Děčín (German Tetschen-Bodenbach, originally Tetschen) is a statutory town in the district of Děčín in the Ústí nad Labem Region at the confluence of the rivers Elbe and Ploučnice. It covers an area of 118.04 km2 and has a population of approximately 49,000. It is an important river port, an important railway junction and lies at the junction of several important roads. It is located on the border of Bohemian Switzerland and Bohemian Central Mountains. The river Elbe, which divides Děčín into two halves, gives the city and its surroundings a unique character and strongly influences the lives of its inhabitants. Thanks to its location, Děčín is one of the greenest cities in the Czech Republic. The Elbe Canyon, the largest sandstone canyon in Europe, begins on its edge.



The original settlement was founded at the then Elbe Ford, which was crossed by an important trade route.

The Přemyslid fortified settlement was gradually built on today's castle rock, which served as an administrative and defensive center. In the 13th century, a Gothic stone castle was built on the site of the fort, in the castle grounds of which King Přemysl Otakar II left. to establish a royal city. The first written mention of Děčín as a town comes from 1283.

In the 14th century, the city was hit by several floods. Therefore, its center was moved a little higher, approximately to the level of today's Masaryk Square. At that time, the city had the right to trade, river transport and fishing.

During the Hussite revolution, the city was affected by several fires. In the 16th and 17th centuries, there was a frequent change of owners of the Děčín estate - three owners took turns here before they were acquired by the family of knights from Bünau (Bynov). During their rule over Děčín, there was a rapid development of trade and handicraft production. The city operated brickyards, limestone and quarries. It also owned docks, shipyards and ferries, which were a significant source of income. The city remained the property of the Knights of Bünau until the Thirty Years' War.

In 1628 the manor was sold to the Thun-Hohensteins. After the Thirty Years' War, the importance of Děčín declined again. During that period, the Thun family began a major reconstruction of the town castle into a Baroque chateau, surrounded by gardens. Further development was brought to Děčín only in the 18th century, when the fortification status of the town was abolished. The Thuns rebuilt the castle into its current classicist form.

A great stimulus for the further rapid development of the city was the commissioning of the Prague-Dresden railway line, on April 8, 1851. The main line passing along the left bank of the Elbe began the transformation of Děčín into an industrial city. The still small village of Podmokly, through which the track passed, began to develop. In 1874, Děčín became a railway junction. Lines from Teplice, Česká Kamenice and Ústí nad Labem (along the right bank of the river) were also completed. A railway bridge over the Elbe was built. Along with the railway, the Elbe steamship is also developing. In Podmokle, industrial enterprises are growing together with tumultuous housing construction. The village was promoted to a town in 1901 and in 1914 it already had about 20,000 inhabitants.

After the First World War, during the high levels of hyperinflation in the German lands (1922–1923), payment vouchers were issued in individual cities, intended for valuation in the so-called barter. In Podmokle - Děčín (Bodenbach - Tetschen in German), vouchers worth 5 and 10 Kronen were issued.

In the war year 1942, the two towns of Děčín and Podmokly, together with the village of Staré Město, were merged into one town with the common name Děčín. This situation was confirmed even after the war in 1945, when other municipalities were added to the already formed unit (Rozbělesy, Chrochvice, Želenice, Vilsnice, Bynov, Bělá, Boletice nad Labem, Nebočady, Březiny).

In the communist era, the construction of the city continued. The industry continued to develop and due to housing construction there was also a further increase in the number of inhabitants. Since 1960, Děčín has been the center of the very populous Děčín district with an area of ​​909 km² and a population of 130,000. Large panel housing estates were established in the 1960s and 1980s. In the 1920s, especially in the Old Town, Boletice nad Labem, Želenice, Bynov, Březiny and Nové město. However, the historic core of old Děčín was particularly affected by this development. At this time, the importance of Elbe navigation was again strengthened by the construction of a modern port and transhipment depot in Loubí, making Děčín the most important Czech port. Since 1980, other surrounding villages have been connected to Děčín, such as Dolní Žleb or Lesná.