Salzburg (pronounced Soizbuag in Bavarian-Austrian dialect)
(Latin Iuvavum or Salisburgum) is the capital of the country of the
same name in the Republic of Austria. With 155,021 inhabitants (as
of January 1, 2020), it is the fourth largest city in Austria after
Vienna, Graz and Linz. It is located in the Salzburg basin.
Characteristic for the city are the city mountains, the Salzach
flowing through the city and the Hohensalzburg fortress visible from
afar. The north-west of the statutory city of Salzburg borders on
Freilassing in Germany (Free State of Bavaria, Berchtesgadener Land
district), the rest of the city borders on the Salzburg-Umgebung
district, commonly known as "Flachgau".
In 488 the decline of the Roman city of Iuvavum began in the same place. Salzburg was re-established in 696 as a bishopric and in 798 as the seat of the archbishop. The main sources of income for Salzburg were salt mining and trading, and at times gold mining. The core of the Hohensalzburg Fortress dates from the 11th century. It is one of the largest medieval castles in Europe and a symbol of the city. From the 17th century, Archbishop Wolf Dietrich and his successors lavishly furnished the city as a royal seat. At this time, Hellbrunn Palace was built in the south of the city, complete with palace gardens, water features and avenues. The most famous Salzburg composer is Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who was born here in 1756, which is why the city is nicknamed "Mozart City" and the airport is called "Salzburg Airport W. A. Mozart". The historic center of the city has been on the UNESCO World Heritage List since 1996.
Today Salzburg is an important exhibition and congress location with many trade and service companies as well as an efficient tourism sector. In addition, the city is internationally significant thanks to the Salzburg Festival, which earned it the nickname “Festival City”. Due to its convenient location, the city of Salzburg forms the core of the cross-border "EuRegio Salzburg - Berchtesgadener Land - Traunstein". It is also a junction for important road and rail routes in west-east traffic (Innsbruck-Salzburg-Vienna) as well as transalpine and north-south (Munich-Salzburg-Villach).
Salzburg is probably most famous as a birthplace of Mozart
Hohensalzburg Fortress (Salzburg)
Salzburg Dom (Salzburg)
Tel (0662) 804 77950
Open: May- Oct 10am- 5pm Mon- Sat, 11am- 6pm Sun and holidays, Nov- Jan 10am- 5pm daily
Salzburg Dom or Salzburg Cathedral is the largest church in Salzburg. Like other buildings of its kind Salzburg Dom stands in the historical center of the city. Any walk through old part of town should start here. The baroque building has a length of 101 meters, the transept measures 69 meters. The tower height is 81 meters, the dome height 79 meters and the height of the main nave 32 meters. The cathedral has 900 seats. It is a listed building and belongs to the UNESCO World Heritage Historic Center of Salzburg.
The first Romanesque cathedral was a three-aisled basilica with an upstream paradise and its own baptistery. The Romanesque building was completed in 774. Abbot Bishop Virgil inaugurated the sacred building on September 25, 774. On the night of 4 to 5 April 1167 the cathedral burned down. Allegedly, the Counts of Plain commissioned the emperor Frederick Barbarossa to set the city on fire because Archbishop Conrad II of Babenberg did not recognize the antipope Victor IV appointed by the emperor (see also Schism of 1159 ). It was under Bishop Konrad III the even stately five-aisled (or three-nave with rows of lateral chapels) Konradinische Dom built, then the largest basilica north of the Alps.
St. Peter Bezirk
Tel. (0662) 844 576- 0
Open: 8am- 12pm, 4:30- 6:30pm
Benedictine abbey of Saint Peter was founded by Saint Rupert in 690 AD. Private residence of archbishops of the Abbey was situated here prior to 1110. Abbey of St. Peter is a complex of religious and other buildings that date back to 17th and 18th centuries. It contains three courtyards and the monastery church. The interior of the abbey church of St.. Peter is decorated by the ornaments in the form of shells. Painting of the main altar and the 16 side altars are made by master from Krems, M.I. Schmidt. In the right nave you can see the burial spot of Saint Rupert, patron saint of Salzburg, those remains are kept here since 1444. Another notable feature of the main church in the monastery is a statue of Madonna the Beautiful that dates back to the 15th century. Next to the monastery you can visit the oldest city cemetery with Romanesque and Gothic chapels, monuments and fences of wrought iron. Additionally you can explore catacombs from the early Christian times, when it was used by hermit monks who settled here before anyone even settled here. It is the oldest existing monastery in the German-speaking world.
Tel. (0662) 841 6070
Open: Summer 7am- 7pm daily
winter 7am- 5pm
Stift Nonnberg, also Erin Monastery after the first abbess Erentrudis of Salzburg, is a Benedictine abbey in Salzburg. It is today the world's oldest Christian convent with an uninterrupted tradition. The entire Nonnberg Abbey, with its walls and archaeological find areas, is a listed building and belongs to the UNESCO World Heritage Historic Center of Salzburg.
The monastery Nonnberg was founded around 711/712
by St. Rupert on a terrace of the Salzburg fortress hill . The
nunnery occupied a particularly protected place in the city of
Salzburg in the partially preserved Roman fortification castrum
superior of Iuvavum. The niece (or relatives) Ruperts, Erentrudis,
became the first abbess. The foundation of the abbey Nonnberg was
carried out by the Bavarian Duke Theotbert . Once the monastery was
very rich. Among the goods in the early Middle Ages was also the
Nonntal, whose church was formerly a branch church of the monastery,
and the entire area between Salzach and Leopoldskroner Moor in the
south of the city, including the place Morzg and the houses of
Kleingmain and gneiss . Only in the 15th century settled there
peasant families who no longer worked on behalf of the monastery.
Until 1451, the monastery Nonnberg was reserved only for noble
women, with the end of the feudal Middle Ages also bourgeois women
were taken, until the 19th century, however, only serving sisters.
On July 20, 2017, the Convention of the post chose chaired by Archbishop Franz Lackner , the former prioress wife Veronika Kronlachner the new abbess of the Abbey Nonnberg and 93. successor of St. Erentrudis. The Äbtissinnenweihe gave her the archbishop on August 13, 2017 the Abbey Nonnberg.
Open: 7am- 4pm daily
Church and cemetery of Saint Sebastian was constructed in 19th century on a site of much older church. The cemetery of Saint Sebastian contains burials that date back to medieval times around 15th century. Among people buried here were parents of Mozart Leopold and his wife Constanze, Paracelsus father of pharmacology who died in Salzburg in 1541. In the centre of the cemetery you can find the chapel of the Archangel Gabriel and a mausoleum of Archbishop Wolf Dietrich. The history of St. Sebastian’s Church goes back to Archbishop Leonhard von Keutschach who ordered construction of the new church between 1505 and 1512. In the 18th century, St. Sebastian’s church – what was abandoned for quiet some time – was demolished and replaced by a hall church reflecting the style of the Late Baroque. Special features of St. Sebastian’s Church include the magnificent Rococo portal and an impressive gate separating the entrance porch from the main nave. The high altar is adorned by a wonderful Madonna with Child from the year 1611.
Tel. (0662) 80720
Open: 8am- 4pm Mon, Wed, Thu
1- 4pm Tue, Fri- Sat
Schloss Mirabell is a beautiful residence of a Baroque style that replaced more modest building from 1606. Archbishop Wolf Dietrich used former Schloss Mirabell residence as a home for his mistress Salome Alt, daughter of a Jewish merchant. Apparently it was a secret that was known to the whole town. She bore him 15 children.
The Mirabell Palace, today located in the new city
of Salzburg, was built around 1606 by Archbishop Wolf Dietrich von
Raitenau outside the then city walls for the beloved or secret wife
of the Archbishop, Salome Alt, and was initially called Altenau
Castle, It was "beautiful, large, well-kept, splendid, like a castle
or vestment, with a wrought-encrusted, opulent, glittering thurn,
and inside, also ornamented and beautiful outside with beautiful
gardens of all kinds of clover, pewter, and fruits." From this
building remains in the southwest corner of today's building in the
basement are preserved. For his 15 children, the prince, who was
always caring for his family, obtained from the emperor the
legitimacy of being a legitimate heir, and for children and
mistresses the elevation to the hereditary nobility. Mother and
children were now called Alt von Altenau . That did not help much
later. After the fall and the solitary confinement Wolf Dietrichs on
the fortress Hohensalzburg in 1612 expelled his successor and nephew
Markus Sittikus von Hohenems soon after, wife and children of
Altenau Castle. To completely erase the memory of his predecessor,
Markus Sittikus called the castle Mirabell . Mirabell is a feminine
given name from the Italian ( mirabile , admirable 'and bella ,
Prince Archbishop Paris of Lodron had 1620-1642 during the Thirty Years' War, the Mirabell Palace and associated gardens in the new strong fortification belt on the right bank of the Salzach involve. Unlike Markus Sittikus, he liked living in the castle and died here as well.
1710 and 1721 to 1727 was carried out by order of Archbishop Franz Anton von Harrach by the famous Baroque master builder Johann Lucas von Hildebrandt the conversion to the magnificent Baroque palace complex, a four-wing complex with courtyard, which is now used as a parking space. In 1818, a devastating city fire left a lot of damage. The castle was then in the prevailing classicist style after plans by Peter Nobile under the direction of Johann Georg von Hagenauerrebuilt. As a result, the building lost much of its former unique Baroque appearance. The mighty tower in the middle of the eastern facade was removed, the slender pediment with the east-facing slightly projecting corner risalites disappeared, as well as the badges richly decorated with numerous vases and 28 figures. Fortunately, the west-facing courtyard façade and the garden facade in the west remained largely intact. The rhythm of plastic protruding projections and well-articulated wall surfaces give an idea of the original appearance of the Baroque masterpiece, although here the artful roof attachment along with figures missing.
On June 1, 1815, Otto von Bayern , later King Otto I of Greece, was born in Mirabell Palace . Here, before 1849, the father of the Salzburg painter Hans Makart worked as a room supervisor. From 1851 to 1863 Archbishop Cardinal Maximilian Joseph of Tarnóczy resided in this castle . The aged Capuchin Father and Tyrolean freedom hero Joachim Haspinger († 1858) spent his last four years here in a ground floor apartment.
In 1866, the castle, together with the Kapuzinerberg, became the property of the city of Salzburg for compensation of 50,000 guilders. The Emperor had already donated the Mirabellgarten to the city two years earlier. Between 1947 and 1950, the offices of the mayor and his deputies were established here, as well as the magistrate's office and some municipal departments.
Tel. (0662) 88940
The Mozarteum or Mozarteum University, originally
called "Dommusikverein and Mozarteum", was founded on April 22, 1841
in Salzburg as a music school and for the collection of old Mozart
documents. Today, the term Mozarteum is understood to mean three
the University Mozarteum Salzburg - an art academy for music, drama and related subjects
the International Mozarteum Foundation - Concert Organizer, Music Collection and Research Institute
the Mozarteum Orchestra Salzburg - the symphony orchestra of the city and province of Salzburg
Actually, the Mozarteum is the building or the homestead of the Mozarteum Foundation in 5020 Salzburg, Schwarzstraße 26 (Austria) and then the namesake for later institutions and institutions. When it was founded, it was according to the memorial plaque laying the foundation stone in 1910 still "Mozarthaus". The Mozarteum Foundation was created with the construction of the building, which was opened on 29 September 1914 two concert halls, the "great hall" with an organ, as a separate building to the north and the smaller "Wiener Saal" in the main building. The "Great Hall" was then also the most important concert hall after the founding of the Salzburg Festivaland is today about the venue of the "matinees" of the Salzburg Festival. For this purpose, classrooms were created and a conservatory was founded, which also had a respectable music library and musicological literature. Even the "Salzburg Liedertafel" found its home in the Mozarteum until today. In a vacant lot, the Hanibalgasse, between the Landestheater and the Mozarteum, a casino was built. After its expulsion this house could be integrated as Hanibaltrakt into the Mozarteum (about 1970). There, a generous library was set up, in which records were already archived.
Tel. (0662) 842653-0
Daily 9:00 am to 5:00 pm (also on Sundays and public
holidays) Closed on December 24th until 4:00 pm on the 25th of
Adults: € 8,50
Children (4 to 15 years): € 6,00
The exhibitions at Haus der Natur (House of Nature) are spread over eight levels in two buildings. The classic natural history exhibitions and the zoo departments can be found in the main building. A glass staircase creates the connection to the neighboring Science Center and the current special exhibition.
Live animal husbandry fulfills many tasks. Visitors can observe exotic and native creatures up close and personal in habitats designed in close proximity to nature. They become acquainted with their behavior and their needs and in doing so acquire an understanding of the need for their protection. An essential task is also the preservation and successful further breeding of species whose survival in the wild is not assured.
The diverse underwater world of the aquarium contains creatures that can be as graceful as they are bizarre. Each basin forms a living ecosystem that resembles natural habitats down to the last detail. Thus, this aquarium scores with authenticity and animal relationships, as they are found in nature.
The largest aquarium holds 60,000 liters, accommodate animals from tropical coral reefs, the Mediterranean, from the waters of Africa, South America, Southeast Asia and not least from local rivers and lakes. The aquarium is a place of observation that will enchant you with incredible diversity, beauty and the extraordinary behavior of its inhabitants.
The bottom floor of the Science Center is all about energy and lifting. Clear experiments make it easier to understand the rules of the levers, and a large lifting platform allows you to float effortlessly through the room and, by the way, get to know the technology of hydraulic power transmission.
Another central topic: the generation of electricity from hydropower and solar energy. How do turbines work? How can you generate electricity with generators? Various experiments on solar power provide insights into the technology of photovoltaics. And the water-experimentation landscape invites you to wet your hands, to dam water, to lift and to pump and to discover the power that is in this water.
Acoustics and music
On the first floor, the Science Center is dedicated to the phenomena of acoustics. From the wave nature of sound, to the exploration of sounds and sounds, to the sound transmission to the human ear, everything is explored here around the topic of sound.
Tel. (0662) 844313
Open: 9am- 6pm daily
9am- 7pm Jul- Aug
Mozarts Geburtshaus is a birth place for most famous sons of Salzburg. It was here on 27 January 1756 that famous composer Mozart was born. He was the seventh child of Leopold Mozart, who was a musician of the Salzburg Royal Chamber. Located at building number 9 of the Getreidegasse, Mozart's family lived there from 1747 to 1773. Today the house houses a museum where various objects are exhibited. You can see some of the great composer's musical instruments, including his first child's violin , his concert violin , his clavichord , his harpsichord, as well as portraits and letters of the Mozart family.
The house was built in the 12th century on ground which had been part of the garden belonging to the Benedictine monks of St Peter's, Salzburg. Otto Keutzel, a merchant, is mentioned as the owner in 1408 while Chunrad Fröschmoser, the court apothecary, purchased the property in 1585. On the doorway, the coiled serpent in the lion's mouth, the symbol of Asclepius, still testifies to his ownership. In 1703, the house came into the ownership of the Hagenauer family who had arrived in Salzburg around 1670. Specifically they included Joseph Matin Hagenauer and Johann Laurenz Hagenauer who became Mozart's landlord.
Tel. (0662) 843 629
Open: 6am- 8pm daily
The Roman Catholic Franciscan Church or Franziskanerkirche is one of the oldest churches in the Old Town of Salzburg, and belongs to the Franciscan Monastery. It stands in the space between Franziskanergasse in the south and Sigmund-Haffner-Gasse in the west. The Franziskanerkirche consists of two parts: the original Romanesque nave basilica with its ribbed vault and then in the same width as the nave a delicate late Gothic choir with ribbed vault.
The first church "To Our Lady" is probably older than the cathedral of St. Virgil. It was built on an early Christian place of worship. In the first half of the eighth century, under the command of the abbot of Virgil (745-84), the church dedicated to Our Lady, named "Our Lady," was restored for the first time. It initially serves as a baptismal and synodal church. Until 1139 it belongs to the Benedictine monk pin St. Peter, between 1130 and 1583 it was then the parish church of the Benedictine nuns of the Benedictines, after 1189 she was until 1628 at the same time parish church of the city.
A new consecration of the church in 1223 suggests
a newly completed new construction, but the present church is
expected to date back to the 12th century in the nave area. This
Marienkirche was largely destroyed during the city fire of 1267.
After 1408, a large new building was considered, which began a few
years later under Master Hans von Burghausen and ended after his
death in 1432 by Stephan Krumenauer .
In 1592 Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau handed over the church to the newly formed Franciscans as a monastery church. In 1635, the cathedral finally became the new parish church. For a long time then the Romanesque-Gothic style of the church was considered backward and degenerate. Only the "Roman style" (renaissance and its further development in baroque and rococo) was regarded as aesthetic (the "barbaric" Goths had once defeated the "noble" Romans, only Goethe had called to rediscover the artistic value of the Gothic). This is what Archbishop Colloredo wanted lastThe "unsightly" church can be completely demolished and replaced by a "rotunda in Roman style" as a court chapel and as a mausoleum of the archbishops. In 1793 Colloredo gave this plan on the one hand because of inadequacies of construction workers in the demolition of the nearest Dietrichruh the Salzburg residence and on the other hand, for general "economic reasons" again.
Tel. (0662) 8042 2690
Open: 10am- 5pm daily
Closed: 2 weeks before and 1 week after Easter
Tel. (0662) 840451
Open: 9am- 5pm Tue- Sun
The Residenzplatz is a prestigious and splendid square in the center of the old town of Salzburg. The square is bordered to the west by the Old Residence, to the east by the New Residence with the ornate carillon and to the south by the cathedral. In the north, in a north-facing facade, the townhouses border the square, which in its core is based on medieval buildings. At this the to close St. Peter belongs Michael Church at. Then the square goes to Mozartplatzover. In the center of the Residenzplatz stands the 17th-century artistically designed Residenzbrunnen. The place is on the site of a former cemetery.
The place in its present size has arisen under the demolition of town houses and the removal of the old cathedral cemetery by Archbishop Wolf Dietrich and is related to the then transformation of Salzburg from a medieval city to a princely baroque residence city. In 1587, Wolf Dietrich began to demolish the old cathedral monastery and 55 town houses on the western end of the Pfeifergasse and to abandon the cathedral cemetery (called Aschhof). Once there were also parts of the old residence, the predecessor of the cathedral and the St. John's Court Chapel.
Neue Residenz Mozartplatz
Tel. (0662) 6208080
Open: 9am- 5pm Mon- Sun
9am- 8pm Thu
The Salzburg Museum in the New Residence ,
formerly Carolino Augusteum (SMCA), is a museum of art and cultural
history of the city and province of Salzburg. Today, the Museum as
an organization also includes the Panorama, Fortress, Folklore,
Domingue, Toy Museum, and the Celtic Museum Hallein. The museum is
part of the UNESCO World Heritage Historic Center of Salzburg.
The Beginnings of the Museum - The Provincial Museum
Today's Salzburg Museum was founded in 1834 as the Municipal Arsenal in Salzburg by Vinzenz Maria Süß . In 1835, with the visit of the county governor Albert Graf Montecuccoli, the exhibition of weapons, books, documents, coins and minerals became accessible to the general public. Thanks to the support of the mayor of Salzburg, Alois Lergetporer , additional rooms were added to the former municipal cereal magazine at Unteren Gries (today Franz-Josef-Kai 17) in the following years. The exhibited objects and also the financial income of the 1836 already as an urban museum designated institute existed until 1844 exclusively from donations citizens of Salzburg.
Tel. (0662) 849097
Open: Jan- March, Oct- 20 Dec 2pm
June, Sept 2pm and 3:30pm
Jul- Aug 9:30am, 2pm, 3:30pm
The Great Festival Hall in Salzburg (from 1960 to
1962 New Festival Hall, since 1963 the Great Festival Hall) is one
of the venues of the Salzburg Festival and is located in the Old
Town, it is partly built into the Mönchsberg.
Former prince-archbishop court stables
The Große Festspielhaus, together with the Haus für Mozart , (formerly the Kleinen Festspielhaus ), the Felsenreitschule and the Stadtsaal, belonged to the former prince-archbishop's court stables ( Hofmarstall ) . They were built under the Archbishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau 1606 and 1607, the facility also included the Marstallschwemme on today's Herbert von Karajan Square. In 1662 this building was extended and the winter riding school was established, in the place of which today is the house for Mozart . A further expansion took place under archbishopJohann Ernst von Thun . The summer riding school , the today's Felsenreitschule, and the facade of the northern narrow side to the Herbert von Karajan place and to the Marstallschwemme out after plans of Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach 1693/94 was designed.
Hofstallkaserne and Haus der Natur
After the end of the archbishopric 1803 the house was a cavalry barracks , the Hofstallkaserne . The riding school was adapted in 1841 as kk cavalry riding hall, extended and covered. 1859 was an increase of the main house. The cavalry divisions were housed until the second third of the 19th century , from then mixed also artillery. After the First World War , the First Armed Forces were also stationed here.
From the foundation in 1924, the house of nature also found its place, which moved in 1959 in the abandoned Ursuline convent.
Tel. (0662) 874 227
Open: Sept- Jun 9am- 6pm daily
Jul- Aug 9am- 7pm daily
Makartplatz or Square of Makart is named after
famous Salzburg born painter Hans Makart. The decision to change the
name was taken on May 5, 1879. In earlier times it was called
Hannibalplatz, after Jakob Hannibal von Raitenau, the second oldest
brother of Archbishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau, who owned a palace
here. In 1829, Johann Michael Sattler exhibited his completed
Salzburg panorama in a transportable pavilion. Between 1934 and 1938
the Makartplatz said Dr. Dollfuss Square after the 1934 Nazi
murdered -Putschisten austrofaschistischen Chancellor Dr. Engelbert
Dollfuss. After joining the German Reich in 1938 , he was called for
a few weeks Adolf Hitler Square and since then again Makartplatz.
Until 1907 stood directly opposite the Holy Trinity Church in today's green area of the square, the municipal pawnshop. Thus, Fischer von Erlach, the architect of the Trinity Church, had already consciously adapted the facade of the church to a street situation and not to a place situation. This fact is never mentioned in discussions in the 21st century around a redesign.
On February 20, 1953, the Salzburg City Association presented the design of the architects Otto Prossinger and Felix Cevela, who envisaged a total abandonment of the park. According to proposals of the municipality should create a parking lot in the middle of the Makartplatzes instead of the green space. Finally, the plan was implemented by Stadtgartendirektor Otto Kreiner with a green area in the middle of the square.
Tel. (0662) 841 327
Open: 9am- 7pm Mon- Sat, Sun
Dec- Jan 10am- dusk
The Kollegienkirche in Salzburg is the church of
the University of Salzburg and comes from the Baroque period . It is
located at the University Square. The patronal feast is the
Immaculate Conception of Mary , the patronal feast , in Austria a
solemnity and public holiday , is celebrated on 8 December. The
church is a listed building and is part of the UNESCO World Heritage
historical center of the city of Salzburg .
Prince-Archbishop Paris of Lodron planned the construction of this own Roman Catholic University Church of Salzburg on the grounds of the former women's garden. It would take more than 70 years before the new church was completed by the architect Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach , and inaugurated in 1707 in honor of the Immaculate Virgin Mary. Until the construction of the Collegiate Church , the Great Hall of the University (next to the small house chapel Saecellum ) not only served as a theater hall, but together with the small Sacellum also served as a sacred space for the worship services of the university. Also Guidobald von Thun and Max Gandolf von Kuenburgcould not fulfill the promise of the church construction. Prince-Archbishop Johann Ernst von Thun first set up church construction against resistance. Above all Josef von Kuenburg defended himself because in his opinion his Kuenburgscher Langenhof on Kirchgasse (now Sigmund-Haffner-Gasse) would be affected.
In the time of the occupation by Napoleon and the French troops, the Kollegienkirche demonstratively served as a military haylage. After the dissolution of the university, it became a garrison church in the time of the monarchy. In 1922 the Church as part of the Salzburg Festival for the first time Great Salzburg World Theater by Hugo von Hofmannsthal instead. The Kollegienkirche is still the venue of the Salzburg Festival.
Since 1964 the Kollegienkirche is again a university church. May 18, 2008, she received the rank of parish church of the University Parish Prison (Hochschulgemeinde Salzburg), as a personal parish . University pastor is since 2013 Dr. Johann Wilhelm Klaushofer (as of August 2014). A general restoration of this ancient church was urgently needed last, as well as supporting elements of the wooden roof truss were heavily infested with fungus. First, the chapel of St. Ivo was restored. In 2010, the apse was restored. At the end of 2013, the general refurbishment was largely completed.
Early history and the Bavarian period
The area of the city has been continuously populated since the Neolithic period until today. In the La Tène period it was an administrative center of the Celtic alums in the Kingdom of Noricum. The population on the city mountains was reduced after the Roman invasion in 15 BC. Moved to the old town according to Roman town planning. Since Emperor Claudius, the new city was one of the most important cities of the now Roman province of Noricum as Municipium Claudium Iuvavum. After the province of Noricum was abandoned in 488 at the beginning of the Great Migration, part of the Romanoceltic population remained in the country. In the 6th century the Bavarians took over the land. Bishop Rupert received the remains of the Roman city from Duke Theodo II of Bavaria around 696 AD in order to evangelize the country in the east and south-east. He renewed the St. Peter monastery and founded the Benedictine women's monastery in Nonnberg. The state of Salzburg and its counties soon gained more and more influence and power within Bavaria as a result of the flourishing salt mining and extensive missionary activities.
In 996 Salzburg was made by Emperor Otto III. Market, coin and toll rights were granted, and a city judge was mentioned in a document in 1120/30. The oldest known town charter dates from 1287.
Prince-Archbishop's residence city
Since the battle of Mühldorf in 1322, the archbishopric was hostile to the motherland of Bavaria. As a result, Salzburg became an independent prince-archbishopric in the Roman-German Empire. The economic boom of the city in the 15th century led to a self-confident middle class with increasing rights and duties. Archbishop Leonhard von Keutschach, who was economically very successful, ended this autonomy by force. A few years after Martin Luther's theses were posted, the majority of the city's population was close to Protestantism, and the indomitable Protestants were all expelled from the country until 1590. The criticism of the archbishop's authoritarian power increased under Keutschach. In 1525 rebellious miners and farmers besieged the Hohensalzburg fortress, in which Archbishop Matthäus Lang von Wellenburg had entrenched himself. Only with the help of bought troops from the Swabian Federation could the rebels be forced to retreat. Around 1600 the prince-archbishopric was one of the richest principalities in the Roman-German Empire due to salt and gold mining. At that time, Archbishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau redesigned the old town center. The large late Romanesque cathedral was demolished and rebuilt in the early baroque style by Markus Sittikus.
Paris von Lodron managed to keep Salzburg out of the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) through a clever policy of neutrality. The city grew into one of the best fortified cities in Europe. (See also article fortifications of the city of Salzburg).
Salzburg soon became a center of the Counter Reformation, in which monasteries, a seminary and numerous baroque churches were built, and a large number of the residents were grouped together in lay brotherhoods. In the years between 1675 and 1690 the magic boy trials took place in Salzburg, as a result of which over 150 people were executed for alleged witchcraft. Most of them were boys and young people.
In 1732, under Archbishop Leopold Anton von Firmian, most of the Protestants remaining in the country were forced to emigrate (Salzburg exiles).
Under Archbishop Hieronymus Franz Josef Colloredo von Wallsee and Mels, Salzburg became a center of the Late Enlightenment from 1772 to 1800, when science and the arts flourished.
Part of Austria
In 1803 Salzburg became a secularized electorate by order of Napoleon Bonaparte, in 1805 it was added to the new Austrian Empire together with Berchtesgaden and in 1810 it was re-incorporated into the Kingdom of Bavaria. In 1800, 1805 and again in 1809, Salzburg was occupied and looted by Napoleonic troops.
In 1816, with the Treaty of Munich, most of the state of Salzburg fell back to the Austrian Empire and thus under the Habsburg government. Salzburg was at first a minor district town in the Crown Land of Upper Austria, to which only a few painters and writers, in addition to a few spa guests, got lost. But they were enchanted by the beauty of the city and their reports made Salzburg more and more a destination for tourists. On April 30, 1818, a fire broke out in the city for four days. Around a hundred houses were destroyed. The demolition of the city fortifications began in 1860; they were mainly used as building material for the new slaughtering of the Salzach. In the same year, the people of Salzburg cheered the opening of the Vienna - Salzburg and Salzburg - Munich rail lines. This ensured a strong growth of the city and made trade and commerce flourish.
In the period between 1935 and 1939, various neighboring towns were incorporated. From 1938 onwards, political opponents as well as Jews and other minorities were arrested and deported during the Nazi regime. Prisoners of war kept the economy going. American aerial bombs damaged large parts of the city in 1944/45. Colonel Hans Lepperdinger saved the city in 1945 by refusing to give orders by handing it over to the Americans without a fight. After the end of the war, Salzburg was the seat of the US High Command. In the first post-war years, the city was marked by the misery of the refugees. The barracks could only gradually be replaced by the construction of new parts of the city. In 1962 the university, which was dissolved in 1810, was re-established. In the period that followed, Salzburg became an economically successful city of trade, trade fairs and tourism.
The city of Salzburg lies on the northern edge of the Alps, in the middle of the Salzburg basin. The historic old town is located on the Salzach and is bordered by the fortress and Mönchsberg and its western foothills, the Rainberg.
East of the old town center rise on the right bank of the Salzach the Kapuzinerberg and the small Bürglstein, in the south of the city the Hellbrunner Berg and the Morzger Hügel, west of the district Alt Liefering the small Grafenhügel. In the southwest, the 1973 m high Untersberg, accessible by a cable car, borders the city. The landscape dominates in the west of the Hohe Stauffen and in the south the Salzburg Kalkhochalpen with Göll, Hagengebirge and Tennengebirge. In the east, the 1288 m high Stadtberg Gaisberg and the Osterhorn group form the border of the Salzburg basin. North of the city, the foot of the Plainberg reaches the city area with the pilgrimage basilica Maria Plain. To the northeast, the hilly landscape of the Flachgau joins the foothills of the Alps, with the Haunsberg as the last Alpine foothill. A closed alluvial forest belt along the Salzach and Saalach extends in the north into the urban area.
The alluvial forest west of the Saalach and the hilly country behind it, the Högl, already belong to the Berchtesgadener Land district in Bavaria. In the northwest, the Bavarian Freilassing, only separated by the Saalach, borders on the Salzburg district of Liefering-Rott.
The old town in the Salzburg basin is 420 to 426 m high. The highest point in the urban area is the Gaisbergspitze at 1288 m, the mouth of the Saalach at the foot of the embankment is the lowest at 404 m. The municipal area covers 65.65 km², 2238 hectares of which are building land (34.0%), 503 hectares of traffic area (7.7%), 1080 hectares of forest (16.5%) and 342 hectares of water (5.2%).
Independently of the historical cadastral communities, the city is divided into 24 districts and three adjacent landscape areas. The historic core of the city is formed by the old town to the left and right of the Salzach (district of Salzburg's old town), to which the old suburbs “Mülln” and “Nonntal” connect, dating back to the Middle Ages.
Around 1900, the “Riedenburg” district was built west of the old town. The Andräviertel (Neustadt) was formed in the area of the demolished bastions and barracks on the right bank. The “Elisabeth-Vorstadt” district was built to the west of the main train station. The “Lehen” district developed in the northern part of Mülln.
The districts of Aigen, Parsch, Itzling and Gneis were essentially built after 1900. The once independent villages, later suburbs Maxglan in the west, Liefering in the northwest, Gnigl in the east and Morzg in the south became districts in the interwar period. During this time, the continuously built-up strip of settlement along Moosstrasse in Leopoldskron-Moos gradually formed.
After 1950, the youngest settlement center was Salzburg-Süd with the parts Josefiau, Herrnau and Alpensiedlung. The districts of Langwied, Kasern, Taxham and Schallmoos also date from the middle of the 20th century as an extension of old Umstadtdörfer, as well as the Itzling Nord district in the north as a young settlement splinter, which seamlessly connects to the settlement area of the Bergheim community. The small settlements of Eichethofsiedlung and Birkensiedlung are also just south of Gneiss. They are summarized under the name Gneiss Süd. South of the airport is the Maxglan West district, which includes the Kendler settlement and the small former hamlets of Pointing and Loig. The Kendlersiedlung continues in the houses of the Glansiedlung, which already belong to the municipality of Wals-Siezenheim. The groups of houses Pointing and Loig connect to the Walser Himmelreich. Outside the settlement areas, in the urban area of Salzburg are the closed landscape areas Hellbrunn, as well as Gaisberg and Heuberg at the foot of the city mountain Gaisberg.
Salzburg is divided into 14 cadastral communities (area as of December 31, 2019):
Salzburg (878.46 ha)
Aigen I (834.65 ha)
Gnigl (282.85 ha)
Itzling (276.86 ha)
Leopoldskron (869.35 ha)
Liefering I (664.67 ha)
Maxglan (621.59 ha)
Morzg (983.22 ha)
On the outskirts are:
Bergheim II (149.65 ha)
Gaisberg I (427.86 ha)
Hallwang II (294.08 ha)
Heuberg I (28.75 ha)
Siezenheim II (203.05 ha)
Wals II (50.16 ha)
The names of the districts as functional units largely correspond to the cadastral communities of the same name, the boundaries of which were largely determined in the early 19th century (before 1830). The name Aigen I means that the former municipality of Aigen was largely incorporated into the city of Salzburg in 1939. The remaining very small part was assigned to the neighboring municipality of Elsbethen as a very small separate cadastral community under the name Aigen II.
Salzburg Airport W. A. Mozart, Salzburg's international airport, is located in the west of the city, directly on the A1 (exit 297). From Germany you can get to the airport by bypassing the freeway from Freilassing via the B155 and B1. The train stations Salzburg Hauptbahnhof and w: Bahnhof Freilassing are geographically about the same distance (5 km), but there is no direct connection to the one in Freilassing by public transport. The airport is connected to Salzburg city center by bus line 2, which runs every 10 minutes during the day, and bus line 10, which runs every 15 minutes.
There are flight connections from many cities in the German-speaking area and other intra-European connections, also with various low-cost airlines. In addition, flights are offered to holiday regions.
Munich Airport is a suitable alternative airport (150 km away, approx. 2 ½ hours by train from Salzburg or Freilassing).
From Munich you can reach Salzburg in two hours with the Bayern-Ticket for 26-58 €, the Bayern-Ticket-Nacht for 24-44 € or the Quer-durch-Land-Ticket for 44-76 €, the price for the above Tickets are graded according to the number of travelers (1-2-3-4-5 people). With the IC / EC you can travel for 32 € in 1 hour 41 minutes, with the Railjet for 36 € in 1 hour 28 minutes and with the Meridian for 30.10 € in 1 hour 46 minutes (as of 05-2015). When arriving by trains that may end in Freilassing (from Landshut, Mühldorf am Inn as well as Berchtesgaden, Bad Reichenhall) there is a half-hourly connection in Freilassing to Salzburg with lines S 2 (Freilassing - Salzburg - Straßwalchen), S 3 (Bad Reichenhall - Freilassing - Salzburg - Hallein - Golling-Abtenau - Schwarzach-St.Veit) and individual trains of the S 4 (Berchtesgaden - Bad Reichenhall - Freilassing (- Salzburg)) of the Salzburg S-Bahn as well as the Meridian and regional trains of the DB Regio.
From / to Vienna the trains of the Westbahn are significantly cheaper than those of the ÖBB. Since December 2017 every half hour during the day. Tickets are available in tobacconists or on the train (not at the ÖBB counters).
Salzburg's main train station is located on Südtiroler Platz in the northeast of the city center. From the station forecourt there, the city center can be reached by numerous buses in 5 to 10 minutes. The final stop of the “Salzburger Lokalbahn” for the S-Bahn line 1 northbound (Bergheim (Flachgau), Oberndorf bei Salzburg, Lamprechtshausen) is also at the same location. In addition, there is a connection in the main station to the S2 to the east (Seekirchen am Wallersee, Straßwalchen) and to the S3 to the south (Hallein, Golling an der Salzach). Along the Freilassing - Salzburg Hbf railway line, on which the S-Bahn line 3 (Golling-Abtenau - Bad Reichenhall) runs, there are four stations in the Salzburg city area, Salzburg Liefering near the Saalachufer, Salzburg Taxham Europark train station (near the Europark shopping center) , Salzburg Aiglhof, near the Salzburg State Hospital and Salzburg Mülln-Altsadt train station (walking distance to the city center and old town) The next stop on the German route network is Freilassing.
From Salzburg Hbf there are direct connections to Munich with the Railjet, to Frankfurt am Main, Zurich and Budapest with IC, to Landshut in regional traffic, in inner-Austrian long-distance traffic to Bregenz via Innsbruck, to Vienna via Linz, to Klagenfurt and Graz. Salzburg is also served by three Nightjet lines, the NJ 294 (Munich-Salzburg-Florence-Rome), the NJ 40295 (Munich-Salzburg-Verona-Milan) and the EN40463 (Munich-Salzburg-Treviso-Venice). The Wels train station, which is about 25 minutes' drive from Salzburg, offers the opportunity to change to the ICE connection Dortmund - Düsseldorf - Cologne - Koblenz - Frankfurt (Main) - Mainz - Würzburg - Nuremberg - Regensburg - Passau - Wels - Linz - St.Pölten - Vienna.
Other stops in Salzburg are served by S-Bahn trains. Salzburg Süd is also served by IC in the direction of Klagenfurt.
Long-distance buses from and to Munich and other European cities stop at the long-distance bus stop Salzburg-Ladenstraße at the northern entrance and exit to the main train station (with access to the trains and the possibility of passing through to the stops of the city and regional buses on the station forecourt (entrance and exit south side) A city bus line also runs from the north side of the station to the city center.
By car, Salzburg can be reached via the A1 West Autobahn, the A10 Tauern Autobahn and, from Germany, the A8. There is a charge to use the motorways throughout Austria. The vignettes required for this are available in variants for one year, two months or 10 days at many petrol stations near the border, at tobacco shops (tobacco shops) and from the ÖAMTC and ARBÖ traffic clubs. The vignette is mandatory from the border. Vignette-free can be reached from the A8 via the Symbol exit: AS 115 Bad Reichenhall then via the B20 to Freilassing and via the Saalach bridge to Salzburg. The vignette requirement generally applies not only to cars, but to all vehicles, including motorcycles, scooters, quads and trikes, etc. on motorways and expressways.
To visit the city, it is advisable to park your car at one of the Park & Ride car parks on the outskirts and switch to public transport there, as parking within the city is chargeable. In addition, large parts of the old town consist of pedestrian zones or meeting zones anyway. All parking areas in the city center are short-term parking zones with 3 hours of parking time, which are chargeable Mon - Fri from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. From 11 a.m. all bollards will be raised. If you don't get out on time, you have to collect an exit code from the police for a fee. Hotel guests with a reservation can drive in and out once via certain entrances.
If you still want to drive into the city by car, it is best to park in the old town garages - Mönchsberggaragen. The parking fee is up to € 3 per hour, the daily maximum is € 18. There are 1296 parking spaces available, vehicles with LPG and motorcycles are not allowed. The height is only 2.05 m.
Park and Ride (P + R)
Park-and-ride facilities in the Salzburg city area:
Salzburg Süd train station, line S 3 R, REX and trolleybus lines 3, 7 and 8
Salzburg Airport, trolleybus routes 2 and 10 and regional bus route 27
Exhibition center Salzburg, trolleybus lines 1 and 8
Designer Outlet Salzburg, trolleybus lines 2 and 10
Further park-and-ride facilities are located in the Salzburg area, which are served by the Salzburg S-Bahn, regional trains and regional buses.
Congestion management in July and August
On bad weather days in July and August, visitor traffic is diverted to the P&R Messe in Munich's main road and to the P&R airport in Innsbruck's main road. Excluded are vehicles from people with hotel reservations, disabled people and vehicles from the Berchtesgadener Land and Traunstein districts. A day network ticket for max. 5 people included in the bus service.
Salzburg lies on the Salzach, which is only partially navigable. In the warm season, the river is only used with the excursion boat “Amadeus”, which runs from the center to the pier in Hellbrunn in the south of the city and back. It is not possible to arrive with your own boat.
From the north and south, Salzburg can be reached via the Tauern bike path along the Salzach. There are also other long-distance or themed cycle paths that pass Salzburg. The Mozart cycle path, designed as a circular route, has its fictitious starting and ending point in Salzburg.
If you come from Freilassing by bike from the German side, you have a longer, but car-free journey to the center on bike paths if you first follow it downstream after crossing the border river Saalach and then upstream at its confluence with the Salzach (length: 9 km from the border to the central state bridge).
Salzburg is located on two long-distance hiking trails:
Way of St. James Austria
European long-distance hiking trail E10
The Arnoweg, a long-distance hiking trail leading in various routes through the state of Salzburg, also runs through Salzburg.
Local public transport is
operated by the transport division of the infrastructure company
Salzburg AG. Within the city, trolleybuses that are mostly powered
by electricity are used on lines 1 - 14. There is also a private bus
company, and the S 2 and S 3 S-Bahn lines are operated by the
Austrian Federal Railways (ÖBB). They are all part of the Salzburg
Transport Association (SVV). The Qando Salzburg app also offers
real-time timetable information.
1 Salzburg Exhibition Center - Central Station - Mirabellplatz - Hanuschplatz - Maxglan - Europark Salzburg-Taxham - Red Bull Arena
2 Obergnigl - Central Station - Lehen - Salzburg Airport - Walserfeld
3 Salzburg-Süd train station - Police headquarters - Justice building - Mozartsteg - Mirabellplatz - Central station - Itzling
4 Mayerwies - Langwied - Mirabellplatz - Hanuschplatz - Lehen - Liefering
5 Birch settlement - municipal cemetery - justice building - Mozartsteg - Mirabellplatz - main station
6 Parsch - Volksgarten - Mirabellplatz - Central Station - Itzling West
7 Salzburg-Süd train station - Aigen - Volksgarten - Accident Hospital - Hanuschplatz - State Hospital - Salzachsee
8 Salzburg-Süd train station - Josefiau - Mozartsteg - Hanuschplatz - State Hospital - Lehen - Messe
10 Sam - Volksgarten - Hanuschplatz - Maxglan - Salzburg Airport - Himmelreich - Walserfeld
12 Josefiau - Volksgarten - Schallmoos - Kiesel - Fiefdom - Europark Salzburg-Taxham
14 Police Headquarters - Justice Building - Mirabellplatz - Kiesel - Lehen - Liefering
The tickets are valid within the city for all buses and for the S-Bahn, and you can also reach the sights a little further away. Tickets are available from the bus driver for € 2.60, and for € 1.80 in a block of five in advance sales in almost all tobacconists (tobacco shops and newsagents) and at ticket machines. ÖBB ticket vending machines are located at all train stations, and some popular trolleybus stops in the city center also have ticket vending machines. In the main station there are also ticket machines from Meridian and Deutsche Bahn, where train tickets to Germany can also be purchased. Between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., single journeys are also available for € 1.50 in advance sales and at machines (but not from the bus driver). The 24-hour ticket for € 3.70 is recommended as a time pass (for the bus driver: € 5.70, valid for 24 hours from the time of validation, as of 2017). Holders of foreign severely handicapped ID cards with a GdB of at least 70 will be promoted at the “minimum” price.
In addition, the Salzburg Card is available for 24, 48 or 72 hours at € 28 / € 37 / € 43 (cheaper for children and in the low season; as of October 2017). In addition to the city buses, you can also use the funicular to the Hohensalzburg Fortress, the Mönchsberg lift, outside the urban area the cable car to the Untersberg and, in the summer months, an excursion boat on the Salzach. There is also free entry to more or less all of the city's museums and the zoo.
There are also the Hop On-Hop Off city tours for € 16 for 1 day or € 19 for 2 days (separate children's and family tariffs).
Since Salzburg has a very well-developed network of cycle paths, you can get anywhere by bike in a short time. In the summer months it is possible to rent bicycles.
Citybike bike rental system - the only city bike station in Salzburg to date is located on the central Ferdinand-Hanusch-Platz, directly at the Makartsteg. The registration fee is € 1. The 1st hour is free, the 2nd hour costs € 1, the 3rd hour € 2 and from the 4th hour € 4 per hour is charged.