinations, which were once independent lines. It is advisable to always pay attention to the destination information, the stop displays and the automatic announcements in the vehicles. The TS bus line can be used with a special ticket and connects the city center with the sights of Ambras Castle, Bergisel and Alpenzoo. Use is free with the Innsbruck Card.

Night bus network
The night bus routes NL1, NL2, NL3, NL4, NL5, NL10, NL10a, NL11, NL12 and NL13 connect almost all parts of the city and many surrounding communities every hour between 11 p.m. and 5 a.m. Lines NL1 to NL3 run seven days a week, NL4 to NL13 only on Friday and Saturday nights and on the nights before public holidays. Normal core zone tickets, including time tickets, are valid for all night lines in the city. There are special tariffs outside the core zone. ASTI (collective call taxis) operate in the unused districts and surrounding communities. The central night bus hub is the main train station.

Regional bus network
Regional bus routes serve all surrounding communities and suburbs. The regional bus node is the bus station at the main train station.

cable railway
The valley station of the funicular to the Hungerburg is near the old town at the congress, see also the mountain railways section below.

By bicycle
A relatively large number of cycle paths and cycle lanes as well as numerous bicycle parking facilities make bicycles the ideal means of transport of choice for shorter distances in the city.

The city bike rental system, which is operated by the transport company, has existed since 2014. This requires registration with a credit card via or directly at the machine on site. The rental costs € 1.00 for the first half hour, € 2.00 for the next half hour and € 3.00 for each additional hour. The locations are shown below.

Fiaker
There is also the possibility of exploring the city in proper style in a horse-drawn carriage. The location of the horse-drawn carriages is the Europaratsallee between the State Theater and the Congress.

Fiakerei Gritscher, Eggenwaldweg 50, 6020 Innsbruck phone = +43 (0) 512 264885.
www.fiaker.co.at/ (Fiaker agency for all of Austria). Tel .: +43 (0) 1966 02 61.