Salzburg, Austria

Salzburg, (also Salzburgerland) is a federal state of Austria, whose land area is covered by mountains or mountains to about five-sixths. It borders in the north and north-east on Upper Austria (Salzkammergut), in the south-east on Styria, in the south on Carinthia, in the south-west on Tyrol (East Tyrol) and a little bit on South Tyrol and also in the west on Tyrol and in the north-west on the Berchtesgadener Land in Bavaria (Germany).

Starting from the city of Salzburg, the region was shaped by the Salzburg archbishops from the early Middle Ages. From the High Middle Ages to the beginning of the 19th century, Salzburg was a Catholic state in its own right as the prince-archbishopric of Salzburg. From 1803 to 1810, Salzburg was part of the Austrian Empire as the Electorate of Salzburg and then for a few years as the Salzach district in Bavaria. After the Congress of Vienna in 1816, the province of Salzburg became part of Austria: until 1850 it continued to be part of Upper Austria as the Salzach district, then until 1918 as the Austrian Crown Land. Salzburg has been a federal state since the collapse of the monarchy in 1918. During the occupation after World War II (1945-1955) it was part of the US sector.

Typical of the state of Salzburg are traditional names for parts of the state: the districts are called Gaue. The designation is older than and therefore independent of the renaming of countries in Gauen under National Socialism. The mountain districts of Lungau, Pongau and Pinzgau, and possibly the southern Tennengau, are still often grouped together as the Innergebirge, which – less often – is contrasted with the Outergebirge (= the flatter land from about north of Hallein). From time immemorial, the designation in Salzburg has also existed in neighboring areas of the federal state as a designation for areas of the state of Salzburg that were not precisely defined.

Due to its winding land area, the country has a variety of areas. From the flat, hilly lake district in the north to the gentle Salzkammergut mountains, the Alps build ever higher towards the south. The massive rock massifs of the Steinernem Meer, Hochkönig and Tennengebirge stand in contrast to the Pinzgauer grass mountains and the gentler peaks of the Pongau, before the chain of the Niedere and Hohe Tauern completes the country on the horizon. South of the main ridge of the Alps in Lungau is part of the Nockberge in the Salzburg area.



The country's six regions are identical to the political districts.
Salzburg (district Stadt Salzburg): The area of the city of Salzburg in the Salzburg Basin.
Flachgau (Salzburg area): The foothills of the Alps with part of the Salzkammergut.
Tennengau (Hallein district): The Limestone Alps and the Lammertal.
Pongau (Sankt Johann District): The middle Salzach and the upper Ennstal.
Pinzgau (Zell am See district): The upper Salzach and the upper Saalachtal.
Lungau (Tamsweg district): The upper Mur valley.



Altenmarkt im Pongau
Bad Gastein



Eisriesenwelt Ice Cave

Hellbrunn Castle

Hohensalzburg Fortress

Hohenwerfen Castle

Hohe Tauern National Park


Lake Toplitz

St. Johann im Pongau
Oberndorf bei Salzburg
Zell am See



The language is German with regional coloring, whereby the dialects (like almost all in Austria) belong to the Bavarian dialects. There are clearer dialectal expressions in the mountainous regions, but they are on the decline. Typical Salzburg vocabulary is rarely found in everyday life and mainly refers to down-to-earth tradition.

English is generally understood and used as a foreign language, although sometimes, especially in rural areas away from the tourist centers, it is often very poor or not at all.


Getting here

By plane: With the W. A. Mozart Airport, the city of Salzburg has the second most important airport in Austria. Connections from and to many metropolises in Europe.
By car: From Germany via the Munich-Salzburg autobahn, from Vienna via the A1 west autobahn, from Italy and Villach via the A10 Tauern autobahn.
By train: Salzburg main station is the stop for all international trains.
By bus: There are several long-distance buses from Munich to the city of Salzburg every day. The final stop is the Salzburg main train station (back).



By car
The country is well developed for road traffic; the road condition corresponds to Central European standards. Remote mountain roads can be narrow and steep. The side valleys of the Salzach in the area of the Hohe Tauern National Park are closed to private traffic. Access roads to mountain huts are often available, but mostly reserved for the operators. There are usually sufficient parking spaces at the foot of popular hiking trails.

motorways and expressways
In the state of Salzburg there are only the following long-distance roads operated by the federal government:
Westautobahn (A1) in the north of the country in west-east direction (continue to Innsbruck and Munich as well as to Linz and Vienna)
Tauern autobahn (A 10) starting at the Salzburg junction in a north-south direction (continue to Villach)
Apart from the motorways, there are only occasional four-lane road sections; there are no designated S-category expressways in the federal state.
country roads
The maintenance of the former federal roads (numbered with the letter B) is now the responsibility of the federal states in Austria. In the province of Salzburg, the most important of these main connecting roads are as follows:
Wiener Straße (B1): runs parallel to the A1 through the Flachgau in an east-west direction from the Kleiner Walserberg border crossing via Salzburg and the Salzburg lake district to Straßwalchen, then on towards Linz and Vienna
Wolfgangseestraße (B158): leads from the city of Salzburg to the Salzburg Salzkammergut and on to Bad Ischl in Upper Austria
Lamprechtshausener Straße (B 156): crosses the Flachgau from the city of Salzburg in a north-south direction (starts at the Salzburg Nord motorway exit; continues via Oberndorf near Salzburg to Braunau am Inn)
Salzachtalstraße (B159): crosses the Tennengau and the northern Pongau in a north-south direction; leads from Anif (exit Salzburg Süd) to Bischofshofen
Katschberg-Straße (B99): crosses the eastern Pongau and the Lungau; leads from Bischofshofen via Radstadt and the Radstädter Tauern Pass to the Lungau and then via the Katschberg to Carinthia
Pinzgauer Straße (B311): crosses the Pongau and the lower Pinzgau in an east-west direction and the middle Pinzgau in a north-south direction; leads from Bischofshofen (Pongau junction on the A10) to Zell am See and from there via Saalfelden to Lofer
Mittersiller Straße (B168): Crosses the upper Pinzgau in east-west direction; leads from Zell am See to Mittersill and as an extension from there as Gerlosstraße (B165) to Krimml and Tyrol.
Furthermore, some cross-connections, continuations and cul-de-sacs in the large Alpine valleys are also roads in this category. The main connecting roads for the regional rural area are Landesstrasse (L) category roads and are generally well developed.

By bicycle
The road network in the city of Salzburg is relatively generously equipped with cycle paths. The cycle path network there consists mainly of marked lanes on the roadways, cycle paths alongside the road and often shared footpaths and cycle paths. The signposting is done by means of green boards with destination and distance information.

City bike: rental of bicycles by the hour or by the day
In rural areas, there are mainly footpaths and cycle paths that are separated from the main roads, where long-distance cycle paths are routed. Driving on pure sidewalks with bikes in urban areas is rather unusual and is not tolerated particularly in the cities.

bike trails
For cycle tourists there are a number of longer and shorter long-distance cycle paths and circular cycle paths in the province of Salzburg, which are often sponsored by private companies and are therefore named accordingly.

The following official long-distance cycle paths lead through the state of Salzburg:
Tauern Cycle Path from Oberpinzgau always following the Salzach Valley; Route variant from Zell am See via Saalfelden and the Kleine Deutsches Eck to Salzburg
Bavarian cycle path:
Mozart cycle path:
Salt and Lakes Tour:
Salzkammergut cycle path:
and several other cycle paths

By train and bus
railway lines
The Western Railway runs from Salzburg to Vienna. Larger stops in the province of Salzburg are Seekirchen am Wallersee and Steindorf near Straßwalchen, from where the Mattigtalbahn, which leads to Upper Austria, branches off. All stops up to Straßwalchen are served by line S2 of the Salzburg S-Bahn.
The Westbahn, a private railway company of the same name, also operates on the Westbahn in the direction of Vienna. All those who do not have an ÖBB discount card can travel much cheaper with long-distance trains in the direction of Linz and Vienna. In the state of Salzburg, however, there is only the last stop, Salzburg Hauptbahnhof.

The Salzburg-Tyrol Railway runs from Salzburg via Bischofshofen and Zell am See to Wörgl in Tyrol. In addition to regional express trains to Wörgl, long-distance trains to Carinthia (to Schwarzach-St. Veit) and Styria (to Bischofshofen) also run here. To Schwarzach-St. Veit also operates line S3 of the Salzburg S-Bahn.
The Tauernbahn branches off in Schwarzach-St. Veit from the Salzburg-Tiroler-Bahn and leads into the Gasteinertal and then through the Tauern tunnel to Carinthia. The Tauernbahn car lock runs between Böckstein in the Gastein Valley and Mallnitz in Carinthia.
In addition to these routes operated by the Austrian Federal Railways, there are two private lines operated by the Salzburg infrastructure company Salzburg AG:
The Salzburg local train runs from Salzburg main station to Lamprechtshausen in the north of the Flachgau. In Bürmoos, the line branches off to Ostermiething in Upper Austria. The lines are part of the S-Bahn Salzburg as S1 and S11.
The Pinzgau local railway opens up the Upper Pinzgau from Zell am See via Mittersill to Krimml with numerous railway stations.
Of interest to tourists is the historic Schafbergbahn in the Salzkammergut in the municipality of St. Gilgen. However, the departure is from St. Wolfgang in Upper Austria.
Another tourist offer is the Murtalbahn from Tamsweg in Lungau to Unzmarkt in Styria.
mail buses
In the city of Salzburg, the central starting point for the bus lines is in front of the main train station. From there there are good connections in all important directions, even beyond national borders. The rural area, including the side valleys of the Alps, is served regularly by buses, but the frequency is often low.
In the greater Salzburg area, the Salzburg S-Bahn and international bus lines also offer connections to neighboring Bavaria.

In the state of Salzburg, the tariffs of the Salzburg Transport Association (SVV) apply to city and regional bus services as well as local railway services.



SalzburgerLand Card
The most suitable way to get to know the most important sights in SalzburgerLand is the SalzburgerLand Card. It offers entry to around 190 attractions throughout the state. You can choose to visit the sights of the city of Salzburg or the Grossglockner High Alpine Road.

The SalzburgerLand Card includes the following attractions:
lakes and baths
Castles and Palaces
museums and exhibitions
show mines
nature experiences
mountain railways
scenic roads
trains and buses
sports and fun
Wildlife and adventure parks
This all-inclusive card is available in a 6-day and 12-day version and is available in all tourist information offices in SalzburgerLand and in selected hotels.

Castles and Palaces
Among the most famous buildings are
Hohensalzburg Fortress, Mönchsberg 34, 5020 Salzburg. Phone: +43 (0)662 84 24 30 11, email: . The landmark of Salzburg impresses with its beautiful silhouette that characterizes the cityscape of Salzburg and is one of the largest and best-preserved castles in Europe. Built in 1077, Hohensalzburg was expanded in the 15th century and turned into a residence in the late Gothic style. After further conversions, the mighty Kuenburgbastei was the last major structure to be built in the 17th century. The Hohensalzburg Fortress was the seat of the archbishops until 1803. In 1861 it was abolished as a fortress by Emperor Franz Joseph, then served as barracks for a while and is now open to the public as a museum.
Hohenwerfen Castle, Burgstrasse 2. Tel.: +43 (0)6468 760 30, e-mail: . The architecturally remarkable building, once the archbishop's fortified castle, is a worthwhile excursion destination: an interesting weapons exhibition and flight shows from the state falconry await the visitor.
Mirabell Palace, Mirabellplatz 3-4 . In the center of Salzburg with beautifully landscaped gardens and inside the Raphael Donner Staircase with marble statues and the Marble Hall.
Hellbrunn Palace, Fürstenweg 37 and others Phone: +43 (0)662 82 03 72, email: . The baroque architecture of Hellbrunn Palace in the south of the city of Salzburg is just as fascinating as the famous trick fountains and the "Mechanical Theater". The water was a defining design element of the castle from the very beginning - hidden in the green shade of bushes and trees or splashing out alive from unexpected hiding places. Mysterious grottoes, water-powered figures and treacherous spouting fountains in every nook and cranny exposed the guests to a constant alternation of light and shadow or of fright and hilarity. Today you can experience in almost unchanged form what once delighted the archbishops and his guests.

sacred buildings
Salzburg Cathedral, Domplatz 1a .
Franciscan Church, in Salzburg.
Maria Plain. Pilgrimage site on the Plainberg in the north of Salzburg (Bergheim municipality).

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) is a cultural icon of the city of Salzburg. The house where he was born is now a museum, where you can see, among other things, his childhood violin and letters from the Mozart family. You can also visit the home of the Mozart family.
Museum of Modern Art in Salzburg. Tel.: +43 (0)662 84 22 20, e-mail: . The Museum der Moderne is represented at the two locations Museum der Moderne Rupertinum opposite the Festspielhaus and Museum der Moderne Mönchsberg with objects of recent fine art.
Domquartier, in Salzburg. Tel.: +43 (0)662 80 42 21 09, e-mail: . The Domquartier is a combination of several art collections with the opportunity to visit the state rooms of the Salzburg Residence. The focus is on the Baroque era. Feature: wheelchair accessible.
House of Nature, in Salzburg. Phone: +43 (0)662 842 65 30, email: . The Haus der Natur is a first-class natural history museum with changing special exhibitions. Feature: wheelchair accessible.
Salzburg Open Air Museum, in Großgmain. Tel.: +43 (0)662 85 00 11, email: The museum shows traditional architecture and lifestyle from the state and offers repeated shows and events.

natural beauties
Grossglockner High Alpine Road. Alpine panorama road over the Grossglockner in the Hohe Tauern National Park to Carinthia; with special scenic beauty.
giant ice world. The Eisriesenwelt in Werfen is the largest ice cave in the world with a cave portal 20 m wide and 18 m high. The entire cave system extends over about 50 km, with only about 1 km covered with ice. This part is open to the public.
Krimml Waterfalls. The Krimml Waterfalls in the Hohe Tauern National Park are the only natural monument in Austria with a European diploma. Three cataracts with a total drop of 389 m (fifth highest falls in the world): "Upper Fall" 140 m, "Middle Achenfall" 100 m, "Lower Achenfall" over 140 m).
Salzachöfen, at the Lueg pass (municipality of Golling an der Salzach)
Golling waterfall
Liechtenstein Gorge, Pongau. Gorge of the Gasteiner Ache in the lower reaches.

regional customs
Samson moves. The custom of carrying Samson, which is native to Lungau and neighboring Styria, is unique in Austria. The Samson is a giant parade figure accompanied by a pair of dwarfs. The parades take place between May (from the day of Corpus Christi) until the first Sunday in October.
Krampus run. Around St. Nicholas Day on December 6th, a Krampus run takes place in some places. The Krampus is a creature with the most gruesome appearance possible. Several Krampuses form a pass. This includes a Santa Claus, accompanied by a Guazl bearer and an angel. Such parades go from house to house with devilish screams and loud jingling of bells to reward good children and punish bad ones. (video example).
Perchten: In the rough nights you can observe Perchten in some places, either as beautiful Perchten or less beautiful as Schiachperchten. The Perchten are supposed to drive out the winter with their bells.


What to do

Winter sports
Salzburg is a stronghold of alpine ski tourism in winter. There are numerous ski areas in the state:

Skicircus Saalbach-Hinterglemm Leogang near Saalbach-Hinterglemm and Leogang - ski region with a distinct party scene
Ski Amadé includes several ski areas in Salzburg and Styria with a total of 270 lifts and 760 kilometers of slopes. The following areas belong to Ski Amadé
Salzburger Sportwelt with the ski areas of Flachau, Wagrain, St. Johann-Alpendorf, Zauchensee-Flachauwinkl, Flachauwinkl-Kleinarl, Radstadt-Altenmarkt, Eben, Filzmoos and Goldegg
Gastein with Schlossalm and Stubnerkogel, Sportgastein and Graukogel
Grossarltal with Grossarl and Dorfgastein
Hochkönig with Dienten, Maria Alm and Mühlbach am Hochkönig
Schladming-Dachstein: this ski area is mostly in Styria

Kitzsteinhorn glacier ski area near Kaprun
Lungau ski region - in the tariff network with Obertauern and Katschberg
Ski area Reiteralm & Fageralm near Schladming and Forstau
Dachstein-West ski region



Naturally, there is a corresponding range of entertainment and cultural events in the larger cities.



The following emergency numbers are available:
rescue 144
police 133
Fire Department 122
Gas emergency number 128
Water Rescue 144
Cave Rescue 144
Mountain Rescue 140
Medical emergency service 141
Poison Information Center 01 406 43 43
Emergency call for victims 0800 112 112



The state of Salzburg covers an area of 7,154.56 km². The highest elevation in Salzburg is the Großvenediger, which is 3657 m above sea level. A. is the fourth highest mountain in Austria. 174 km of the state border are also the Austrian state border, for the most part in the north-west with Bavaria/Germany and to a small extent in the south-west with South Tyrol/Italy. Otherwise Salzburg borders on Tyrol in the west and south-west, on Upper Austria in the north-east, on Styria in the east and on Carinthia in the south.

The northern part of the country is divided into two districts:
The Flachgau is the northernmost region of the country, which also includes the immediate area south of the city of Salzburg. Its name was created late, based on the designations of the other districts "in the mountains" and expresses the geographical characteristics of the area. This consists of the Salzburg foothills of the Alps and small parts of the Osterhorn Group, which belongs to the northern Limestone Alps.
The Tennengau adjoins the Flachgau to the south and encompasses the area around the city of Hallein and the communities to the south of it. Its name derives from the Tennengebirge, the first part of the name of which goes back to the word fir. It essentially includes the Salzach Valley, which is wide here, and the mountains of the northern Limestone Alps on either side of it.

The southern part of the state of Salzburg is divided into three districts:
The Pinzgau occupies the western part of it. Its name may derive from the Celtic tribe of the Ambisonts. A common explanation is that the area is the "Binsen" Gau, since this plant was likely to be found here frequently in the past.
The Pongau forms the middle of the three southern districts. The name derives from Pongo, the former name for today's Bischofshofen. Pongo itself probably goes on a Celtic bona "boundary;" (limited) area, plane" back; a connection with beans is also possible; what is meant is the horse bean, which could be found here.
The Lungau is located in the southeast of the province of Salzburg. The origin of the name has not been clarified, but it can be traced back to a Slavic or Celtic word. A connection with Lonka is possible, the name for a stream in the north of the Lungau, which goes back to the Slavic word for "moor, swamp".

These three southern districts are part of the Hohe Tauern and in the Lungau of the Niedere Tauern, both of which belong to the Central Alps. Together they are referred to as "Innergebirge" - especially from the point of view of the less mountainous areas of the state of Salzburg.


Administrative division

political districts
The state of Salzburg is divided into five political districts and one statutory city, the city of Salzburg. The districts are still called Gaue (as landscape areas) as is customary in the country.



The settlement history of Salzburg goes back to the oldest Neolithic period. The oldest name of the city comes from the Celts: Iuvavum. Under the Romans, Iuvavum was an administrative district within the province of Noricum or Noricum Ripense. Since the Bavarians took over the country in the 6th century, the area that later became the state of Salzburg belonged to the Duchy of Bavaria. By founding or renewing the monastery of St. Peter in 696 and founding the women's monastery on the Nonnberg in 713 on the ruins of the Roman Iuvavum, St. Rupert laid the foundation for a diocese (739), which became the archbishopric of Salzburg in 798 and thus became the center of the Bavarian ecclesiastical province. This included almost the entire old Bavarian region.

Archbishop Eberhard II, a determined supporter of the Hohenstaufen family, succeeded in building up a closed archbishopric dominion from 1200 to 1246 from counties, courts and bailiwicks. With the recognition of the borders of this - for the time being still Bavarian - state of Salzburg by Duke Heinrich XIII. von Landshut in 1275, the separation of Salzburg from the Duchy of Bavaria began. In 1328, Salzburg became a largely independent state within the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation through the enactment of its own provincial ordinance. As the archbishopric of Salzburg, it developed into a buffer state between Bavaria and the Habsburg lands. Until the end of the old empire, however, it was considered part of Bavaria in terms of landscape (it was part of the Bavarian imperial circle; Abraham a Sancta Clara speaks of "Salzburg in Bavaria").

In the 15th and 16th centuries, not only was the salt trade of great economic importance, but also gold mining in the Rauriser and Gastein valleys. For a short time, the amounts of gold mined were the largest in Central Europe. The wealth of the state of Salzburg increased, but with it the social tensions between rich citizens and aristocrats as well as the poor rural population. Combined with an autocratic claim to power by the prince-archbishops, the tensions in 1462/63 and 1525, originating in the mountain districts, led to peasant uprisings. The peasant revolt of 1525 was also influenced by the emergence of Protestantism. As a result, Protestants were expelled several times. The largest wave of expulsions took place under Prince Archbishop Leopold Anton Graf von Firmian, who expelled around 20,000 Salzburg Protestants (“Salzburg Exulants”) from the country in 1731/32.

In 1803 the principality came to the Habsburg Grand Duke Ferdinand III as the secularized Electorate of Salzburg. of Tuscany, in 1805 together with the Prince Provostship of Berchtesgaden to form the Austrian Empire, founded in 1804. In 1810, as a result of the Paris Treaty, Salzburg became a Bavarian province as the Salzach district. After the Congress of Vienna in 1814/15, Salzburg was finally incorporated into the Austrian Empire in 1816 with the Treaty of Munich. In 1829 the Saline Convention was concluded with Bavaria. Until 1850, the Salzburger Land as the Salzburg district was only a part of Austria above the Enns (Upper Austria). The western parts of Salzburg, which until then had always belonged to Salzburg, and the former Prince Provostship of Berchtesgaden remained with Bavaria, while the Zillertal and Windischmatrei (Matrei in East Tyrol) were annexed to Tyrol.

In 1850, on the decision of Emperor Franz Joseph I, Salzburg became its own Austrian crown land, which had its own state parliament as the legislative branch and a state committee as the executive branch since 1861 on the basis of the constitution mentioned in February ). The country now also elected mandataries to the House of Representatives of the Reichsrat.

At the end of October 1918, the state of Salzburg became part of German Austria, since November 12, 1918 the Republic and since October 25, 1919 the Republic of Austria. In the non-official plebiscite of May 29, 1921, 99.07% of the voters voted for the annexation of Salzburg to the German Reich. However, secession from Austria contradicted Austria's constitution, as did annexation to the German Reich with the Treaty of Saint-Germain, so that the plebiscite had no corresponding political consequences.

Like all of Austria, Salzburg was ruled dictatorially from 1934 to 1938. During the Nazi dictatorship (1938-1945), Salzburg was the only former Austrian state with unchanged national borders. The Eugen Grill works in Hallein were the largest armaments factory in the country during the Nazi era. During the so-called occupation period (1945–1955), Salzburg, like Upper Austria south of the Danube and part of Vienna, was part of the US occupation zone.



With 61.2 percent, the Roman Catholic Church is the largest religious community in the province of Salzburg, and another 2.9 percent are of the Protestant faith. According to estimates, 3.7% of the population belong to an orthodox church, 5.6% are Muslim and 0.01% profess Judaism (all figures as of early 2018).

There are no current figures on the religious composition of the rest of the population. These figures were last collected during the census in 2001: At that time, 3.9% of the population belonged to other religious communities (not listed above), 9.6% were unaffiliated and a further 3.1% gave no information about their religion.



state constitution
The current Salzburg state constitution dates from 1999 and has been amended several times since then. With the decree, which was adopted in a referendum, the government proportional representation (the representation of all parties according to their strength in the state parliament) that had been in force since 1921 was abolished and replaced by the majority system. In return, the minority rights in the state parliament (committees of inquiry, referendums, rights of inquiry, rights of control, etc.) were expanded. The 2005 revision lowered the voting age to 16.

As early as 1921, instruments for the direct co-determination of the population were introduced in the form of referendums and referendums. In 1985 the referendum was also made possible. At the same time, the support requirement would be reduced from the previous 20,000 eligible voters to 10,000 eligible voters.

The Salzburg State Parliament is the legislative body of the State of Salzburg. It is made up of 36 MEPs belonging to five political groups. Since the 2018 elections, the largest parliamentary group has been the ÖVP with 15 seats, followed by the SPÖ with 8 seats.

Historically, the ÖVP was the largest parliamentary group in the state parliament. With the elections to the Salzburg state parliament on March 7, 2004, the SPÖ under Gabi Burgstaller became the party with the most votes for the first time. This position was regained by the ÖVP in the state elections in Salzburg in 2013 after the Salzburg speculation scandal.

state government
The Salzburg state government is the highest administrative body in the state and has 7 members. Since 2018, the incumbent state government has consisted of five government members from the ÖVP, one representative from the Greens and one representative from NEOS.

See also: Governor of Salzburg
In the history of republican Austria, two provincial governors from Salzburg have played important roles: in the First Republic Franz Rehrl, in the Second Republic Josef Klaus, who from 1964 to 1970 was in the cabinets Klaus I (grand coalition) and Klaus II (first sole government of the Second Republic) acted as Federal Chancellor.

Europe region
The Euregio Salzburg - Berchtesgadener Land - Traunstein has existed since 1995, an association at municipal level to improve the diverse intergovernmental cooperation in the implementation of European ideas.

Via the e-government portal of the state of Salzburg, citizens can fill out applications online and send them electronically to the competent authority. This form of application simplifies the administrative process and the procedure can be completed more quickly. The form solutions cover i.a. The areas of "Construction and Housing", "Agriculture and Forestry" and "Culture" come from the Austrian IT company aforms2web.

Salzburg state newspaper and state correspondence
The Salzburger Landeszeitung has existed since 1774 (formerly: Salzburger Zeitung) and is now published fortnightly as the official gazette by the Landesmedienzentrum. In addition, press releases are published on an ongoing basis under the title Salzburg State Correspondence, which can be accessed online in the press archive.

Since 1970, the state of Salzburg and the Republic of Lithuania, which was still a Soviet republic at the time, have had a partnership.

In 1999 a partnership agreement was signed with the Autonomous Province of Trento (Republic of Italy). It is the Italian part of the historic Austrian crown land of Tyrol, usually called Trentino in Austria until 1918, the former Welschtirol.


Economy, transport and infrastructure

In comparison with the average gross domestic product of the European Union, expressed in purchasing power standards, the state of Salzburg achieved an index value of 152 in 2014 (EU-28: 100, Austria: 129). In 2016, Salzburg was the richest federal state in Austria, ahead of Vienna, with a gross domestic product per capita of EUR 48,700.

In the province of Salzburg, tourism is one of the most important economic sectors. Due to its alpine location, the country lives on summer and winter tourism. After Tyrol, the state of Salzburg is the Austrian state with the most overnight stays (from 2001 to 2011 between around 21.5 and 24.5 million annually). The tourism marketing of the state is coordinated by the SalzburgerLand Tourismus GmbH. Shareholders of this company under commercial law are the tourism associations of the state of Salzburg with 51 percent of the shares. The state of Salzburg holds another 40% shares, as well as 3% each from the Chamber of Commerce, Chamber of Agriculture and Chamber of Labour.

Due to its special geographical location, Salzburg is connected to the Bavarian districts of Berchtesgadener Land and Traunstein in terms of transport and economy. The shortest road connection to the towns and municipalities of the Pinzgau leads via the so-called Kleine Deutsches Eck (Salzburg-Bad Reichenhall-Lofer). Freilassing (the district of Salzburghofen was once a suburb of Salzburg) and Bad Reichenhall are particularly economically connected to Salzburg.

In terms of rail transport, the Vienna – Salzburg, Salzburg – Rosenheim (– Munich) and Salzburg – Villach railway lines in particular are of supra-regional importance. In the surrounding area of the city of Salzburg there is the network of the Salzburg S-Bahn, which is to be supplemented by the Salzburg regional city railway.

“Salzburg AG”, which owns around three quarters of the city and state of Salzburg, acts as the largest infrastructural provider in the state. This offers electricity, water, natural gas and district heating and operates various public transport. The company also offers telecommunications services (telephone, internet, cable TV).



Regional customs

The different landscapes are home to many different customs, some of which are only (still) maintained in a single place. In the pre-Christmas period, Santa Claus comes nationwide with the Krampus. A more recent development in larger cities or market towns are organized Krampus runs, in which the Krampus figures are more based on fantasy costumes from the film industry. One of the few areas where Krampus festivals still go from house to house every year on December 5th and 6th under the motto "true to the good old custom" is the Gasteinertal.

Every year in the rough nights after Christmas, Glöckler and Perchten come with the purpose of chasing away the evil spirits of winter (driving out winter) and thus making room for the new year. Among other things, the Pongauer Perchtenlauf (see Perchten) is well-known.

Lively summer customs, especially in the Lungau, are the prang poles and the Samson parades. The 5-day Rupertikirtag in the city of Salzburg is one of the most famous folk festivals in Austria and is visited by more than 100,000 people every year.


Cultural associations and cultural events

Clubs and groups for the purpose of promoting cultural interests and organizing cultural events are concentrated in the state capital, but are represented throughout the state. The umbrella association of Salzburg cultural sites acts as an organizational association and representative of common interests. Official advisory bodies on the part of the state are the Salzburg State Cultural Advisory Board and the Salzburg Cultural Service.

Major cultural events and event cycles are primarily held in the city of Salzburg. In addition to traditional events of local importance, the important regular cultural events in the state include the Rauris Literature Days (since 1971), the Saalfelden Jazz Festival (since 1979) and the Paul Hofhaimer Days (old and new music, since 1987) taking place in Radstadt.


Cultural promotion

The state of Salzburg has set up numerous cultural sponsorships with a particular focus on supporting contemporary art. In the field of literature, these are the Rauris Literature Prize, the Georg Trakl Prize for poetry and annual scholarships for literature. There are also annual scholarships in the areas of music, film and fine arts, as well as the Great Art Prize for Music, the Salzburg Music Prize and various state prizes for architecture, ceramics, painting and graphics.