Cheb is a town in the district of the same name in the Karlovy Vary region, 40 km southwest of Karlovy Vary and 5 km from the border with Germany on the river Ohře. The first historically preserved mention of Cheb, the central city of the former Cheb region, dates from 1061. Until the end of World War II, the majority of the population was German and Cheb was an important part of the Sudetenland. After the war, the German population was displaced and the city was largely depopulated. Approximately 32,000 people live here. There are seven primary schools, two secondary schools, one practical school, a grammar school and the Faculty of Economics of the University of West Bohemia in Cheb. The main industries here are engineering, textile, metalworking, construction, woodworking and food.



The first historically preserved mention of Cheb, the central city of the former Cheb region, dates from 1061. Cheb fortified settlement was inhabited in the 9th century by the Slavs. In 1146, the Cheb region fell to Emperor Frederick I. Barbarossa, who had a medieval castle (Palatinate) built here, which is still partially preserved here. Cheb was promoted to a town in 1179. In January 1285, the wedding of the Czech King Wenceslas II took place in Cheb. with the daughter of the Roman King Rudolf I. Jitka, then Cheb belonged alternately to Bohemia and Germany, in 1322 Louis IV. With the consent of the Chebs, Bavor pledged the Czech King Jan of Luxembourg. The city was promised independence from the kingdom, but lost the status of a free imperial city. The pledge was never paid.

On May 5, 1389, a peace treaty was signed here, between King Wenceslas IV. and the Union of South German Imperial Cities, when the king failed to advance his interests (see Cheb Peace Peace). During the Hussite wars, Cheb, as a Catholic city, was actively on the side of the anti-Hussite coalition. In the later Reformation, however, the inhabitants of the city joined Lutheranism. Therefore, after the Battle of Bílá Hora, during the post-White Mountain period, Cheb did not avoid violent re-Catholicization either. The townspeople hoped that the Saxon Elector would help the city regain its lost special position, and thus its inhabitants would avoid re-Catholicization. As late as 1649, the Saxon Elector interceded with the emperor for Cheb in vain. Many local townspeople emigrated from the country because of their faith, exiles from Cheb moved to the cities of Annaberg-Buchholz, Nuremberg, Leipzig and Zwickau (Germany).

On February 25, 1634, Albrecht of Wallenstein and his officers at the castle were murdered in Cheb, in Pachelbel's house on King George of Poděbrady Square behind Špalíček (today the Cheb Museum [5]).

The autonomous tendencies associated with the reference to the special position of Cheb within the lands of the Czech Crown made the Habsburgs the final end in 1723, when they made Cheb a free royal city (but for about another hundred years it belonged to the Regensburg diocese). In this context, the adoption of a pragmatic sanction on October 21, 1721 can be seen as the last constitutional act of the Cheb region.

Although the German-speaking Cheb region was a part of the Czech Crown Land from 1322, after the end of the First World War, the majority of the local population was not satisfied with the newly formed Czechoslovakia and demanded secession from the Czechoslovak Republic and annexation to the newly formed German Austria. However, after the arrival of the "Italian" legionnaires in 1919, their plans failed to materialize. During the First Republic, the number of Czechs who came to the border for work in Cheb increased considerably. However, the anti-Czech sentiments of the German population have been steadily increasing since 1933 and culminated in 1938. The triumphant arrival of Adolf Hitler on October 3, 1938 crowned the crowded Cheb square crowned by the Munich Agreement, thousands of Czechoslovaks and German anti-fascists and the Sudetenland's annexation .

After 1945, the majority of the German population was displaced to Germany, which caused a significant decline in population (the pre-war state was not reached until the 1990s). After the Velvet Revolution, a large community of Vietnamese settled here, doing business in their markets.

In the years 2020 and 2021, the covidu-19 pandemic hit Cheb with extreme force, claiming 570 proven victims in the Cheb district on 10 May 2021. One in the district's 160 inhabitants succumbed to the deadly virus. During January and February 2021, under an extreme influx of patients, local health care collapsed. Doctors did not manage to take care of patients who had to be transported to other parts of the state.


Natural conditions

Geological structure, relief and soils
Cheb is located in the west of the Czech Republic near the border with Germany. Neighboring towns are Františkovy Lázně and Aš in the northwest, Sokolov and Karlovy Vary in the northeast and Mariánské Lázně and Tachov in the southeast. A meridian with a value of 12 ° 22 'E and a parallel of 50 ° 04' N passes through the town. The average altitude is around 472 m above sea level. In the vicinity of Cheb there are dams Skalka and Jesenice.