Františkovy Lázně It is a town in the district of Cheb in the Karlovy Vary region, 5 km north of Cheb. Approximately 5,500 inhabitants live here.
Church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross - Classicist
single-nave building, from 1815–1819, designed by Karel Wiedermann
St. James Church
Evangelical Church of St. Peter and Paul
The Orthodox Church of St. Princess Olga from 1881 was designed by the local architect Gustav Wiedermann.
Salingburg lookout tower from 1906
Zámeček lookout tower near Františkovy Lázně
The synagogue in Františkovy Lázně was used by the Jewish community in the years 1875–1938. It was burned down by the Nazis in 1938 and today a monument is in its place.
The meteorological column from 1882 is the oldest preserved column with meteorological instruments in the Czech Republic.
Monument to František Lázně
A monument with a relief of the local patron Klára Nonnerová, Karel Wilfert Jr.
A monument to Božena Němcová, who visited the town in 1846 and 1847
Monument - a statue of the standing Joseph II, the Holy Roman Emperor and the Czech King; (transferred from Cheb)
Monument - a statue of the standing emperor and Czech king Francis II.
Equestrian statue of Emperor Francis I from the Czech Estates Monument in Prague; copy (original in the Lapidary of the National Museum in Prague, sculptor: Josef Max)
Monument with the bust of MUDr. Bernhard Adler
A monument with a statue of Francis Joseph I, the Austrian emperor and the Hungarian and Czech kings, with a hat and in the dress of a knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece; in front of the Imperial Baths; copy (original in the Lapidary of the National Museum in Prague), sculptor: Josef Václav Pekárek
Monument to the soldiers of the United States Army who liberated Františkovy Lázně on April 25, 1945
Memorial plaque on the house where the composer Ludwig van Beethoven stayed in 1812
Memorial plaque on the house where the writer Božena Němcová lived
Monument to the poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe; Karel Wilfert Jr.
Monument to the poet Wilhelm Müller
Monument to the victims of Nazism
Monument to Ludvík Lazar Zamenhof, creator of Esperanto, Karel Wilfert Jr.; torso;
Memorial plaque to Johann Strauss, Austrian composer
Spa hotels and spas
Hotel Three Lilies from 1793, known for the residence of J. W. Goethe
Spa Resort Pawlik - Aquaforum
Imperial Spa (part of Spa Resort Pawlik - Aquaforum)
Hall of Glauber's Springs (1930)
The healing effects of the local springs
have been known since the 15th century. The water from the springs
was used not only by the locals, but was also sold throughout
Germany. In 1700, sales of Franciscan spa water in Germany exceeded
the volume of water coming from all German spas. The city was
founded in 1793 by Emperor Francis I. After Francis I, the city
bears its name. The founder of the spa operation as the first peat
spa in the world is considered to be the physician Bernhard Adler
(1753–1810), a native of Cheb.
The protection of mineral water resources and the entire spring structure has undergone a gradual development. In 1866, Decree No. 1086 established a protection zone with a radius of 1500 m and a center at the Solný source.
The Upper Governor's Office in Prague made a change by Decree No. 374 of March 4, 1882 - it established a circular protection zone with a distinction between internal and external. However, the first long-term valid and recognized protection districts were established only by a decree of the Mining Governor of October 1, 1883 under No. 2387. The decree defined a narrower and wider area of protection of the Františkovy Lázně springs against mining activities. In the narrower zone, all mining activity was prohibited, while in the wider protective area, mining activity was not restricted in the Tertiary, but all work in the crystalline rocks below the level of the František outflow pipe (434.4 m above sea level) was prohibited.
These protection circuits were valid until 1959, when the Czechoslovak Ministry of Health LZ / 3-2884-15.9 established temporary protection zones for Františkovy Lázně. This happened on the basis of new findings from a comprehensive research of the Cheb Basin, but especially in response to the negative impact of the eruption on well H11. Thus, the course of the boundaries of the narrower protection zone was specified according to the extent of the spring structure and the outer protection zone was considerably expanded. This happened mainly due to the protection of the infiltration basin and the area dangerous for the indirect influence of the spring regime.
The proposal for new protection zones submitted in 1962 was not accepted due to the fundamental disapproval of the Ministry of Fuels, as it provided for a ban on lignite mining. In 1975, the provisional zones were extended by Decree of the Ministry of Health of the Czechoslovak Republic No. 40/1975, amount 16-17 / 1975 Coll. The second draft definitive zones, submitted in 1978, was again not adopted. This time for the fundamental disagreement of the Ministry of Health, because on the contrary, he allowed mining activities.
Definitive protection zones were established only after the Velvet Revolution by Government Decree 152/1992 Coll., on the basis of further comprehensive research and evaluation (Pazdera, 1978, Herzog 1985). The zones respect the ban on lignite mining to the extent of all three levels of protection.
23 springs of Na2SO4 water are actively used, which are captured
by shallow pits and boreholes, which produce approximately 700 to
1,000 l / m. The water temperature ranges from 8 to 13 ° C with a
mineralization of 1–20 g / l, the CO2 content is between 1.1 and 2.8
g / l.
Historians date the use of springs to prehistoric times, as evidenced by the paleontological find of the settlement, made at the source of Palliardi in 1960.
The first specific mention of mineral water is the purchase contract from 1406, more specific data comes from 1502 (Engelharth) and 1542 (Brusch). The first more detailed descriptions concern the springs of mineral water in the area of today's František's spring (especially Macasius 1613), the others then the Gas spring. The first medical buildings were built at the spring as early as 1694 and the mention of the first bottling plant dates back to 1661.
It is obvious that the more intensive use of mineral waters is historically relatively old. From the 18th and 19th centuries, the works of Adler (1782), Reuss (1794), Hoffer (1799), von Osann (1822), Palliardi (1830) or Lautner (1841) are especially famous. The spa is starting to develop according to pre-prepared plans.
From the end of the 18th century, the importance of the spa grew rapidly and its attractiveness attracted a large number of visitors. Due to investments in the spring base, mineral water springs were found and captured in a relatively quick sequence in shallow wells about 3-4 meters below the ground.
List of sources (sorted alphabetically):
Bosse (1887), Cartellieri (1860), František (1793), Hercules (1878), Loimann (1807), Luční (1823), Luisa (1807), Natálie (1878), Nový (1849), Palliardi (not mentioned), Gas Spring Marie (1791), Solný (1819), Studený (also called Secondary, 1813), Štěpánka (1878), Wiedermann (1907), Western Springs (1902), Železnatý (1863) and Žofia (1878?). The collection facilities were gradually improved and reconstructed, most often in the form of bricked collection bells. Some of the listed sources have already disappeared.
A significant milestone was the year 1822, when Josef August Hecht leased the mineral water bottling plant in Františkovy Lázně. Thanks to technical innovations (hermetic filling of bottles without air access), he was able to increase the export of mineral water and economically revive the spa.
The deeper capture of mineral waters is not clearly mapped, especially in its beginnings. The first data on the capture of mineral waters in the lower formation relate to the so-called "Well in Císařské Lázně", which was excavated in 1889. However, the surviving data come from 1919 (Neudert, or Knett) and 1922 (Päckert). It was a 34.5 m deep well, which was located in the courtyard of Císařské Lázně (today Lázně II) - cabin 11, which it supplied with an overflow of approx. 600 l / min.
The high number of visitors, culminating in 1912 (65,000 people per season), the supply requirements of the new large Harwey Spa House built in 1917–1918, as well as the efforts to make the larger spring base more attractive, led to exploratory work at the end of the first decade. should discover new sources of mineral water. The financially, time- and technically demanding drilling survey was paid for from municipal, district and state funds. The company Rumpel GmbH from Šanov u Teplic was selected for the implementation. Rumpel's 1919-1936 survey was documented very precisely and systematically. Gradually, at least 23 boreholes were dug over 20 years, seven of which were put into permanent operation (Glauber I, Glauber II, Glauber III, Glauber IV, Adler, Kostelní, XIVd).
After World War II, an attempt was made to capture shallow sources by drilling, but none were successful and the old shallow catches were reconstructed. The only new sources were the wells H12N Sluneční (1962) and BJ2 Stanislav (1983). Further development of the spring foundation occurred only after the fall of the socialist establishment, when wells E1 Erika, LII Císařský, HJ2 ČKD, A1 Nový Kostelní were drilled and put into operation.
Shallow pits take water from the upper clayey-sandy formation from the base of the peat, ie about 3-4 m deep. Most pits do not have an active overflow and are pumped. The wells take water from the lower clayey-sandy formation, which is separated from the upper formation by a layer of coal. The collection depth varies from about 20 to 70 m. The only Glauber IV well collects mineral water from weathered underlying phyllites (92 m).
Mineral water is used for drinking cures, baths and the preparation of peat wraps. Spring gas (carbon dioxide) is also used. Water from BJ2 Stanislav, A1 Nový Kostelní, Glauber III, LII Císařský, E1 Erika, HJ2 ČKD, Adler, XIVd, Palliardi, Cartellieri and Štěpánka are collected in spas.
According to medicinal indications, the local water has a positive effect on diseases of the heart and circulatory system.