Havířov is a statutory town in Těšín Silesia, in the
Moravian-Silesian Region, located in the Ostrava agglomeration 11 km
southeast of Ostrava on the river Lučina. Approximately 71 thousand
people live here.
Havířov is the youngest town in the Czech Republic (but not the youngest village), ceremoniously declared on December 4, 1955. It was built after the Second World War in the then cadastres of Dolní Bludovice, Šumbark and partly Šenov, as a satellite town of Ostrava - located on historic road route connecting Opava, Ostrava and Český Těšín. Havířov is the largest city in the Czech Republic, which has never been a district or regional city, and also, together with Krnov, Turnov and Česká Třebová, one of the four Czech cities larger than its district city. The city has a mechanical, energy, food and rubber industry.
The most architecturally valuable and interesting element is the core of the city and its immediate surroundings, which was built in the 50s - 60s in the style of socialist realism, which was declared a protected monument zone in 1992 and named after this style of Sorel. The Sorely area is very valuable for its timeless urban design. Another well-known building of the city is the railway station, one of the best preserved examples of the Brussels style of the 1960s, famous after 2012 by the then owner of the Czech Railways with the city's support for its demolition, which met with resistance from civic associations and the public.
The name of the city
The name of the newly founded city came from a public tender announced by the Regional National Committee in Ostrava. On April 12, 1955, the best three were selected from 625 letters with 2350 proposals: Šachtín, Havířov and Cingrov - names well pronounced and describing the mining character of the city under construction. The winner was the name of Šachtín by the decision of the KNV council, but the final decision was on the Minister of the Interior, who preferred the name Havířov, which was subsequently confirmed by a new resolution of the KNV council on 27 September 1955. this name.
Examples of other, often bizarre, proposals for the name of the town: Klementov, Gottwaldův Horníkov, Nový Gottwaldov, Zápotockýgrad, Bezručov, Fučíkov, Petrov, Janáčkov, Ostravský Mírumilov, Všemírov, Šťastnov, Nový Život, Čestprácov, Čestmírov, Oryon, Lidobudovatelov, Budosoc , Rudohvězdov, Uhlín, Horníkov, Faratín, Čurdov, Havířovany, Baník, Kahanov, Stokomínů, Kombajnov, Nové Slezsko, Slezanov, Slezský Donbas, Čechurov, Melsgottwald, or proposals combining the names of the original villages - Šumdovice, Šešudolvice, Šembarkovice, Šublu Šešumblud.
History of the original Havířov villages
The Slavs have inhabited the Těšín region since the 8th century and were dependent on the Great Moravian Empire, later on the Přemyslids. From the end of the 10th century, after the invasion of Prince Boleslav the Brave, the territory became part of the Polish state. The territory of today's Havířov was part of the Opole Principality, from which the Těšín Principality became independent after 1281 under the rule of Prince Měšek, which has always been part of the Czech state since 1325. The settlement of the area gained momentum in the second half of the 13th century and the beginning of the 14th century. The Benedictine Benedictine monastery played an important role in the establishment of the village. The first historical mentions in 1305 refer to Šenov (Šonov, Schönhof, Szonów) and Horní and Dolní Suchá (Sucha ultraque, ie "both Suchá"). The first reliable evidence of the existence of Bludovice dates from 1335 (since the 15th century, they are already divided into Dolní and Horní Bludovice). Šumbark is first mentioned in 1438, but it was probably also founded in the 14th century. In the middle of the 16th century, Šumbark is written about as a town, but there is no evidence that Šumbark could actually enjoy city rights. In 1533, Životice (formerly also Žibotice) is mentioned for the first time and in 1577 Dolní Datyně (the village is probably older). In 1725, Prostřední Suchá was established as a division from Dolní Suchá. In 1788, the settlement of Kašpárkovice was established on the territory of Dolní Suchá, and is now extinct as a result of hard coal mining.
All municipalities had an agricultural character. The turnaround has taken place since the mid-19th century with the development of industry and the emergence of nearby coal mines, which have given jobs to local people and also attracted many immigrants. The development of municipalities since 1911 was supported by the opening of the new railway line Velké Kunčice (now part of Ostrava) - Prostřední Suchá, including the stations Šumbark and Dolní Suchá, which was extended from 1914 to Těšín.
After the disintegration of Austria-Hungary in 1918, the villages of the future Havířov became part of the disputed territory of Těšín, which was claimed by the newly formed states of Czechoslovakia and Poland, which culminated in a seven-day war at the end of January 1919. The conflict was resolved on July 28, 1920 at the embassy conference in Spa, where the borders between Czechoslovakia and Poland were determined, thus dividing the still Cieszyn region between the two states. The territory of Havířov municipalities fell to Czechoslovakia. However, national passions persisted among the mixed population. In October 1938, the Czechoslovak part of Těšín was annexed by Poland again, so that a year later, when the Second World War was in full swing, it became part of the German Empire. The Nazis were pushed out of Havířov's territory on May 3, 1945 by Soviet troops of the 4th Ukrainian Front advancing from the direction of Šenov and Orlová. After that, the border between Czechoslovakia and Poland was restored in 1920, but the dispute over Těšín was finally resolved diplomatically only on June 13, 1958 by the agreement on the final determination of the border, signed in Warsaw.
Construction of new housing estates 1946–1955
After the Second World War, in connection with the dynamic expansion of hard coal industry and mining in the Ostrava region, and the related intensive influx of immigrants for work, there was a demand for a new settlement in the Karviná - Místek area. The basic parameters for the location of the headquarters were the location near coal reserves with commuting within 30 minutes and at the same time in an area that will not be mined by itself, which in the area between Šumbark and Dolní Bludovice met due to its location on a tectonic fault, the so-called The coal is located at a depth of up to 1.2 km, which, even in the case of mining, guarantees sufficient depth to prevent landslides. Another advantage of this area is the proximity of water and energy sources (Teplárna Suchá, Elektrárna Karviná, gas treatment plant Dolní Suchá), good transport connections to Ostrava by rail (line Ostrava - Č. Těšín - Slovakia) and road 11, as well as good natural terrain conditions. language between the rivers Lučina and Sušanka, forests in the vicinity and the proximity of the Beskydy Mountains for recreation.
The first idea for the construction of a new town was born in
1946, and already in the autumn of 1947 the construction of a new
housing estate Šenov-Šumbark was started on the border of the
cadastres of the villages Šenov and Šumbark. In the summer of 1949,
the first 96 housing units in this housing estate were handed over
for use - its inhabitants were mostly miners from neglected colonies
in Dolní Suchá, Lazy or Radvanice. Between 1950 and 1952, a large
boarding complex, the Pavka Korčagina Training School (so-called
Korčagin, now the seat of the municipality), was built on the border
of Šumbark and Dolní Bludovice. road Šumbark - Bludovice. This
construction became the second focus of intensive residential
construction, which became the basis of the core of the future city.
In 1951, the construction of a gas and water pipeline, including a
new waterworks in Petřvald, also took place in a north-south
direction, and at the same time a project for a new dam on the
Lučina River in Žermanice appeared. The first kindergarten was
opened in the Šumbark-Šenov housing estate in 1952, a cultural house
was built (the construction of a cultural house also began in the
second housing estate), in 1953 the first food shops, the first
primary school (today's Jarošova primary school) and a year later 5
On September 9, 1954, the Pionýrů Elementary School (now Školní ZŠ)
started operating, and a nursery school was opened in the same year
next to the Korčagin building.
With the increasing number of residential blocks, the administrative question became more and more burning. Šenov and Šumbark belonged to the district of Ostrava, while Dolní Bludovice belonged to the district of Český Těšín. Part of the Šenov-Šumbark housing estate was managed by the Šenov MNV, another part of the Šumbark MNV, which also managed most of the future core of Havířov, except for its southernmost part, which belonged to the Dolní Bludovice MNV. The new inhabitants found it difficult to orientate themselves in this situation, and so in 1954 the proposal of the MNV Šumbark to amend the territorial conditions came, which became the basis for the independence of the new town, which was accepted by the government. From April 1955, MNV Šumbark was entrusted with the administration of both settlements regardless of cadastral borders, preparing elections to the national committee of the new town, which was established on December 4, 1955 by separating parts of Šenov, Šumbark and Dolní Bludovice and merging them , at the same time he was granted city rights and became part of the Ostrava district (since 1957 Ostrava-countryside). As of 31 December 1955, the new Havířov had 16,640 inhabitants, while at the beginning of construction in 1947 there were only 2,000 inhabitants.
Development after the establishment of the town of Havířov 1956–1969
After the creation of the new city, the construction did not slow down. In 1956, another 857 housing units were handed over for use, the population had an average age of only 33 years and children made up 32% of the population. On April 8, 1956, the Radost cinema officially opened (Havířov was ceremoniously declared here in December 1955) with the screening of the film Red Glow above Kladno. In the same year, the second post office on Gottwaldova Street (today's Hlavní třída) was opened, which became a reinforcement for the original post office in Havířov III (former Šenov-Šumbark housing estate). In the spring of 1957, the supply lines of the Beskydy water supply system were dug on today's Hlavní třída, first from Řetník (Žermanice), then from Špluchov. In the same year, a new house numbering was introduced and the operation of the state savings bank began in May (first twice a week, daily since 1961). On April 4, 1958, the first two taxis began operating and the number of school facilities was continuously increased - in 1958, there were one eleven-year primary school, five eight-year primary schools and eleven kindergartens. On 31 August 1958, the Natural Theater (today's summer cinema) was opened with a performance of the Opava opera The Bartered Bride. In 1959, the Antonín Zápotocký School (so-called AZ) started operating and the construction of today's city center - Labužník and apartment blocks on Fibichova Street, including a 13-storey tower house, and also on Dělnická Street with the future savings bank began. The plan to build the town hall, theater, department store and hotel was postponed. In 1959, the health center in Havířov III was completed and the first proposals addressing women's employment were made by building a branch of a company such as Tesla or OP Prostějov. The Švermov Medical Center was completed in 1960, but this still did not solve the need for health care for the rapidly growing population of Havířov - since 1957, ideas for building a hospital had emerged. In March 1960, the wastewater treatment plant was completed. In the same year, work began on the relocation of the Havířov - Český Těšín railway line outside the mined areas (start of operation on 30 June 1961 at 10.25 am, double-tracking in 1962, electrification completed in 1964) and housing construction extended to Prostřední Suchá (then still part of Dolní Suchá). A vegetable company was opened (large greenhouses, on the territory of today's Globus hypermarket).
From 1 July 1960 there was a major administrative change - the
Havířov cadastre was extended to the territory of Dolní Suchá (7,681
inhabitants), the remaining parts of the municipalities of Šumbark
(873 inhabitants) and Dolní Bludovice (2,111 inhabitants), and also
to Životice ( 625 inhabitants). The annexation of another part of
the territory of Šenov met with the disapproval of the municipality.
The area of Havířov thus increased from 624.22 ha to 2973.74 ha
and the population increased by another 11,290. Havířov also became
part of the Karviná district. As of January 1, 1961, Havířov already
had 48,986 permanent and 5,000 temporary inhabitants.
As of 1 January 1961, the Beskydy water supply system with a capacity of 300 l / s was completed, but sufficient water was not provided until the completion of the Morávka (1964) and Šance (1967) dams. In 1961, the construction of Havířov IV (today's area of Lipová, Palackého, Makarenkova, Čapkova streets) and family houses in Bludovice, Šumbark and Suchá was also started. A Christmas sale was introduced in Labužník in November 1961, and it was officially put into operation in 1962. The first stage of the Havířov swimming pool was put into operation on 1 July 1961 and in October the first wing of the Petr Bezruč Cultural House (puppet theater, clubhouse, restaurant) , which addressed the demand for cultural activities. In April to October, the construction of the second hot water pipeline from the Dukla Mine Heating Plant for heating the new districts of Havířov V and VI (length 2x3.7 km, DN500, 170/70 ° C) took place.
On July 7, 1961, a fire broke out in the 8th layer of the Dukla Mine, which is one of the most tragic events in the history of Havířov with 108 miners.
In 1963, the road was put into operation under the designation 11H connecting the center of Havířov with Prostřední Sucha (today's Dělnická Street), a year later the road between Prostřední Sucha and Dukla Mine. the construction of the Havířov hospital, which has long been in demand, was started by a ceremonial excavation (the first part, comprising the infectious diseases department and the TB and respiratory diseases department, was opened on 1 October 1966). Jitřenka (delicatessen, confectionery, café) was opened in what was then Havířov VI in February 1965. On August 2, 1964, the Museum of the Fight against Fascism was ceremoniously opened in Životice (unofficially opened on August 6, 1963), today's Memorial of the Life Tragedy (rebuilt in 1984 to its current form). On April 1, 1964, independent Technical Services were established. In 1965, the construction of a new station hall was started, a block of stores on today's Náměstí Republiky was completed (book, Rybí grill, confectionery Pramen and spořitelna), on April 28, 1965 the Slavia Physical Education Unit was established, in 1966 in 1967 the construction of the winter stadium, family houses in Bludovice and in the Pacalůvka locality in Životice began, the urn grove in Šumbark was put into operation, on March 8, 1967 the Municipal House of Pioneers and Youth was opened and on December 25, 1967 Shatterhand operates a cinema Center with 536 seats and a projection apparatus for 70 and 25 mm film. On the night of August 20-21, 1968, Warsaw Pact troops also passed through Havířov, and a year later, on the 1st anniversary of the burning of Jan Palach in the square in front of Labužník, the assembly turned into clashes with Public Security.
On November 27, 1969, the main building of the hospital with two internal and one women's, surgical, resuscitation and pediatric wards was opened by cutting the white ribbon; by 1970, the hospital had 606 beds.
Stagnation period 1970-1989
With effect from 1 January 1970, the administrative and cadastral boundaries in Havířov were significantly modified. The fragmentation of Havířov into 13 city districts was solved by transformation into only four city districts Havířov 1 to 4, which was supplemented by Havířov 5 (connected municipality Dolní Datyně) from 1 October 1974 and Havířov 6 (attached municipality Horní Suchá from 1 July 1975) . As of 31 December 1970, Havířov had 81,317 inhabitants.
After 1970, there was a significant slowdown in housing
construction in Havířov, at which time attention was focused on the
construction of housing estates in the surrounding towns, especially
in Karviná, Orlová and Český Těšín, while Havířov remained somewhat
aside. In 1971, construction began mainly on the territory of
today's Podlesí district in the vicinity of the winter stadium, the
Permon department store and the Merkur hotel. In the same year, a
branch of the company Nářadí, np was started in Šumbark. The already
mentioned Permon shopping complex was built. Central Suchá (opened
in 1975). In 1972, the playground at Marie Kudeříková Elementary
School was opened, and in 1974 the construction around Vrchlického
Street in Podlesí was completed. In 1976, the construction of the
branch of the Svit Gottwaldov shoe company was started, which
started production in 1980. In November 1978, the Slavia Municipal
Sports Hall was opened. In the second half of the 1970s,
construction in Havířov almost stopped, and in addition, due to the
undermining of several dozen flats, it was declining every year,
especially in Suchá. The population of the town began to more or
less stagnate and even steadily decreased since the mid-1980s, which
was not prevented by a certain revival of construction in the form
of building panel housing estates in Šumbark, specifically
Šenov-Zadky localities since 1982, from the second half of the 80s
Šumbark II - 1st stage and 2nd stage and Šumbark-Nipples. The
construction of the Šumbark II housing estate - the 2nd stage - took
the longest, until the mid-1990s. Between 1980 and 1994, 3,938 new
flats were handed over for use in Havířov. The Reneta social house
was opened in 1983, and in 1987 the Leoš Janáček Cultural House in
Podlesí was put into operation with the Úsvit cinema.
Havířov after 1990
Political, economic and social changes after the Velvet Revolution in November 1989 did not escape Havířov either. In 1990, many political parties and movements emerged in the city, candidates for the first free elections to the Federal Assembly, the Czech National Council and the city council. In Havířov, as in other parts of the republic, the Civic Forum became the clear winner. On November 24, 1990, Havířov gained the status of one of the 14 founding statutory cities, which meant the renewal of the city self-government. However, on the same date, Horní Suchá also used the opportunity to become independent.
Many small businesses have started operating in the city, and large state-owned enterprises have undergone transformation and privatization to be able to establish themselves in the new market environment. In the whole area of Ostrava, there was a gradual decline in the heavy and mining industries and a turn towards the development of services, retail, or light industry. In the town of Havířov, traditional companies gradually disappeared - the Svit branch became independent in 1992 under the name Savela, but due to the unfavorable economic environment, it got into more and more problems and in 2000 it definitively ceased to exist. A similar fate befell the company Nářadí (later Tenas). On January 10, 2007, the only mine in the Havířov - Dukla area terminated mining. On the other hand, in addition to smaller trades, several industrial zones have sprung up in the vicinity of Havířov, including the Hyundai Motor Czech car factory in Nošovice and many of their suppliers operating in Havířov, among others. The first large industrial zone in Havířov is currently being built in the brownfield after the Dukla mine, which should help with unemployment in Havířov and its surroundings.
After 1990, the city worked on the revitalization of the city's public spaces - after the reconstruction, the chateau was ceremoniously opened to the public on 18 January 1998, and in 2006-2007 the Radost Cultural House with subsequent landscaping. ), Republic Square (including the installation of the Kyvadlo monument in 2005), TG Masaryk Square in Šumbar (completed in 2014) and the Central Park. Havířov is also building its recreational facilities, when an extensive recreation zone was created along Na Nábřeží Street (in 2010) and in the forest park in Podlesí, and the reconstruction of the Stromovka forest park is being prepared. Bicycle paths to the nearby Těrlicko and Žermanice reservoirs are currently being built.
Havířov has been struggling with a declining population since the mid-1980s, although not as significant as, for example, in nearby Karviná. There was the opposite trend of population movement for work than in the construction of Havířov, which is further strengthened by the higher economic strength of the population, and the related need for individual housing. Part of the population migrates to the surrounding and medium-sized villages, which is a nationwide trend.