Ermak Travel Guide

 

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Salzburg

 

 

 

 

 

 

Description of Salzburg

According to a legend town of Salzburg was found by Bishop Rupert who constructed first settlement here with help of Benedictine monks. Irish Bishop Virgil constructed the first cathedral here. However the city rose to prominence under leadership of Bishops Wolf Dietrich, Marcus Sitticus and Paris Lodron who ruled between 1587 and 1653. Salzburg is also famous as a birth place of Mozart, the most famous Austrian composer. Salzburg can roughly be divided on three parts. First region is taken by Hohensalzurg that takes strategic location over a city, second region is on the right bank of Salzach river that flows through Salzburg, while a third region is that on the left bank of Salzach.

 

Salzburg is probably most famous as a birthplace of Mozart

 

 

Travel Destinations in Salzburg

Hohensalzburg Fortress (Salzburg)

Salzburg Dom (Salzburg)

Cathedral

Domplatz 7

Tel (0662) 804 77950

Open: May- Oct 10am- 5pm Mon- Sat, 11am- 6pm Sun and holidays, Nov- Jan 10am- 5pm daily

 

Salzburg Dom or Salzburg Cathedral is the largest church in Salzburg. Like other buildings of its kind Salzburg Dom stands in the historical center of the city. Any walk through old part of town should start here. The baroque building has a length of 101 meters, the transept measures 69 meters. The tower height is 81 meters, the dome height 79 meters and the height of the main nave 32 meters. The cathedral has 900 seats. It is a listed building and belongs to the UNESCO World Heritage Historic Center of Salzburg.

 

The first Romanesque cathedral was a three-aisled basilica with an upstream paradise and its own baptistery. The Romanesque building was completed in 774. Abbot Bishop Virgil inaugurated the sacred building on September 25, 774. On the night of 4 to 5 April 1167 the cathedral burned down. Allegedly, the Counts of Plain commissioned the emperor Frederick Barbarossa to set the city on fire because Archbishop Conrad II of Babenberg did not recognize the antipope Victor IV appointed by the emperor (see also Schism of 1159 ). It was under Bishop Konrad III the even stately five-aisled (or three-nave with rows of lateral chapels) Konradinische Dom built, then the largest basilica north of the Alps.

 

Stift St. Peter (Salzburg)

St. Peter Bezirk

Tel. (0662) 844 576- 0

Open: 8am- 12pm, 4:30- 6:30pm

 

Benedictine abbey of Saint Peter was founded by Saint Rupert in 690 AD. Private residence of archbishops of the Abbey was situated here prior to 1110. Abbey of St. Peter is a complex of religious and other buildings that date back to 17th and 18th centuries. It contains three courtyards and the monastery church. The interior of the abbey church of St.. Peter is decorated by the ornaments in the form of shells. Painting of the main altar and the 16 side altars are made by master from Krems, M.I. Schmidt. In the right nave you can see the burial spot of Saint Rupert, patron saint of Salzburg, those remains are kept here since 1444. Another notable feature of the main church in the monastery is a statue of Madonna the Beautiful that dates back to the 15th century. Next to the monastery you can visit the oldest city cemetery with Romanesque and Gothic chapels, monuments and fences of wrought iron. Additionally you can explore catacombs from the early Christian times, when it was used by hermit monks who settled here before anyone even settled here. It is the oldest existing monastery in the German-speaking world.

 

 

 

Stift Nonnberg (Salzburg)

Nonnberggasse 2

Tel. (0662) 841 6070

Open: Summer 7am- 7pm daily

winter 7am- 5pm

 

Stift Nonnberg, also Erin Monastery after the first abbess Erentrudis of Salzburg, is a Benedictine abbey in Salzburg. It is today the world's oldest Christian convent with an uninterrupted tradition. The entire Nonnberg Abbey, with its walls and archaeological find areas, is a listed building and belongs to the UNESCO World Heritage Historic Center of Salzburg.

 

The monastery Nonnberg was founded around 711/712 by St. Rupert on a terrace of the Salzburg fortress hill . The nunnery occupied a particularly protected place in the city of Salzburg in the partially preserved Roman fortification castrum superior of Iuvavum. The niece (or relatives) Ruperts, Erentrudis, became the first abbess. The foundation of the abbey Nonnberg was carried out by the Bavarian Duke Theotbert . Once the monastery was very rich. Among the goods in the early Middle Ages was also the Nonntal, whose church was formerly a branch church of the monastery, and the entire area between Salzach and Leopoldskroner Moor in the south of the city, including the place Morzg and the houses of Kleingmain and gneiss . Only in the 15th century settled there peasant families who no longer worked on behalf of the monastery. Until 1451, the monastery Nonnberg was reserved only for noble women, with the end of the feudal Middle Ages also bourgeois women were taken, until the 19th century, however, only serving sisters.

On July 20, 2017, the Convention of the post chose chaired by Archbishop Franz Lackner , the former prioress wife Veronika Kronlachner the new abbess of the Abbey Nonnberg and 93. successor of St. Erentrudis. The Äbtissinnenweihe gave her the archbishop on August 13, 2017 the Abbey Nonnberg.

 

Friedhof St. Sebastian (Salzburg)

Linzergasse 41

Open: 7am- 4pm daily

 

Church and cemetery of Saint Sebastian was constructed in 19th century on a site of much older church. The cemetery of Saint Sebastian contains burials that date back to medieval times around 15th century. Among people buried here were parents of Mozart Leopold and his wife Constanze, Paracelsus father of pharmacology who died in Salzburg in 1541. In the centre of the cemetery you can find the chapel of the Archangel Gabriel and a mausoleum of Archbishop Wolf Dietrich. The history of St. Sebastian’s Church goes back to Archbishop Leonhard von Keutschach who ordered construction of the new church between 1505 and 1512. In the 18th century, St. Sebastian’s church – what was abandoned for quiet some time – was demolished and replaced by a hall church reflecting the style of the Late Baroque. Special features of St. Sebastian’s Church include the magnificent Rococo portal and an impressive gate separating the entrance porch from the main nave. The high altar is adorned by a wonderful Madonna with Child from the year 1611.

 

Schloss Mirabell (Salzburg)

Mirabellplatz

Tel. (0662) 80720

Open: 8am- 4pm Mon, Wed, Thu

1- 4pm Tue, Fri- Sat

 

Schloss Mirabell is a beautiful residence of a Baroque style that replaced more modest building from 1606. Archbishop Wolf Dietrich used former Schloss Mirabell residence as a home for his mistress Salome Alt, daughter of a Jewish merchant. Apparently it was a secret that was known to the whole town. She bore him 15 children.

 

The Mirabell Palace, today located in the new city of Salzburg, was built around 1606 by Archbishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau outside the then city walls for the beloved or secret wife of the Archbishop, Salome Alt, and was initially called Altenau Castle, It was "beautiful, large, well-kept, splendid, like a castle or vestment, with a wrought-encrusted, opulent, glittering thurn, and inside, also ornamented and beautiful outside with beautiful gardens of all kinds of clover, pewter, and fruits." From this building remains in the southwest corner of today's building in the basement are preserved. For his 15 children, the prince, who was always caring for his family, obtained from the emperor the legitimacy of being a legitimate heir, and for children and mistresses the elevation to the hereditary nobility. Mother and children were now called Alt von Altenau . That did not help much later. After the fall and the solitary confinement Wolf Dietrichs on the fortress Hohensalzburg in 1612 expelled his successor and nephew Markus Sittikus von Hohenems soon after, wife and children of Altenau Castle. To completely erase the memory of his predecessor, Markus Sittikus called the castle Mirabell . Mirabell is a feminine given name from the Italian ( mirabile , admirable 'and bella , beautiful').

Prince Archbishop Paris of Lodron had 1620-1642 during the Thirty Years' War, the Mirabell Palace and associated gardens in the new strong fortification belt on the right bank of the Salzach involve. Unlike Markus Sittikus, he liked living in the castle and died here as well.

1710 and 1721 to 1727 was carried out by order of Archbishop Franz Anton von Harrach by the famous Baroque master builder Johann Lucas von Hildebrandt the conversion to the magnificent Baroque palace complex, a four-wing complex with courtyard, which is now used as a parking space. In 1818, a devastating city fire left a lot of damage. The castle was then in the prevailing classicist style after plans by Peter Nobile under the direction of Johann Georg von Hagenauerrebuilt. As a result, the building lost much of its former unique Baroque appearance. The mighty tower in the middle of the eastern facade was removed, the slender pediment with the east-facing slightly projecting corner risalites disappeared, as well as the badges richly decorated with numerous vases and 28 figures. Fortunately, the west-facing courtyard façade and the garden facade in the west remained largely intact. The rhythm of plastic protruding projections and well-articulated wall surfaces give an idea of the original appearance of the Baroque masterpiece, although here the artful roof attachment along with figures missing.

On June 1, 1815, Otto von Bayern , later King Otto I of Greece, was born in Mirabell Palace . Here, before 1849, the father of the Salzburg painter Hans Makart worked as a room supervisor. From 1851 to 1863 Archbishop Cardinal Maximilian Joseph of Tarnóczy resided in this castle . The aged Capuchin Father and Tyrolean freedom hero Joachim Haspinger († 1858) spent his last four years here in a ground floor apartment.

In 1866, the castle, together with the Kapuzinerberg, became the property of the city of Salzburg for compensation of 50,000 guilders. The Emperor had already donated the Mirabellgarten to the city two years earlier. Between 1947 and 1950, the offices of the mayor and his deputies were established here, as well as the magistrate's office and some municipal departments.

 

Mozarteum (Salzburg)

Schwarzstrasse 26

Tel. (0662) 88940

 

The Mozarteum or Mozarteum University, originally called "Dommusikverein and Mozarteum", was founded on April 22, 1841 in Salzburg as a music school and for the collection of old Mozart documents. Today, the term Mozarteum is understood to mean three independent bodies:
the University Mozarteum Salzburg - an art academy for music, drama and related subjects
the International Mozarteum Foundation - Concert Organizer, Music Collection and Research Institute
the Mozarteum Orchestra Salzburg - the symphony orchestra of the city and province of Salzburg

 

Actually, the Mozarteum is the building or the homestead of the Mozarteum Foundation in 5020 Salzburg, Schwarzstraße 26 (Austria) and then the namesake for later institutions and institutions. When it was founded, it was according to the memorial plaque laying the foundation stone in 1910 still "Mozarthaus". The Mozarteum Foundation was created with the construction of the building, which was opened on 29 September 1914 two concert halls, the "great hall" with an organ, as a separate building to the north and the smaller "Wiener Saal" in the main building. The "Great Hall" was then also the most important concert hall after the founding of the Salzburg Festivaland is today about the venue of the "matinees" of the Salzburg Festival. For this purpose, classrooms were created and a conservatory was founded, which also had a respectable music library and musicological literature. Even the "Salzburg Liedertafel" found its home in the Mozarteum until today. In a vacant lot, the Hanibalgasse, between the Landestheater and the Mozarteum, a casino was built. After its expulsion this house could be integrated as Hanibaltrakt into the Mozarteum (about 1970). There, a generous library was set up, in which records were already archived.

 

Haus der Natur (Salzburg)

Museumsplatz 5

Tel. (0662) 842653-0

Daily 9:00 am to 5:00 pm (also on Sundays and public holidays) Closed on December 24th until 4:00 pm on the 25th of December
Entrance fees
Adults: € 8,50
Children (4 to 15 years): € 6,00

 

The exhibitions at Haus der Natur (House of Nature) are spread over eight levels in two buildings. The classic natural history exhibitions and the zoo departments can be found in the main building. A glass staircase creates the connection to the neighboring Science Center and the current special exhibition.

 

Aquarium
Live animal husbandry fulfills many tasks. Visitors can observe exotic and native creatures up close and personal in habitats designed in close proximity to nature. They become acquainted with their behavior and their needs and in doing so acquire an understanding of the need for their protection. An essential task is also the preservation and successful further breeding of species whose survival in the wild is not assured.

The diverse underwater world of the aquarium contains creatures that can be as graceful as they are bizarre. Each basin forms a living ecosystem that resembles natural habitats down to the last detail. Thus, this aquarium scores with authenticity and animal relationships, as they are found in nature.

The largest aquarium holds 60,000 liters, accommodate animals from tropical coral reefs, the Mediterranean, from the waters of Africa, South America, Southeast Asia and not least from local rivers and lakes. The aquarium is a place of observation that will enchant you with incredible diversity, beauty and the extraordinary behavior of its inhabitants.

 

Science center
The bottom floor of the Science Center is all about energy and lifting. Clear experiments make it easier to understand the rules of the levers, and a large lifting platform allows you to float effortlessly through the room and, by the way, get to know the technology of hydraulic power transmission.

Another central topic: the generation of electricity from hydropower and solar energy. How do turbines work? How can you generate electricity with generators? Various experiments on solar power provide insights into the technology of photovoltaics. And the water-experimentation landscape invites you to wet your hands, to dam water, to lift and to pump and to discover the power that is in this water.

Acoustics and music
On the first floor, the Science Center is dedicated to the phenomena of acoustics. From the wave nature of sound, to the exploration of sounds and sounds, to the sound transmission to the human ear, everything is explored here around the topic of sound.

 

Mozarts Geburtshaus (Salzburg)

Getreidegasse 9

Tel. (0662) 844313

Open: 9am- 6pm daily

9am- 7pm Jul- Aug

 

Mozarts Geburtshaus is a birth place for most famous sons of Salzburg. It was here on 27 January 1756 that famous composer Mozart was born. He was the seventh child of Leopold Mozart, who was a musician of the Salzburg Royal Chamber. Located at building number 9 of the Getreidegasse, Mozart's family lived there from 1747 to 1773. Today the house houses a museum where various objects are exhibited. You can see some of the great composer's musical instruments, including his first child's violin , his concert violin , his clavichord , his harpsichord, as well as portraits and letters of the Mozart family.

 

The house was built in the 12th century on ground which had been part of the garden belonging to the Benedictine monks of St Peter's, Salzburg. Otto Keutzel, a merchant, is mentioned as the owner in 1408 while Chunrad Fröschmoser, the court apothecary, purchased the property in 1585. On the doorway, the coiled serpent in the lion's mouth, the symbol of Asclepius, still testifies to his ownership. In 1703, the house came into the ownership of the Hagenauer family who had arrived in Salzburg around 1670. Specifically they included Joseph Matin Hagenauer and Johann Laurenz Hagenauer who became Mozart's landlord.

 

Franziskanerkirche (Salzburg)

Franziskanergasse 5

Tel. (0662) 843 629

Open: 6am- 8pm daily

 

The Roman Catholic Franciscan Church or Franziskanerkirche is one of the oldest churches in the Old Town of Salzburg, and belongs to the Franciscan Monastery. It stands in the space between Franziskanergasse in the south and Sigmund-Haffner-Gasse in the west. The Franziskanerkirche consists of two parts: the original Romanesque nave basilica with its ribbed vault and then in the same width as the nave a delicate late Gothic choir with ribbed vault.

 

The first church "To Our Lady" is probably older than the cathedral of St. Virgil. It was built on an early Christian place of worship. In the first half of the eighth century, under the command of the abbot of Virgil (745-84), the church dedicated to Our Lady, named "Our Lady," was restored for the first time. It initially serves as a baptismal and synodal church. Until 1139 it belongs to the Benedictine monk pin St. Peter, between 1130 and 1583 it was then the parish church of the Benedictine nuns of the Benedictines, after 1189 she was until 1628 at the same time parish church of the city.

 

A new consecration of the church in 1223 suggests a newly completed new construction, but the present church is expected to date back to the 12th century in the nave area. This Marienkirche was largely destroyed during the city fire of 1267. After 1408, a large new building was considered, which began a few years later under Master Hans von Burghausen and ended after his death in 1432 by Stephan Krumenauer .

In 1592 Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau handed over the church to the newly formed Franciscans as a monastery church. In 1635, the cathedral finally became the new parish church. For a long time then the Romanesque-Gothic style of the church was considered backward and degenerate. Only the "Roman style" (renaissance and its further development in baroque and rococo) was regarded as aesthetic (the "barbaric" Goths had once defeated the "noble" Romans, only Goethe had called to rediscover the artistic value of the Gothic). This is what Archbishop Colloredo wanted lastThe "unsightly" church can be completely demolished and replaced by a "rotunda in Roman style" as a court chapel and as a mausoleum of the archbishops. In 1793 Colloredo gave this plan on the one hand because of inadequacies of construction workers in the demolition of the nearest Dietrichruh the Salzburg residence and on the other hand, for general "economic reasons" again.

 

Residenzplatz (Salzburg)

Residenz

Residenzplatz 1

Tel. (0662) 8042 2690

Open: 10am- 5pm daily

Closed: 2 weeks before and 1 week after Easter

Residenzgaleries

Tel. (0662) 840451

Open: 9am- 5pm Tue- Sun

 

The Residenzplatz is a prestigious and splendid square in the center of the old town of Salzburg. The square is bordered to the west by the Old Residence, to the east by the New Residence with the ornate carillon and to the south by the cathedral. In the north, in a north-facing facade, the townhouses border the square, which in its core is based on medieval buildings. At this the to close St. Peter belongs Michael Church at. Then the square goes to Mozartplatzover. In the center of the Residenzplatz stands the 17th-century artistically designed Residenzbrunnen. The place is on the site of a former cemetery.

 

The place in its present size has arisen under the demolition of town houses and the removal of the old cathedral cemetery by Archbishop Wolf Dietrich and is related to the then transformation of Salzburg from a medieval city to a princely baroque residence city. In 1587, Wolf Dietrich began to demolish the old cathedral monastery and 55 town houses on the western end of the Pfeifergasse and to abandon the cathedral cemetery (called Aschhof). Once there were also parts of the old residence, the predecessor of the cathedral and the St. John's Court Chapel.

 

Salzburg Museum (Salzburg)

Neue Residenz Mozartplatz

Tel. (0662) 6208080

Open: 9am- 5pm Mon- Sun

9am- 8pm Thu

www.salzburgmuseum.at

 

The Salzburg Museum in the New Residence , formerly Carolino Augusteum (SMCA), is a museum of art and cultural history of the city and province of Salzburg. Today, the Museum as an organization also includes the Panorama, Fortress, Folklore, Domingue, Toy Museum, and the Celtic Museum Hallein. The museum is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Historic Center of Salzburg.

The Beginnings of the Museum - The Provincial Museum
Today's Salzburg Museum was founded in 1834 as the Municipal Arsenal in Salzburg by Vinzenz Maria Süß . In 1835, with the visit of the county governor Albert Graf Montecuccoli, the exhibition of weapons, books, documents, coins and minerals became accessible to the general public. Thanks to the support of the mayor of Salzburg, Alois Lergetporer , additional rooms were added to the former municipal cereal magazine at Unteren Gries (today Franz-Josef-Kai 17) in the following years. The exhibited objects and also the financial income of the 1836 already as an urban museum designated institute existed until 1844 exclusively from donations citizens of Salzburg.

 

Great Festival Hall or Grosses Festspielhaus (Salzburg)

Hofstallgasse 1

Tel. (0662) 849097

Open: Jan- March, Oct- 20 Dec 2pm

June, Sept 2pm and 3:30pm

Jul- Aug 9:30am, 2pm, 3:30pm

 

The Great Festival Hall in Salzburg (from 1960 to 1962 New Festival Hall, since 1963 the Great Festival Hall) is one of the venues of the Salzburg Festival and is located in the Old Town, it is partly built into the Mönchsberg.

Former prince-archbishop court stables
The Große Festspielhaus, together with the Haus für Mozart , (formerly the Kleinen Festspielhaus ), the Felsenreitschule and the Stadtsaal, belonged to the former prince-archbishop's court stables ( Hofmarstall ) . They were built under the Archbishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau 1606 and 1607, the facility also included the Marstallschwemme on today's Herbert von Karajan Square. In 1662 this building was extended and the winter riding school was established, in the place of which today is the house for Mozart . A further expansion took place under archbishopJohann Ernst von Thun . The summer riding school , the today's Felsenreitschule, and the facade of the northern narrow side to the Herbert von Karajan place and to the Marstallschwemme out after plans of Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach 1693/94 was designed.

Hofstallkaserne and Haus der Natur
After the end of the archbishopric 1803 the house was a cavalry barracks , the Hofstallkaserne . The riding school was adapted in 1841 as kk cavalry riding hall, extended and covered. 1859 was an increase of the main house. The cavalry divisions were housed until the second third of the 19th century , from then mixed also artillery. After the First World War , the First Armed Forces were also stationed here.

From the foundation in 1924, the house of nature also found its place, which moved in 1959 in the abandoned Ursuline convent.  

 

Makartplatz (Salzburg)

Makartplatz 8

Tel. (0662) 874 227

Open: Sept- Jun 9am- 6pm daily

Jul- Aug 9am- 7pm daily

 

Makartplatz or Square of Makart is named after famous Salzburg born painter Hans Makart. The decision to change the name was taken on May 5, 1879. In earlier times it was called Hannibalplatz, after Jakob Hannibal von Raitenau, the second oldest brother of Archbishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau, who owned a palace here. In 1829, Johann Michael Sattler exhibited his completed Salzburg panorama in a transportable pavilion. Between 1934 and 1938 the Makartplatz said Dr. Dollfuss Square after the 1934 Nazi murdered -Putschisten austrofaschistischen Chancellor Dr. Engelbert Dollfuss. After joining the German Reich in 1938 , he was called for a few weeks Adolf Hitler Square and since then again Makartplatz.

Until 1907 stood directly opposite the Holy Trinity Church in today's green area of ​​the square, the municipal pawnshop. Thus, Fischer von Erlach, the architect of the Trinity Church, had already consciously adapted the facade of the church to a street situation and not to a place situation. This fact is never mentioned in discussions in the 21st century around a redesign.

On February 20, 1953, the Salzburg City Association presented the design of the architects Otto Prossinger and Felix Cevela, who envisaged a total abandonment of the park. According to proposals of the municipality should create a parking lot in the middle of the Makartplatzes instead of the green space. Finally, the plan was implemented by Stadtgartendirektor Otto Kreiner with a green area in the middle of the square.

 

Kollegienkirche (Salzburg)

Universitatsplatz

Tel. (0662) 841 327

Open: 9am- 7pm Mon- Sat, Sun

Dec- Jan 10am- dusk

 

The Kollegienkirche in Salzburg is the church of the University of Salzburg and comes from the Baroque period . It is located at the University Square. The patronal feast is the Immaculate Conception of Mary , the patronal feast , in Austria a solemnity and public holiday , is celebrated on 8 December. The church is a listed building and is part of the UNESCO World Heritage historical center of the city of Salzburg .

Prince-Archbishop Paris of Lodron planned the construction of this own Roman Catholic University Church of Salzburg on the grounds of the former women's garden. It would take more than 70 years before the new church was completed by the architect Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach , and inaugurated in 1707 in honor of the Immaculate Virgin Mary. Until the construction of the Collegiate Church , the Great Hall of the University (next to the small house chapel Saecellum ) not only served as a theater hall, but together with the small Sacellum also served as a sacred space for the worship services of the university. Also Guidobald von Thun and Max Gandolf von Kuenburgcould not fulfill the promise of the church construction. Prince-Archbishop Johann Ernst von Thun first set up church construction against resistance. Above all Josef von Kuenburg defended himself because in his opinion his Kuenburgscher Langenhof on Kirchgasse (now Sigmund-Haffner-Gasse) would be affected.

In the time of the occupation by Napoleon and the French troops, the Kollegienkirche demonstratively served as a military haylage. After the dissolution of the university, it became a garrison church in the time of the monarchy. In 1922 the Church as part of the Salzburg Festival for the first time Great Salzburg World Theater by Hugo von Hofmannsthal instead. The Kollegienkirche is still the venue of the Salzburg Festival.

Since 1964 the Kollegienkirche is again a university church. May 18, 2008, she received the rank of parish church of the University Parish Prison (Hochschulgemeinde Salzburg), as a personal parish . University pastor is since 2013 Dr. Johann Wilhelm Klaushofer (as of August 2014). A general restoration of this ancient church was urgently needed last, as well as supporting elements of the wooden roof truss were heavily infested with fungus. First, the chapel of St. Ivo was restored. In 2010, the apse was restored. At the end of 2013, the general refurbishment was largely completed.

 

 

History of Salzburg

Antiquity to the High Middle Ages
Traces of human settlements in the area of modern Salzburg have been found in the area, dating to the Neolithic Age. The first settlements in Salzburg continuous with the present were apparently by the Celts around the 5th century BC.

Around 15 BC the Roman Empire merged the settlements into one city. At this time, the city was called "Juvavum" and was awarded the status of a Roman municipium in 45 AD. Juvavum developed into an important town of the Roman province of Noricum. After the Norican frontier’s collapse, Juvavum declined so sharply that by the late 7th century it nearly became a ruin. Barbarian attacks destroyed the city or drove its citizens away.

The Life of Saint Rupert credits the 8th-century saint with the city's rebirth. When Theodo of Bavaria asked Rupert to become bishop c. 700, Rupert reconnoitered the river for the site of his basilica. Rupert chose Juvavum, ordained priests, and annexed the manor of Piding. Rupert named the city "Salzburg". He travelled to evangelise among pagans.

The name Salzburg means "Salt Castle" (Latin: Salis Burgium). The name derives from the barges carrying salt on the River Salzach, which were subject to a toll in the 8th century as was customary for many communities and cities on European rivers. Hohensalzburg Fortress, the city's fortress, was built in 1077 by Archbishop Gebhard, who made it his residence.[5] It was greatly expanded during the following centuries.

Independence
Independence from Bavaria was secured in the late 14th century. Salzburg was the seat of the Archbishopric of Salzburg, a prince-bishopric of the Holy Roman Empire. As the Reformation movement gained steam, riots broke out among peasants in the areas in and around Salzburg. The city was occupied during the German Peasants' War, and the Archbishop had to flee to the safety of the fortress. It was besieged for three months in 1525.

Eventually, tensions were quelled, and the city's independence led to an increase in wealth and prosperity, culminating in the late 16th to 18th centuries under the Prince Archbishops Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau, Markus Sittikus, and Paris Lodron. It was in the 17th century that Italian architects (and Austrians who had studied the Baroque style) rebuilt the city centre as it is today along with many palaces.

Modern era
Religious conflict
Main article: Salzburg Protestants
On 31 October 1731, the 214th anniversary of the 95 Theses, Archbishop Count Leopold Anton von Firmian signed an Edict of Expulsion, the Emigrationspatent, directing all Protestant citizens to recant their non-Catholic beliefs. 21,475 citizens refused to recant their beliefs and were expelled from Salzburg. Most of them accepted an offer by King Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia, travelling the length and breadth of Germany to their new homes in East Prussia. The rest settled in other Protestant states in Europe and the British colonies in America.

Illuminism
In 1772–1803, under archbishop Hieronymus Graf von Colloredo, Salzburg was a centre of late Illuminism.

Electorate of Salzburg
In 1803, the archbishopric was secularised by Emperor Napoleon; he transferred the territory to Ferdinando III of Tuscany, former Grand Duke of Tuscany, as the Electorate of Salzburg.

Austrian annexation of Salzburg
In 1805, Salzburg was annexed to the Austrian Empire, along with the Berchtesgaden Provostry.

Salzburg under Bavarian rule
In 1809, the territory of Salzburg was transferred to the Kingdom of Bavaria after Austria's defeat at Wagram.

Division of Salzburg and annexation by Austria and Bavaria
After the Congress of Vienna with the Treaty of Munich (1816), Salzburg was definitively returned to Austria, but without Rupertigau and Berchtesgaden, which remained with Bavaria. Salzburg was integrated into the Province of Salzach and Salzburgerland was ruled from Linz.

In 1850, Salzburg's status was restored as the capital of the Duchy of Salzburg, a crownland of the Austrian Empire. The city became part of Austria-Hungary in 1866 as the capital of a crownland of the Austrian Empire. The nostalgia of the Romantic Era led to increased tourism. In 1892, a funicular was installed to facilitate tourism to Hohensalzburg Fortress.